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Blood Research

10:12 EST 22nd January 2019 | BioPortfolio

Investigation of Pediatric Anemia in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

Objective To report on the prevalence and etiology of pediatric anemia in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). Method A retrospective chart review was conducted that included patients up to 19 years of age who presented for well child care and whose hemoglobin or hematocrit was checked in the CNMI from 2014 to 2015. Lab values, diagnoses and treatment plans, patient reported e...

The nonsteroidal FXR agonist cilofexor (GS-9674) improves markers of cholestasis and liver injury in patients with PSC.

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) represents a major unmet medical need. In a Phase 2 double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we tested the safety and efficacy of cilofexor (formerly GS-9674), a nonsteroidal farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist in non-cirrhotic patients with large duct PSC. Patients were randomized to receive cilofexor 100 mg (n=22), 30 mg (n=20), or placebo (n=10) orally once da...

Gastric cancer surgery: clinical outcomes and prognosis are influenced by perioperative blood transfusions.

Gastric cancer in patients is often associated with bleeding; when it occurs, especially in the presence of an anemia, a transfusion is necessary to avoid further deterioration of the patient's clinical state. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the administration of peri-operative transfusions due to the anemia or the clinical status and the post-operative clinical outc...

Single-channel permeability and glycerol affinity of human aquaglyceroporin AQP3.

For its fundamental relevance, transport of water and glycerol across the erythrocyte membrane has long been investigated before and after the discovery of aquaporins (AQPs), the membrane proteins responsible for water and glycerol transport. AQP1 is abundantly expressed in the human erythrocyte for maintaining its hydrohomeostasis where AQP3 is also expressed (at a level ~30-folds lower than AQP1...

Fib-4 Predicts Early Hematological Adverse Events Induced by Interferon-Based Triple Therapy in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Patients.

Interferon-alpha (IFN-α)-based therapy is associated with several hematological adverse events in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients with advanced fibrosis. We performed this study to evaluate the association between Fibrosis-4 (Fib-4) index and hematological adverse events in patients with chronic HCV infection, undergoing IFN-α-based triple therapy. We included 120 HCV-infected patients...

Identification of a bilirubin receptor may mediate a component of cholestatic itch.

Various pathologic conditions result in jaundice, a yellowing of the skin due to a buildup of bilirubin. Patients with jaundice commonly report experiencing an intense non-histaminergic itch. Despite this association, the pruritogenic capacity of bilirubin itself has not been explored, and no bilirubin receptor has been identified. Here, we demonstrate that pathophysiologic levels of bilirubin exc...

Effect of urbanization on the micronucleus frequency in birds from forest fragments.

The urbanization contributes to environment contamination, mainly by the increased vehicle traffic. This intense traffic releases in the air chemical compounds with mutagenic properties that can affect the entire ecosystem. The birds for the flight accumulate air, absorbing gases or particles. The absorption of this polluted air may be causative agent responsible for micronucleus (MN) induction in...

Diagnosis of bacterial meningitis in Ghana: Polymerase chain reaction versus latex agglutination methods.

Bacterial meningitis is a public health crisis in the northern part of Ghana, where it contributes to very high mortality and morbidity rates. Early detection of the causative organism will lead to better management and effective treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Pastorex and Wellcogen latex agglutination tests for the detection of bacterial meningitis in a resource-lim...

Neurotoxicity of Unconjugated Bilirubin in Mature and Immature Rat Organotypic Hippocampal Slice Cultures.

The physiopathology of bilirubin-induced neurological disorders is not completely understood.

Identification of Leukocytes Associated With Midday Fogging in the Post-Lens Tear Film of Scleral Contact Lens Wearers.

Midday fogging is a frequent complaint among scleral contact lens (ScCL) wearers, and the mechanism and cause of this is unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to understand the relation between midday fogging, ocular surface leukocytes, and ScCL fitting characteristics.

Racial Differences in Trajectories of Hemoglobin A1c: Further Evidence of Gaps in Care.

Trends in Socioeconomic Inequalities and Prevalence of Anemia Among Children and Nonpregnant Women in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

Anemia remains a major challenge for women's and children's health in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

Association of Diabetes With Central Corneal Thickness Among a Multiethnic Asian Population.

Thicker or thinner central corneas may lead to either overestimation or underestimation of intraocular pressure, which is the most important causal and treatable risk factor for glaucoma. However, the findings on the associations between diabetes, random glucose, and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) with central corneal thickness (CCT) are conflicting.

A Novel Whole Spectrum-based Non-invasive Screening Device for Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia.

