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11:43 EDT 25th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

Sustainability Challenges in Peptide Synthesis and Purification: From R&D to Production.

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in therapeutic peptides within the pharmaceutical industry with more than 50 peptide drugs on the market, approximately 170 in clinical trials, and >200 in preclinical development. However, the current state of the art in peptide synthesis involves primarily legacy technologies with use of large amounts of highly hazardous reagents and solvents an...

X-ray and Neutron Reflectometry of Thin Films at Liquid Interfaces.

In the 1980s, Helmuth Möhwald studied lipid monolayers at the air/water interface to understand the thermodynamically characterized phases at the molecular level. In collaboration with Jens Als-Nielsen, X-ray reflectometry was used and further developed to determine the electron density profile perpendicular to the water surface. Using a slab model, parameters such as thickness and density of the...

Do Hospitals Participating in Accountable Care Organizations Discharge Patients to Higher Quality Nursing Homes?

We examined whether hospitals participating in Medicare's Shared Saving Program increased the use of highly rated skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) or decreased the use of low-rated SNFs hospital-wide after initiation of their accountable care organization (ACO) contracts compared with non-ACO hospitals. Using a difference-in-differences design, we estimated the change in the probability of discha...

Bioethical issues on the access to drugs in the practice of ophthalmology in Colombia.

Ophthalmology is a high-cost specialty in terms of medical, surgical and technological innovation and treatment. It is worrisome that in some countries patients are affected in their visual health, and therefore in their quality of life because they do not have the necessary resources for timely access to medications, medical appointments or surgical procedures. We searched in four electronic data...

The impact of caring for children on women's research output: A retrospective cohort study.

We used a retrospective cohort study to measure the impact of caring for children on female Australian researchers. Our aim was to see whether caring for children was associated with reduced outputs and collaboration. Women were randomly selected for inclusion if they published a first author paper in one of three Australian journals during 2007 to 2015, women who did not publish during this time ...

Machine Learning for Prediction of Posttraumatic Stress and Resilience Following Trauma: An Overview of Basic Concepts and Recent Advances.

Posttraumatic stress responses are characterized by a heterogeneity in clinical appearance and etiology. This heterogeneity impacts the field's ability to characterize, predict, and remediate maladaptive responses to trauma. Machine learning (ML) approaches are increasingly utilized to overcome this foundational problem in characterization, prediction, and treatment selection across branches of me...

Evolving Roles of Health Care Organizations in Community Development.

How Medical Schools Can Promote Community Collaboration Through Health Systems Science Education.

Traditional focus areas of medical education are insufficient for preparing future clinicians to function well in the rapidly evolving US health care system. In response, many medical schools and residency programs are integrating into their curricula health systems science (HSS), which includes health care policy, public and population health, interprofessional collaboration, value-based care, he...

How Should Nonprofit Hospitals' Community Benefit Be More Responsive to Health Disparities?

In 1956, the Internal Revenue Service created the expectation that nonprofit hospitals would offer uncompensated care for those unable to pay; this was the beginning of Community Benefit (CB). CB efforts tend to prioritize inpatient medical care over developing community-based health improvements, and few CB resources are directed toward responding to health disparities. Changes to federal policy ...

New research strategies in retroperitoneal sarcoma. The case of TARPSWG, STRASS and RESAR: making progress through collaboration.

Retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS) is a rare disease, and until recently, its natural history and outcome were poorly understood. Recently, collaborations between individual centers have led to an unprecedented collection of retrospective and prospective data and successful recruitment to the first randomized trial as described here.

Bibliometric analysis of simulated driving research from 1997 to 2016.

The objective of this study was to explore the evolution footprints of simulated driving research in the past 20 years through rigorous and systematic bibliometric analysis, to provide insights regarding when and where the research was performed and by whom and how the mainstream content evolved over the years.

Radiation protection measures and sex distribution in European interventional catheterization laboratories: Results from the EAPCI Women's survey.

Bioprosthetic or Native Aortic Scallop Intentional Laceration to Prevent Iatrogenic Coronary Artery Obstruction. Part 2: How to perform BASILICA.

Reducing the Risk of Leaflet Thrombosis in Transcatheter Aortic Valve-in-Valve Implantation by BASILICA: A Computational Simulation Study.

Evaluation of multidisciplinary collaboration in pediatric trauma care using EHR data.

The study sought to identify collaborative electronic health record (EHR) usage patterns for pediatric trauma patients and determine how the usage patterns are related to patient outcomes.

4D simultaneous tissue and blood flow Doppler imaging: Revisiting cardiac Doppler index with single heart beat 4D ultrafast echocardiography.

Objectives The goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of semi-automatic evaluation of cardiac Doppler indices in a single heartbeat on human hearts by performing 4D ultrafast echocardiography with a dedicated sequence of 4D simultaneous tissue and blood flow Doppler imaging. Background 4D echocardiography has the potential to improve the quantification of major cardi...

Emulating a trial of joint dynamic strategies: An application to monitoring and treatment of HIV-positive individuals.

Decisions about when to start or switch a therapy often depend on the frequency with which individuals are monitored or tested. For example, the optimal time to switch antiretroviral therapy depends on the frequency with which HIV-positive individuals have HIV RNA measured. This paper describes an approach to use observational data for the comparison of joint monitoring and treatment strategies an...

Guideline: 8 professional organizations recommend percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale in selected patients.

Research ethics revised: The new CIOMS guidelines and the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki in context.

Health-related Research Ethics and Social Value: Antibiotic Resistance Intervention Research and Pragmatic Risks.

We consider the implications for the ethical evaluation of research programs of two fundamental changes in the revised research ethical guideline of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences. The first is the extension of scope that follows from exchanging "biomedical" for "health-related" research, and the second is the new evaluative basis of "social value," which implies n...

Research ethics guidelines and moral obligations to developing countries: Capacity-building and benefits.

This article outlines challenges to benefitting developing countries that are hosts of international research. In the context of existing guidance and frameworks for benefit-sharing, it aims to provoke dialog about socioeconomic factors and other background conditions that influence what constitute benefits in a given host setting, and about the proportionality between benefits to hosts and benefi...

Reliability and validity of self-reported questionnaires to measure pain and disability in adults with neck pain and its associated disorders: part 3-a systematic review from the CADRE Collaboration.

To determine the reliability and validity of self-reported questionnaires to measure pain and disability in adults with grades I-IV neck pain and its associated disorders (NAD).

The development of a role description and competency map for pharmacists in an interprofessional care setting.

Background Pharmacists are increasingly being included as members of general practice primary care teams. To date, there have been few published studies describing the competencies of general practice (GP) pharmacists and establishing their subsequent educational needs. Aim of the review The aim of this literature review is to establish the activities of pharmacists in general practice to inform t...

Challenges and Opportunities for Using Big Health Care Data to Advance Medical Science and Public Health.

Methodological advancements in epidemiology, biostatistics, and data science have strengthened the research world's ability to use data captured from electronic health records (EHRs) to address pressing medical questions, but gaps remain. We describe methods investments that are needed to curate EHR data toward research quality and to integrate complementary data sources when EHR data alone are in...

School-Clinic Care Coordination for Youth with ASD: A National Survey of School Psychologists.

Many youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may benefit from interdisciplinary care coordination. Communication and collaboration between the school and clinic settings is particularly important when youth with ASD are receiving both special education and clinic-based services. The responsibility of initiating coordinated care has historically been with the medical home (e.g., primary care clin...

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