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Barrett's Esophagus Research

03:03 EDT 24th April 2018 | BioPortfolio

Enteric Nervous System Regulation of Intestinal Stem Cell Differentiation and Epithelial Monolayer Function.

The Enteric Nervous System (ENS) is a complex network of neurons and glia, which regulates sensorimotor function throughout the gastroinestinal tract (GI). Here we investigated the role of the ENS and intestinal myofibroblasts in the maintenance of a primary intestinal epithelial barrier through regulation of monolayer permeability, cytokine production, and differentiation of intestinal stem cells...

A quality improvement initiative to reduce necrotizing enterocolitis across hospital systems.

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating intestinal disease in premature infants. Local rates of NEC were unacceptably high. We hypothesized that utilizing quality improvement methodology to standardize care and apply evidence-based practices would reduce our rate of NEC.

The Role of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in the Function of Intestinal Barrier.

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a multifunctional protein that is involved in the development of gut-related inflammation. To investigate the role of MIF in the function of the intestinal barrier, we have explored intestinal permeability and gut-associated immune response in MIF-deficient (MIF-KO) mice. The absence of MIF provoked impairment of tight and adherens epithelial junctio...

Comparisons of the surgical outcomes and medical costs between transferred and directly admitted patients diagnosed with intestinal obstruction in an American tertiary referral center.

Intestinal obstruction is a leading cause of patient mortality and the most common reason for emergent operation in colorectal surgery. The influence of inter-hospital transfer on patients' outcomes varies greatly in different diseases. We aimed to compare the surgical outcomes and medical costs between transferred and directly admitted patients diagnosed with intestinal obstruction in an American...

Fundoplication with 180-Degree Wrap During Esophagogastrostomy After Robotic Proximal Gastrectomy for Early Gastric Cancer.

Compared with total gastrectomy, proximal gastrectomy (PG) has potential advantages from a nutritional perspective, such as anemia and postoperative loss of body weight. However, PG is associated with some postoperative functional disorders, such as reflux esophagus (13-31%) and anastomotic stenosis (3-29%).1 We therefore developed a new procedure for fundoplication during esophago-gastrostomy aft...

Laparoscopic inter-sphincteric resection for low rectal cancer- A video vignette.

The last two decades has seen a significant evolution in the surgical management of distal rectal cancer, with restoration of intestinal continuity now one of the primary objectives. The re-appraisal of the surgical distal clear margin from 5cm to ≤ 2cm, together with the advent of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy-induced tumour downstaging, has led to a decrease in abdominoperineal excision rates ...

Cardiovascular Disease Progression: a Target for Therapy?

Clinical research aimed at preventing cardiovascular disease has focused on the effect of interventions to reduce risk factors on the incidence of future morbid events. Disease progression, which likely serves as a necessary prerequisite for morbid events, has not served as a target for therapy. The Rasmussen Center at the University of Minnesota has, for the past 18 years, been performing a non-i...

Expression and Characterisation of αvβ5 Integrin on Intestinal Macrophages.

Macrophages play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis in the intestine, but the underlying mechanisms have not yet been elucidated fully. Here we show for the first time that mature intestinal macrophages in mouse colon and small intestine express high levels of αvβ5 integrin, which acts as a receptor for the uptake of apoptotic cells and can activate molecules involved in several aspects o...

Translating Immunology into Therapeutic Concepts for Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) defines a spectrum of complex disorders. Understanding how environmental risk factors, alterations of the intestinal microbiota, and polygenetic and epigenetic susceptibility impact on immune pathways is key for developing targeted therapies. Mechanistic understanding of polygenic IBD is complemented by Mendelian disorders that present with IBD, pharmacological int...

Polysaccharide of Hericium erinaceus attenuates colitis in C57BL/6 mice via regulation of oxidative stress, inflammation-related signaling pathways and modulating the composition of the gut microbiota.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a disease caused by a dysregulated immune with unknown etiology. Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) is a Chinese medicinal fungus, with the effect of prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. In this study, we have tested the anti-inflammatory effect of polysaccharide of H. erinaceus (HECP, Mw: 86.67 kDa) in the model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)...

An endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, ITE induces regulatory T cells (Tregs) and ameliorates experimental colitis.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory condition that affects millions of people with high morbidity and health-care cost. The precise etiology of IBD is unknown, but clear evidence suggests that intestinal inflammation is caused by an excessive immune response to mucosal antigens. Recent studies have shown that activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) induc...

Ursodeoxycholic acid protects against intestinal barrier breakdown by promoting enterocyte migration via EGFR- and COX-2-dependent mechanisms.

The intestinal barrier is often disrupted in disease states, and intestinal barrier failure leads to sepsis. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a bile acid that may protect the intestinal barrier. We hypothesized that UDCA would protect the intestinal epithelium in injury models. To test this hypothesis, we utilized an in vitro wound healing assay and a mouse model of intestinal barrier injury. We fou...