Careful screening of bilirubin level in newborns is mandatory as per American Academy of Pediatrics (2004), to reduce incidents of kernicterus and acute bilirubin encephalopathy. Although invasive capillary collection of blood and subsequent biochemical test is considered a gold standard for jaundice detection in neonates, transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) measurement using various non-invasive instr...

Consider Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation for Older, Fit Patients with Aplastic Anemia.

Does Sleep Duration, Napping, and Social Jetlag Predict Hemoglobin A1c among College Students with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus?

The first aim examined the relationship between sleep behaviors (duration, napping, and social jetlag) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) among emerging young adults (EYAs) with T1DM between 18-25 years old, who are living on a college campus. The second aim characterized the gender differences in glucose management, sleep behaviors, caffeine intake, and nighttime technology.

Distinguishing iron deficiency anemia from thalassemia by the red blood cell lifespan with a simple CO breath test: A pilot study.

Extant indices for distinguishing between iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and thalassemia (Thal) have substantial practical limitations. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the predictive value of red blood cell lifespan (RBCLS), as determined by an automated CO breath test analysis approach, in the differential diagnosis of these two common forms of microcytic hypochromic anemia (MHA). Me...

Exposure to herbicide linuron results in alterations in hematological profile and stress biomarkers of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

Phenylurea herbicides such as linuron are commonly applied in agriculture. Common carp juveniles were subjected to 31.5 µg/L of linuron for 14 days, and then to 30 days of purification. Peripheral blood was sampled after 1, 3, 7 and 14 days of exposure and 7, 14 and 30 days of purification and hematological parameters were evaluated: erythrocyte (RBCc) and leukocyte (WBCc) counts, hematocrit (H...

Noninvasive evaluation of hemodynamics and light scattering property during two-stage mouse cutaneous carcinogenesis based on multispectral diffuse reflectance images at isosbestic wavelengths of hemoglobin.

We investigate a multispectral imaging method to evaluate spatiotemporal changes in both cutaneous hemoglobin concentration and light scattering parameter in mouse skin through diffuse reflectance spectroscopy using the reflectance images acquired at isosbestic wavelengths of hemoglobin (420, 450, 500, and 585 nm). In the proposed approach, Monte Carlo simulation-based empirical formulas are intr...

Prognostic value of pretreatment albumin to bilirubin ratio in patients with hepatocellular cancer: A meta-analysis.

Hepatic function is closely associated with prognosis in patients with hepatocellular cancer (HCC). In this study, a meta-analysis of the published studies was performed to assess the prognostic value of ALBI grade in HCC patients.

Treatment modalities and outcomes of Fanconi anemia patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: A series of 9 cases and review of the literature.

Fanconi anemia (FA) is associated with an increased risk of developing head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) and presents a treatment dilemma due to concerns of increased toxicities from chemotherapy and radiation therapy (RT).

Blood coagulation: a powerful bactericidal mechanism of human innate immunity.

Infection proliferates and disseminates rapidly and so innate immunity should react effectively and fast. Innate immunity mechanisms depend upon fluid dynamics and are different in compartments with slow (the tissues) and rapid (the bloodstream) liquid flow. In the tissues, coagulation initiated by clotting factors, platelets and erythrocytes, is prompt and effective mechanism of the first line of...

Cholemic nephropathy causes acute kidney injury and is accompanied by loss of aquaporin 2 in collecting ducts.

Impairment of renal function often occurs in patients with liver disease. Hepatorenal syndrome is a significant cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) in cirrhotic patients (HRS-AKI, type 1). Causes of non-HRS AKI include cholemic nephropathy (CN), a disease that is characterized by intratubular bile casts and tubular injury. As data on patients with CN is mostly obtained from case reports or autopsy ...

Multi-modal analysis of Plasmodium knowlesi-infected erythrocytes reveals large invaginations, swelling of the host cell and rheological defects.

The simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi causes severe and fatal malaria infections in humans, but the process of host cell remodeling that underpins the pathology of this zoonotic parasite is only poorly understood. We have used Serial Block Face-Scanning Electron Microscopy (SBF-SEM) to explore the topography of P. knowlesi-infected red blood cells (RBCs) at different stages of asexual developmen...

The association of the difference in hemoglobin levels before and after hemodialysis with the risk of 1-year mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Results from a nationwide cohort study of the Japanese Renal Data Registry.

Few clinical studies have directly examined the associations of hemoglobin (Hb) levels after hemodialysis (HD) and of the difference in Hb levels before and after HD (ΔHb) with patient outcomes. The present study aimed to determine ΔHb and post-HD Hb levels with nationwide data and to examine their associations with all-cause mortality in patients undergoing HD.

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