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Brain Cancer Research

11:16 EST 13th November 2018 | BioPortfolio

Selective impairment of attentional set shifting in adults with ADHD.

Task switch protocols are frequently used in the assessment of cognitive control, both in clinical and non-clinical populations. These protocols frequently confound task switch and attentional set shift. The current study investigated the ability of adult ADHD patients to shift attentional set in the context of switching tasks.

An acute encephalopathy with reduced diffusion in BRAF-associated cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome.

Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFCS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by cardiovascular anomalies, dysmorphic faces, ectodermal abnormalities and developmental delays. Mutations in BRAF and other RAS-MAPK pathway-associated genes are commonly identified in patients with CFCS. While this molecular pathway is known to be associated with neuro-inflammatory conditions, only one case with CFC...

Achyranthes bidentata polypeptide k improves long-term neurological outcomes through reducing downstream microvascular thrombosis in experimental ischemic stroke.

Achyranthes bidentata Bl. (A. bidentata) occupies an important position in traditional Chinese medicine owing to the property of promoting the circulation of blood and removing stasis. Achyranthes bidentata polypeptide k (ABPPk) is one of the active components isolated from A. bidentata.We previously demonstrated that ABPPk has potent neuroprotective effects against neuronal apoptosis both in vitr...

Effect of tau-pathology on charged multivesicular body protein 2b (CHMP2B).

Charged multivesicular body protein 2b (CHMP2B) is a subunit of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-III that mediates scission of budded membranes. Neurons with CHMP2B-positive granulovacuolar inclusions in the cytoplasm are much more frequent in hippocampi of cases with Alzheimer's disease when compared with controls. We analyzed immunolabeled brain sections from tau-tran...

Cyclin D1 silencing impairs DNA double strand break repair, sensitizes BRCA1 wildtype ovarian cancer cells to olaparib.

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) are active in cancer cells that have impaired repair of DNA by the homologous recombination (HR) pathway. Strategies that disrupt HR may sensitize HR-proficient tumors to PARP inhibition. As a component of the core cell cycle machinery, cyclin D1 has unexpected function in DNA repair, suggesting that targeting cyclin D1 may represent a plausible strat...

LACE-Bio: Validation of Predictive and/or Prognostic Immunohistochemistry/Histochemistry-based Biomarkers in Resected Non-small-cell Lung Cancer.

Complete resection of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) offers the potential for cure after surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients may not benefit and may experience severe toxicity. There are no validated molecular tools to allow better patient selection.

Diminished brain responses to second-language words are linked with native-language literacy skills in dyslexia.

Dyslexia is characterized by poor reading skills, yet often also difficulties in second-language learning. The differences between native- and second-language speech processing and the establishment of new brain representations for spoken second language in dyslexia are not, however, well understood. We used recordings of the mismatch negativity component of event-related potential to determine po...

Hospital costs associated with inpatient versus outpatient awake craniotomy for resection of brain tumors.

With increasing fiscal restraints on health care systems, procedural cost-effectiveness has become an important metric for evaluating surgical procedures. While outpatient craniotomy has been shown to be safe and effective, the economic implications of this procedure has yet to be examined. Here, we present the first cost analysis comparing inpatient versus outpatient awake craniotomy for tumor re...

Using EEG-based brain computer interface and neurofeedback targeting sensorimotor rhythms to improve motor skills: Theoretical background, applications and prospects.

Many Brain Computer Interface (BCI) and neurofeedback studies have investigated the impact of sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) self-regulation training procedures on motor skills enhancement in healthy subjects and patients with motor disabilities. This critical review aims first to introduce the different definitions of SMR EEG target in BCI/Neurofeedback studies and to summarize the background from neu...

Early life stress and voluntary alcohol consumption in relation to Maoa methylation in male rats.

Early life stress (ELS) or alcohol consumption can influence DNA methylation and affect gene expression. The monoamine oxidase A (Maoa) encodes the enzyme that metabolizes monoaminergic neurotransmitters crucial for the stress response, alcohol reward, and reinforcement. Previously, we reported lower Maoa expression in the nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum of male rats exposed to ELS during th...

Serine residues in the α4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit regulate surface α4β2* receptor expression and clustering.

Chronic nicotine exposure upregulates α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the brain. The goal of this study was to examine the role of three serine residues in the large cytoplasmic loop of the α4 subunit on α4β2* upregulation in neurons.

Evaluation of the Prognostic Significance of TNM Staging Guidelines in Lung Carcinoid Tumors.

The Tumor Lymph Node and Metastasis (TNM) classification for lung cancer, originally designed for non-small cell lung carcinoma, is applied to staging of bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors. The validity of the 8 Edition staging system for carcinoid tumors has not been assessed. In this study, we evaluated its prognostic accuracy using data from a large national population-based cancer registry.