Th9 Cells: Probable players in ulcerative colitis pathogenesis.

T lymphocytes represent an important part of adaptive immune system undertaking different functions to regulate immune responses. CD4+ T cells are the most important activator cells in inflammatory conditions. Depending on the type of induced cells and inflamed sites, expression and activity of different subtypes of helper T cells are changed. Recent studies have confirmed the existence of a new s...

Inflammasomes make the case for littermate-controlled experimental design in studying host-microbiota interactions.

Several human diseases are thought to evolve due to a combination of host genetic mutations and environmental factors that include alterations in intestinal microbiota composition termed dysbiosis. Although in some cases, host genetics may shape the gut microbiota and enable it to provoke disease, experimentally disentangling cause and consequence in such host-microbe interactions requires strict ...

Increased prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in the gut microbiota of infants at risk of developing celiac disease: the PROFICEL study.

Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy involving genetic and environmental factors, whose interaction influences disease risk. The intestinal microbiota, including viruses and bacteria, could play a role in the pathological process leading to gluten intolerance. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of pathogens in the intestinal microbiota of infants at familial risk of dev...

Activated Α7nachr Improves Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction and Intestinal Injury Induced by Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Rats: Inhibition of the Proinflammatory Response Through the Th17 Immune Response.

Backgrund/Aims: To investigate the effects of activated α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) on postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) and intestinal injury induced by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and its relationship with the Th17 response in order to provide a theoretical basis for organ protection and targeted drug therapy during the perioperative period.

Mucosal Two-Step Pathogenesis in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Repeated Weakly Acidic Stimulation and Activation of Protease-Activated Receptor-2 on Mucosal Interleukin-8 Secretion.

Activation of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) is involved in the mucosal immune pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) that is characterized by proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-8 (IL-8). PAR2 activation on epithelial cells induces epithelial IL-8 secretion and initiates mucosal inflammation.

Modulation of Pacemaker Potentials in Murine Small Intestinal Interstitial Cells of Cajal by Gamisoyo-San, a Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine.

The Gamisoyo-san (GSS) has been used for -improving the gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of GSS, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on the pacemaker potentials of mouse small intestinal interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs).

Oncocytic Metaplasia in Melanocytic Tumors.

Oncocytic metaplasia represents a histopathologic feature that can be observed in normal tissue such as salivary and lacrimal glands but may also constitute a degenerative metaplastic process as a result of repeated oxidative damage during cellular aging. Although cutaneous oncocytic metaplasia has been considered rare, the finding was seen in over one-third of melanocytic nevi prospectively evalu...

Activated Eosinophils are Present in Esophageal Muscle in Patients with Achalasia of the Esophagus.

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to undertake a histological evaluation of the presence of eosinophils in esophageal muscle in patients with achalasia before treatment with peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM), with clinical follow-up at one year. MATERIAL AND METHODS Before treatment, esophageal biopsies including mucosa and esophageal muscle were obtained from 28 patients with achalasia. Nine p...

Fibrostenotic Phenotype of Myofibroblasts in Crohn's Disease is Dependent on Tissue Stiffness and Reversed by LOX Inhibition.

Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the intestine and often leads to fibrosis, characterized by excess extracellular matrix [ECM] deposition, increased tissue stiffness, and stricture formation. Here we evaluated the contribution of myofibroblast-ECM interactions to the development of intestinal fibrosis in Crohn's disease.

Loss of N-WASP drives early progression in an Apc model of intestinal tumourigenesis.

N-WASP (WASL) is a widely expressed cytoskeletal signalling and scaffold protein also implicated in regulation of Wnt signalling and homeostatic maintenance of skin epithelial architecture. N-WASP mediates invasion of cancer cells in vitro and its depletion reduces invasion and metastatic dissemination of breast cancer. Given this role in cancer invasion and universal expression in the gastrointes...

Quality of Life in Patients with Adrenal Disease: A Systematic Review.

Evaluating the patient with adrenal disease is challenging due to the lack of precise clinical and biochemical parameters for disease control. Quality of Life (QOL) evaluation aims to measure the patient's subjective experience.

Unexpected adverse effect of metyrapone: a case report.

Hypercortisolism, or Cushing's syndrome, is a disease which can be treated surgically or with medications such as mitotane, ketoconazole or metyrapone. However, the use of metyrapone is not common, and the adverse effects are not well known. A metyrapone overdose is usually associated with gastro-intestinal symptoms and signs of adrenal failure. To our knowledge, no other side effects have been re...

Sphingosine-1-phosphate selectively activates vagal afferent C-fiber subtype in guinea pig esophagus.

Activation and sensitization of visceral afferent nerves by inflammatory mediators play important roles in visceral nociception. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a lipid with intracellular and extracellular functions. Extracellularly, it can act as an autacoid via interactions with S1P receptors. The present study aims to determine the effect of S1P on esophageal vagal afferent nerve functions.

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