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Biological Therapy Research

08:22 EST 20th November 2018 | BioPortfolio

RNA-Modified T Cells Mediate Effective Delivery of Immunomodulatory Cytokines to Brain Tumors.

With the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), successful immunotherapeutic drug delivery to CNS malignancies remains a challenge. Immunomodulatory agents, such as cytokines, can reprogram the intratumoral microenvironment; however, systemic cytokine delivery has limited access to the CNS. To bypass the limitations of systemically administered cytokines, we investigated if RNA-modified T cel...

5'-triphosphate siRNA targeting HBx elicits a potent anti-HBV immune response in pAAV-HBV transfected mice.

RNA with 5'-triphosphate (3p-RNA) is recognized by RNA sensor RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I protein). Previously, we reported that small interfering RNA targeting HBx (3p-siHBx) could confer potent anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) efficacy via HBx silencing and RIG-I activation. However, the characteristics of innate and adaptive immunity especially exhaustion profiles in the liver microenviro...

A cross-sectional study of Bordetella pertussis seroprevalence and estimated duration of vaccine protection against pertussis in St. Petersburg, Russia.

In Russia as in other countries introduction of infant vaccination against pertussis in 1950s led to dramatic decrease of whooping cough. The current vaccination schedule includes a 3-dose infant series and toddler booster; the pre-school booster was cancelled in 1980s and never reintroduced. Whole-cell vaccines, and in a smaller proportion acellular vaccines are used for all doses. However, pertu...

Defining a correlate of protection for chikungunya virus vaccines.

Chikungunya virus infection causes a debilitating febrile illness that in many affected individuals is associated with long-term sequelae that can persist for months or years. Over the past decade a large number of candidate vaccines have been developed, several of which have now entered clinical trials. The rapid and sporadic nature of chikungunya outbreaks poses challenges for planning of large ...

Inflammatory stress causes N-glycan processing deficiency in ocular autoimmune disease.

High levels of proinflammatory cytokines have been associated with loss of tissue function in ocular autoimmune diseases but the basis for this relationship remains poorly understood. Here we investigated a new role for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in promoting N-glycan processing deficiency at the surface of the eye through inhibition of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase expression in the Golgi. ...

Role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in pro-inflammatory cytokine-mediated inhibition of trophoblast invasion in placenta-related complications of pregnancy.

Shallow extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion is central to the pathophysiology of many pregnancy complications. Invasion is mediated partially by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMP-2 is highly expressed in early pregnancy. MMP activity can be regulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, which also induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in other cells. We investigated whether pro-inflammatory c...

Small molecules as inhibitors of PCSK9: Current status and future challenges.

Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plays an important role in regulating lipoprotein metabolism by binding to low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs), leading to their degradation. LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering drugs that operate through the inhibition of PCSK9 are being pursued for the management of hypercholesterolemia and reducing its associated atherosclerotic cardiovas...

Alum-functionalized graphene oxide nanocomplexes for effective anticancer vaccination.

Aluminum-based adjuvant (e.g., aluminum oxyhydroxide (AlO(OH), known as the commercial Alhydrogel (Alum)) is the first adjuvant to be used in human vaccines. Although Alum shows a robust induction of antibody-mediated immunity, its weak stimulation of cell-mediated immunity makes it a questionable adjuvant for cancer immunotherapy. Herein, we described a novel formulation of Alum-based adjuvant by...

Round Optimization for Improved Discovery of Native Bispecific Antibodies.

The assembly of bispecific antibodies (bsAb) that retain the structure of a standard IgG can be challenging as the correct pairing of the different heavy and light chains has to be ensured while unwanted side products kept to a minimum. The use of antibodies sharing a common chain facilitates assembly of such bsAb formats but requires additional efforts during the initial discovery phase. We have ...

Mechanisms and functions of IL-17 signaling in renal autoimmune diseases.

Immune-mediated glomerular diseases (glomerulonephritis) encompass a heterogeneous collection of diseases that cause inflammation within the glomerulus and other renal compartments with significant morbidity and mortality. In general, CD4 T cells orchestrate the immune response and play a unique role in autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. In particular, the characterization of a distinct...

HCN channels: New targets for the design of an antidepressant with rapid effects.

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent neuropsychiatric disease that carries a staggering global burden. Although numerous antidepressants are available on the market, unfortunately, many patients die by committing suicide as a result of the therapeutic lag between treatment initiation and the improvement of depressive symptoms. This therapeutic lag highlights the need for new antidepressa...

NKp46 is a diagnostic biomarker and may be a therapeutic target in gastrointestinal T-cell lymphoproliferative diseases: a CELAC study.

Primary GI T-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (T-LPD) are heterogeneous entities, which raise difficult diagnosis and therapeutic challenges. We have recently provided evidences that lymphomas complicating coeliac disease (CD) arise from innate-like lymphocytes, which may carry NK receptors (NKRs).

Biological insights from the premonitory symptoms of migraine.