Strategies for brain-targeting liposomal delivery of small hydrophobic molecules in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), threaten the health of an ever-growing number of older people worldwide; so far, there are no effective cures. Significant efforts have been devoted to developing new drugs for NDs in recent years, and some small molecules have been shown to be promising in preclinical studies. However, the major cha...

Deep brain stimulation targets for treating depression.

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a new therapeutic approach for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). There is a preliminary evidence of the efficacy and safety of DBS for TRD in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, the ventral capsule/ventral striatum, the nucleus accumbens, the lateral habenula, the inferior thalamic peduncle, the medial forebrain bundle, and the bed nucleus of the stria term...

Sensorimotor network segregation declines with age and is linked to GABA and to sensorimotor performance.

Aging is typically associated with declines in sensorimotor performance. Previous studies have linked some age-related behavioral declines to reductions in network segregation. For example, compared to young adults, older adults typically exhibit weaker functional connectivity within the same functional network but stronger functional connectivity between different networks. Based on previous anim...

Optimising neonatal fMRI data analysis: Design and validation of an extended dHCP preprocessing pipeline to characterise noxious-evoked brain activity in infants.

The infant brain is unlike the adult brain, with considerable differences in morphological, neurodynamic, and haemodynamic features. As the majority of current MRI analysis tools were designed for use in adults, a primary objective of the Developing Human Connectome Project (dHCP) is to develop optimised methodological pipelines for the analysis of neonatal structural, resting state, and diffusion...

The regulation of positive and negative emotions through instructed causal attributions in lifetime depression - A functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

Adequate emotional control is essential for mental health. Deficiencies in emotion regulation are evident in many psychiatric disorders, including depression. Patients with depression show, for instance, disrupted neural emotion regulation in cognitive regulation regions such as lateral and medial prefrontal cortices. Since depressed individuals tend to attribute positive events to external circum...

Visual mismatch negativity and representational momentum: Their possible involvement in the same automatic prediction.

To maintain real-time interaction with a dynamically changing visual object, the brain is thought to automatically predict the next state of the object based on the pattern of its preceding changes. A behavioral phenomenon known as representational momentum (RM: forward displacement of the remembered final state of an object along its preceding change pattern) and an electrophysiological phenomeno...

Inhibition of miR-423-5p suppressed prostate cancer through targeting GRIM-19.

To determine the effect of miR-423-5p on the progression of prostate cancer (PC).

Overexpression of long non coding RNA CA3-AS1 suppresses proliferation, invasion and promotes apoptosis via miRNA-93/PTEN axis in colorectal cancer.

In previous studies, dysregulated lncRNAs in colorectal cancer were screened using RNA-sequencing by Atsushi Yamada. In these dysregulated lncRNAs, a long non coding RNA named CA3-AS1 attracted our attention due to its high conservation and fold change, which was downregulated in colorectal cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate the function and mechanism of lncRNA CA3-AS1 in colorectal ca...

Combined treatment of ABT199 and irinotecan suppresses KRAS-mutant lung cancer cells.

Lung cancer has become the most prevalent neoplasm throughout the world with 1,2 million deaths per year. Molecular genetic analyses have suggested that KRAS mutation is much more frequency in NSCLC. Significant challenges are to develop selective pharmacological inhibitors for RAS mutation to treat cancers driven. In our study, we used the combinatorial strategy to target oncogene addiction for R...

Expression and prognosis analyses of forkhead box A (FOXA) family in human lung cancer.

Despite advances in early diagnosis and treatment, cancer still remains the major reason of mortality worldwide. The forkhead box A (FOXA) family is reported to participate in diverse human diseases. However, little is known about their expression and prognostic values in human lung cancer. Herein, we conducted a detailed cancer vs. normal analysis. The mRNA expression levels of FOXA family in num...

Physical blood-brain barrier disruption induced by focused ultrasound does not overcome the transporter-mediated efflux of erlotinib.

Overcoming the efflux mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) remainsss a challenge for the delivery of small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as erlotinib to the brain. Inhibition of ABCB1 and ABCG2 at the mouse BBB improved the BBB permeation of erlotinib but could not be achieved in humans. BBB disruption induced by focused ultrasound ...

Brain signatures associated with swallowing efficiency in older people.

Swallowing is a complex movement consisting of the sequential and orderly activation of the swallowing muscles. Neuroimaging evidence has revealed a complex cortical and subcortical representation of voluntary swallowing. The repetitive saliva swallowing test (RSST) is a convenient and simple method for assessing swallowing performance in older people. It remains unclear whether individual differe...

Dysexecutive disorders and their diagnosis: A position paper.

Although executive function disorders are among the most prevalent cognitive impairments a consensus on diagnostic criteria has yet to be reached. With a view to harmonizing these criteria, the present position paper (i) focuses on the main dysexecutive disorders, (ii) examines recent approaches in both the behavioral and cognitive domains, (iii) defines diagnostic boundaries for frontal syndrome,...

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