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Biotherapeutics Research

04:52 EST 28th February 2020 | BioPortfolio

Tubulin Proteins in Cancer Resistance: A review.

Cancer cells are altered with cell cycle genes or they are mutated that lead to high rate of proliferation compared to normal cells. Alteration in these genes lead to mitosis dysregulation and becomes the very bases tumour progression and resistance to many drugs. The drugs which act on the cell cycle fails to arrest the process, making a cancer cell non responsive to apoptosis or cell death. Vinc...

Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) to drugs in Latin America: RACGRAD study.

Severe cutaneous adverse reactions to drugs (SCARs), have a high morbidity, mortality and present sequelae. Objective: To characterize patients with SCARs in eight health care institutions in Latin America.

Injecting drug use among gay and bisexual men in New Zealand: Findings from national human immunodeficiency virus epidemiological and behavioural surveillance.

Gay and bisexual men (GBM) who inject drugs are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because of dual transmission risks. New Zealand has a progressive history of harm reduction and was the first country to publicly fund needle exchange programs in 1988 for people who inject drugs (PWID). We combine national HIV epidemiological and bio-behavioural surveillance data to u...

Biologics for chronic rhinosinusitis.

This living systematic review is one of several Cochrane Reviews evaluating the medical management of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Chronic rhinosinusitis is common. It is characterised by inflammation of the nasal and sinus linings, nasal blockage, rhinorrhoea, facial pressure/pain and loss of sense of smell. It occurs with or without nasal polyps.   'Biologics' are medicinal products ...

Predictors of presenteeism, absenteeism and job loss in patients commencing methotrexate or biologic therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.

Work is an important health outcome. This study aimed to identify predictors of work loss, absenteeism and presenteeism over 1 year in RA patients commencing treatment with MTX or biologics.

Hyponatremia-Inducing Drugs.

In clinical practice, several medications such as diuretics, psychotropic drugs, and anticonvulsants have been reported to be a frequent cause of hyponatremia. Drugs may cause hyponatremia either by affecting the homeostasis of sodium and water (e.g., diuretics) or by altering the water homeostasis as a consequence of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. On the contrary...

Drug-loaded Photosensitizer-Chitosan Nanoparticles for Combinatorial Chemo- and Photodynamic Cancer Therapy.

In this study we have developed biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) containing the cytostatic drugs mertansine (MRT) or cabazitaxel (CBZ).The NPs are based on chitosan (CS) conjugate polymers synthesized with different amounts of the photosensitizer tetraphenylchlorin (TPC). These TPC-CS NPs have high loading capacity and strong drug retention due to π-π stacking interactions between the...

The role of syringe exchange programs and sexual identity in awareness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for male persons who inject drugs.

Male persons who inject drugs (male PWID) are at heightened risk for HIV, particularly if they also have sex with men. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could aid in HIV prevention for this population, but PrEP awareness within different sexual identities among male PWID is not well-understood. We report factors associated with greater awareness among male PWID to identify efficient means of awarene...

Large scale consumption monitoring of benzodiazepines and z-drugs by hair analysis.

Benzodiazepines (BDZ) and z-drugs belong to the most frequently prescribed medicines worldwide used for anxiety, epilepsy and sleeping disorders. Due to their pharmacology, they have a high potential for misuse. Hair analysis is being performed for the retrospective monitoring of drug exposure. However, there is a lack of reference values to obtain indication of BDZ/z-drug misuse. Further, there i...

Adverse drug reaction or innocent bystander? A systematic comparison of statistical discovery methods for spontaneous reporting systems.

Spontaneous reporting systems (SRSs) are used to discover previously unknown relationships between drugs and adverse drug reactions (ADRs). A plethora of statistical methods have been proposed over the years to identify these drug-ADR pairs. The objective of this study is to compare a wide variety of methods in their ability to detect these signals, especially when their detection is complicated b...

Drug retention and discontinuation reasons between seven biologics in patients with Takayasu arteritis.

We retrospectively investigated drug retention rate (DRR) and reasons for discontinuation of seven biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) in Takayasu's arteritis (TA) in a real-world setting.

Lysosomotropic drugs enhance pro-inflammatory responses to IL-1β in macrophages by inhibiting internalization of the IL-1 receptor.

Interleukin (IL)-1 signaling leads to production of pro-inflammatory mediators and is regulated by receptor endocytosis. Lysosomotropic drugs have been linked to increased pro-inflammatory responses under sterile inflammatory conditions but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that lysosomotropic drugs potentiate pro-inflammatory effects in response to IL-1β v...