Migraine is a common neurological disorder with a diverse clinical phenotype that comprises more than just head pain. Premonitory (prodromal) symptoms can start hours to days before the onset of a migraine headache and can predict its onset in some individuals. Such symptomatology can include lethargy, yawning, light and sound sensitivity, thirst and cravings. This earliest phase of the migraine a...

DNA Vaccine Targeting Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor and Its Application in Animal Contraception.

Overpopulation of free-roaming and wildlife animals negatively affects economy and public health in many parts of the world. Contraceptive vaccines are viewed as a valuable option for reducing numbers of unwanted animals. This study develops vaccines for potential use in animal contraception exploiting a DNA platform. Objectives of the study were to generate DNA constructs directed against gonadot...

Roles of inflammation, neurogenic inflammation, and neuroinflammation in pain.

Inflammation is the body's response to injury and infection, involving a complex biological response of the somatosensory, immune, autonomic, and vascular systems. Inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin, proinflammatory cytokines, and chemokines induce pain via direct activation of nociceptors, the primary sensory neurons that detect noxious stimuli. Neurogenic inflammation is triggered by n...

Genome-wide analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae serogroup 19 in the decade after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Australia.

The decline in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), following the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV-7), was tempered by emergence of non-vaccine serotypes, particularly 19A. In Australia, three years after PCV-7 was replaced by PCV-13, containing 19A and 19F antigens, serogroup 19 was still a prominent cause of IPD in children under five. In this study we examine...

Immunogenicity of anthrax recombinant peptides and killed spores in goats and protective efficacy of immune sera in A/J mouse model.

Anthrax is primarily recognized as an affliction of herbivores with incubation period ranging from three to five days post-infection. Currently, the Sterne live-spore vaccine is the only vaccine approved for control of the disease in susceptible animals. While largely effective, the Sterne vaccine has several problems including adverse reactions in sensitive species, ineffectiveness in active outb...

Perspective: cancer vaccines in the era of immune checkpoint blockade.

Current excitement about cancer immunotherapy is the result of unprecedented clinical impact from immune checkpoint inhibitors, particularly those that target programmed death (PD)-1 and PD-ligand (L)-1. Numerous other immunotherapeutics are also finding their way into the clinic either alone or in combination, and these have potential applications in many cancer types. Therapeutic cancer vaccines...

Pancreatic Cancer and Immunotherapy: Resistance Mechanisms and Proposed Solutions.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) continues to be one of the most aggressive and lethal diseases in the world. The success of immunotherapy in other types of malignancy has led to further trials to understand better the role of immunotherapy in PDAC. However, initial studies with immunotherapy, namely, the checkpoint inhibitors, in PDAC have not been met with the same outcomes. The purpose o...

Isolation and characterization of aerobic, culturable, arsenic-tolerant bacteria from lead-zinc mine tailing in southern China.

Bioremediation of arsenic (As) pollution is an important environmental issue. The present investigation was carried out to isolate As-resistant novel bacteria and characterize their As transformation and tolerance ability. A total of 170 As-resistant bacteria were isolated from As-contaminated soils at the Kangjiawan lead-zinc tailing mine, located in Hunan Province, southern China. Thirteen As-re...

Breast Implant Texturization Does Not Affect the Crosstalk Between MSC and ALCL Cells.

In the last decade, there has been a growing interest about the possible association between anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and breast implants (BIA-ALCL). Many variables, such as breast implants texturization, have been investigated. Breast implants often lead to the formation of a periprosthetic capsule, characterized by inflammation. The presence of the inflamed capsule has been found in...

Cancer immunotherapy of patients with HIV infection.

Cancer immunotherapy with antibodies against immune checkpoints has made impressive advances in the last several years. The most relevant drugs target programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) expressed on T cells or its ligand, the programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), expressed on cancer cells, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4). Unfortunately, cancer patients with HIV infection are...

SEOM clinical guidelines for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (2018).

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for up to 85% of all lung cancers. The last few years have seen the development of a new staging system, diagnostic procedures such as liquid biopsy, treatments like immunotherapy, as well as deeper molecular knowledge; so, more options can be offered to patients with driver mutations. Groups with specific treatments account for around 25% and demonstrat...

Construction of an immunized rabbit phage display antibody library for screening microcystin-LR high sensitive single-chain antibody.

Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is one of the most common biotoxin that pollutes water and agricultural products. The study aims to obtain the high sensitive anti-MC-LR single-chain antibody (scFv) for detecting MC-LR. Here, a MC-LR-immunized rabbit phage display scFv library with its capacity of 3.26 × 10 CFU/mL was constructed and used for anti-MC-LR phage scFv particles screening. After four roun...

Detection and kinetics of persistent neutralizing anti-interferon-beta antibodies in patients with multiple sclerosis. Results from the ABIRISK prospective cohort study.

Two validated assays, a bridging ELISA and a luciferase-based bioassay, were compared for detection of anti-drug antibodies (ADA) against interferon-beta (IFN-β) in patients with multiple sclerosis. Serum samples were tested from patients enrolled in a prospective study of 18 months. In contrast to the ELISA, when IFN-β-specific rabbit polyclonal and human monoclonal antibodies were tested, th...

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