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Biotechnology Research

06:59 EDT 26th May 2019 | BioPortfolio

Introduction to the Special Issue on Biotechnological Frontiers.

Anticipating Emerging Biotechnology Threats: .

This article discusses the contingencies and complexities of CRISPR. It outlines key problems regarding off-target effects and replication of experimental work that are important to consider in light of CRISPR's touted ease of use and diffusion. In light of literature on the sociotechnical dimensions of the life sciences and biotechnology and literature on former bioweapons programs, this article ...

Hybrid optimization of preparative chromatography for a ternary monoclonal antibody mixture.

In the purification of monoclonal antibodies, ion-exchange chromatography is typically used among the polishing steps to reduce the amount of product-related impurities such as aggregates and fragments, whilst simultaneously reducing HCP, residual Protein A and potential toxins and viruses. When the product-related impurities are difficult to separate from the products, the optimization of these c...

Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of a novel feruloyl esterase from a soil metagenomic library with phthalate-degrading activity.

To discover novel feruloyl esterases (FAEs) by the function-driven screening procedure from soil metagenome.

Microbial engineering biotechnologies.

Black Swans of CRISPR: Stochasticity and Complexity of Genetic Regulation.

Recent waves of controversies surrounding genetic engineering have spilled into popular science in Twitter battles between reputable scientists and their followers. Here, a cautionary perspective on the possible blind spots and risks of CRISPR and related biotechnologies is presented, focusing in particular on the stochastic nature of cellular control processes.

Biofilm systems as tools in biotechnological production.

The literature provides more and more examples of research projects that develop novel production processes based on microorganisms organized in the form of biofilms. Biofilms are aggregates of microorganisms that are attached to interfaces. These viscoelastic aggregates of cells are held together and are embedded in a matrix consisting of multiple carbohydrate polymers as well as proteins. Biofil...

Biotechnological Applications for the Sustainable Use of Marine By-products: In Vitro Antioxidant and Pro-apoptotic Effects of Astaxanthin Extracted with Supercritical CO from Parapeneus longirostris.

In this study, the carotenoid astaxanthin was obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) from shrimp by-products (SBP). Its bioactive properties were evaluated in vitro in human normal and cancerous cells lines. The antioxidant activity of the extracted astaxanthin of the SFE fraction (ASTA) was tested in fibroblast cells (HS-68), by inducing oxidative stress and by evaluating the protective...

Can biotechnology turn the tide on plastics?

Accumulation of plastic pollution in aquatic ecosystems is the predictable result of high demand for plastic functionalities, optimized production with economies of scale, and recalcitrance. Strategies are needed for end-of-life conversion of recalcitrant plastics into useful feedstocks and for transition to materials that are biodegradable, non-bioaccumulative, and non-toxic. Promising alternativ...

Growth and selection of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 using alternative nitrogen and phosphorus sources.

Cyanobacteria, such as Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 (Syn7002), are promising chassis strains for "green" biotechnological applications as they can be grown in seawater using oxygenic photosynthesis to fix carbon dioxide into biomass. Their other major nutritional requirements for efficient growth are sources of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). As these organisms are more economically cultivated in o...

One-vector CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering of the industrial fungus Ashbya gossypii.

The filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii is currently used for the industrial production of vitamin B2. Furthermore, the ability of A. gossypii to grow using low-cost substrates together with the inexpensive downstream processing makes this fungus an attractive biotechnological chassis. Indeed, the production in A. gossypii of other high-added value compounds such as folic acid, nucleosides and bi...

Modern biotechnology breakthroughs to food and agricultural research in developing countries.

Aesop's famous fable "Tortoise and Hare" taught us tortoise wins by taking slow, steady approach against its fast, overconfident competitor, hare. I propose tortoise strategy is more beneficial, when comes to public perception and zero tolerance, toward modern biotechnology research and development for sustainable food and agriculture in developing countries.

RNAi therapeutic and its innovative biotechnological evolution.

Recently, United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Commission (EC) approved Alnylam Pharmaceuticals' RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutic, ONPATTRO™ (Patisiran), for the treatment of the polyneuropathy of hereditary transthyretin-mediated (hATTR) amyloidosis in adults. This is the first RNAi therapeutic all over the world, as well as the first FDA-approved treatment for this ...