Development of Ussing model coupled with artificial membrane for predicting intestinal absorption mechanisms of drugs.

The absorption mechanisms of drugs play an important role on development and various application of drugs. However, the present methods of absorption mechanisms are not perfect enough. Hence, exploring a novel method to accurately predict the absorption mechanisms is necessary. In this study, we developed an Ussing model coupled with artificial membrane (AM-Ussing) for predicting the permeability ...

Patterns of antiepileptic drug use among elderly patients with epilepsy: 2004-2015.

Certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may be more suitable for elderly patients with epilepsy (EWE) relative to others. However, little is known regarding which antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are being used to treat EWE in the United States and how it has changed over time.

Glycosylated Hemoglobin as a Surrogate for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Cardiovascular Outcome Trials Comparing New Antidiabetic Drugs to Placebo.

The value of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as a surrogate marker for the prevention of cardiovascular outcomes on antidiabetic drugs is debated. The 2008 FDA guidance led to multiple large clinical trials to evaluate the effect of new antidiabetic drugs versus placebo on major adverse cardiac events (MACE). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between MACE and HbA1c decrease betwee...

Treatment strategies are more important than drugs in the management of rheumatoid arthritis.

The treatment of inflammatory arthritides has been changed dramatically in the past two decades with the introduction of the biological (b) disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) as well as the targeting synthetic (ts) DMARDs that can be used as monotherapy or in combination with conventional synthetic (cs) DMARDs. The concept of treat to target (T2T) and tight control monitoring of disea...

Antineoplastic drugs prescription during visits by adult cancer patients with comorbidities: findings from the 2010-2016 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey.

Cancer treatment may be affected by comorbidities; however, studies are limited. The purpose of this study is to examine the frequency of comorbidities at visits by patients with breast, prostate, colorectal, and lung cancer and to estimate frequency of a prescription for antineoplastic drugs being included in the treatment received at visits by patients with cancer and concomitant comorbidities.

Drug-Related Carcinogenesis: Risk Factors and Approaches for Its Prevention.

The review summarizes the data on the role of metabolic and repair systems in the mechanisms of therapy-related carcinogenesis and the effect of their polymorphism on the cancer development risk. The carcinogenic activity of different types of drugs, from the anticancer agents to analgesics, antipyretics, immunomodulators, hormones, natural remedies, and non-cancer drugs, is described. Possible ap...

Mephedrone and MDMA: a comparative review.

Mephedrone and MDMA are both constituents of party drugs, with mephedrone being relatively new compared to MDMA. This review compares current knowledge regarding the patterns of usage and neuropsychobiological effects of both mephedrone and MDMA. Both drugs share common psychoactive effects, the duration of which is significantly shorter with mephedrone use, attributing towards a pattern of binge ...

Illicit drug use by mothers and their daughters in Australia: A comparison of two generations.

While recent decades have witnessed an increase in the use of illicit drugs in Australia, the extent to which the types of drugs used has changed over a generation of young women has not been documented.

New treatment options for multiresistant gram negatives.

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria infections are listed among the top public health threats of the current era. As a result, there has been an increase in efforts to develop new therapeutic agents against MDR Gram-negatives. The purpose of this review is to summarize the clinical and preclinical findings associated with recently approved drugs and the drugs in clinical development a...

Drug Exposure in Newborns: Effect of Selected Drugs Prescribed to Mothers During Pregnancy and Lactation.

The number of newborns exposed to therapeutic drugs during pregnancy is growing owing to the increased use of drugs during pregnancy. In recent years, advances in our understanding of drug placental transfer have augmented the likelihood of a healthy baby in mothers with chronic diseases needing drug therapy. Globally, for example, more than 1.4 million pregnancies in 2015 have been burdened with ...

Drugs for rare diseases.

Safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the postpartum period among women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: a meta-analysis.

To assess the effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on blood pressure when administered in women with gestational hypertensive disorders for postpartum analgesia.

TNF-α antagonists differentially induce TGF-β1-dependent resuscitation of dormant-like Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

TNF-α- as well as non-TNF-α-targeting biologics are prescribed to treat a variety of immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. The well-documented risk of tuberculosis progression associated with anti-TNF-α treatment highlighted the central role of TNF-α for the maintenance of protective immunity, although the rate of tuberculosis detected among patients varies with the nature of the drug. Using...

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