Bacterial melanin production by heterologous expression of 4‑hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Pyomelanin is a reddish-brown pigment produced by bacteria of different genera and plays a variety of physiological roles. Proposals have been regarding the use of pyomelanin in various environmental, industrial and, more recently, cosmetic applications. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the enzyme 4‑hydroxyphenylpiruvate dioxygenase (Hpd) converts 4-hydroxyphenylpiruvate into homogentisic acid, which ...

Lactic acid bacteria isolated from dairy products as potential producers of lipolytic, proteolytic and antibacterial proteins.

Regular consumption of fermented dairy products helps maintain a healthy microbiota and prevent gut dysbiosis-linked diseases. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) present in food enhance the digestibility of proteins, moderate the release of fatty acids, and support human health through inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract. These desirable properties of LAB are attributed, in part, to their metabolic ...

A new cold-active and alkaline pectate lyase from Antarctic bacterium with high catalytic efficiency.

Cold-active enzymes have become attractive biocatalysts in biotechnological applications for their ability to retain high catalytic activity below 30 °C, which allows energy reduction and cost saving. Here, a 1041 bp gene pel1 encoding a 34.7 KDa pectate lyase was cloned from a facultatively psychrophilic Antarctic bacterium Massilia eurypsychrophila and heterologously expressed in Escherichia co...

Microbial production of sialic acid and sialylated human milk oligosaccharides: Advances and perspectives.

Sialic acids (SAs) are important functional sugars, and monomers of sialylated human milk oligosaccharides (sialylated HMOs or sialyllactoses), which are crucial for improving infant development and can facilitate infant brain development, maintain brain health, and enhance immunity. The most common form of SA is N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc), and the main forms of sialyllactoses are 6'-sialylla...

Editorial for special issue of biorefinery.

Engineering enzyme access tunnels.

Enzymes are efficient and specific catalysts for many essential reactions in biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries. Many times, the natural enzymes do not display the catalytic efficiency, stability or specificity required for these industrial processes. The current enzyme engineering methods offer solutions to this problem, but they mainly target the buried active site where the chemical...

Comparative genome analysis of completely sequenced Cupriavidus genomes provides insights into biosynthetic potential and versatile applications of Cupriavidus alkaliphilus strain ASC-732.

The genome analysis of micro-organisms provides valuable information to endorse more extensive research on their potential applications. In this paper, the genome of Cupriavidus alkaliphilus strain ASC-732, isolated from agave rhizosphere in the Northeast of Mexico, is analyzed and compared with Cupriavidus genomes to gain better insights into the genetic makeup responsible for essential and other...

Biotechnological potential of engineering pathogen effector proteins for use in plant disease management.

A key component in the management of many diseases of crops is the use of plant disease resistance genes. However, the discovery and then sequence identification of these plant genes is challenging, whereas the characterization of the molecules that they recognize, the effector/avirulence products in pathogens, is often considerably more straight forward. Effectors are small proteins secreted by p...

Enhanced production of recombinant Staphylococcus simulans lysostaphin using medium engineering.

Staphylococcus aureus, among other staphylococcal species, developed multidrug resistance and causes serious health risks that require complex treatments. Therefore, the development of novel and effective strategies to combat these bacteria has been gaining importance. Since Staphylococcus simulans lysostaphin is a peptidoglycan hydrolase effective against staphylococcal species, the enzyme has a ...

Uptake and persistence of bacterial magnetite magnetosomes in a mammalian cell line: Implications for medical and biotechnological applications.

Magnetotactic bacteria biomineralize intracellular magnetic nanocrystals surrounded by a lipid bilayer called magnetosomes. Due to their unique characteristics, magnetite magnetosomes are promising tools in Biomedicine. However, the uptake, persistence, and accumulation of magnetosomes within mammalian cells have not been well studied. Here, the endocytic pathway of magnetite magnetosomes and thei...

Safety Assessment of Immune-Mediated Adverse Reactions to Novel Food Proteins.

Current international guidelines for the risk assessment of biotechnology-derived foods date back to 2003. We present new strategies and directions for assessing immune adverse reactions to novel food proteins. Understanding genetic factors involved in food allergy and the role of the gastrointestinal tract will streamline risk assessment strategies.

Leveraging anaerobic fungi for biotechnology.

Early-branching anaerobic fungi are critical for hydrolyzing untreated lignocellulose in the digestive tracts of large herbivorous animals. While these fungi were discovered more than 40 years ago, they remain understudied and underexploited. Recent advances in -omics technologies, however, have enabled studies that reveal significant biosynthetic potential within anaerobic fungal genomes for dive...

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