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Cancer Research

13:04 EST 15th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

Chemoprotective effect of nanocurcumin on 5-fluorouracil-induced-toxicity toward oral cancer treatment.

Cancer of oral cavity is the uncontrolled expansion of damaged cell within the mouth cavity. 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy was focused to kill the cancer cell, but it would affect the surrounding normal cells during oral cancer treatment. This study included the evaluation of chemoprotective effects of curcumin (CU), as an herbal remedy, on 5-FU-induced-cytotoxicity toward oral cancer treatme...

Single-stage reconstruction of large defect of oral commissure and lips by submental artery island flap.

Large defect of the lip and buccal mucosa created due to wide resection of the cancer is difficult to reconstruct and always a challenge. Such defects are complex as there is loss of outer skin, muscle, soft tissue, and inner mucosal lining. We report the use of submental artery island flap (SAIF) in the reconstruction of a large defect of oral commissure and buccal mucosa in a 70-year-old female ...

Alarming Situation of Breast Cancer in Women of Lahore, Pakistan From 1984 to 2018.

Rethinking Causation in Cancer with Evolutionary Developmental Biology.

Despite the productivity of basic cancer research, cancer continues to be a health burden to society because this research has not yielded corresponding clinical applications. Many proposed solutions to this dilemma have revolved around implementing organizational and policy changes related to cancer research. Here I argue for a different solution: a new conceptualization of causation in cancer. N...

Requirements for Transparency and Communicability of Regulatory Science.

This article presents the results of a study attempting to provide examples that implement transparency and communicability elements of Ethical Rules Principle of Best Available Regulatory Science (BARS) and Metrics for Evaluation of Regulatory Science Claims (MERSC). It starts with an overview of regulatory science and briefly summarizes principles of BARS and key pillars of MERSC. Subsequently, ...

Prevalence of Pathological Brain Lesions in Girls with Central Precocious Puberty: Possible Overestimation?

Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is routinely performed to identify brain lesions in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP). We aimed to investigate the prevalence and type of brain lesions among Korean girls with CPP and evaluate the need for routine brain MRI examinations.

Bidirectional Cause-Effect Relationship Between Urinary Interleukin-6 and Mood, Irritation, and Mental Activity in a Breast Cancer Survivor.

This "integrative single-case study" investigated the bidirectional cause and effect relations between various emotional states (i.e., mood, irritation, mental activity) and urinary IL-6 levels in a 49-year-old female breast cancer survivor (woman) under conditions of "life as it is lived." During a period of 28 days, the patient collected her entire urine in 12-h intervals for IL-6 measurement an...

A Cell Atlas for the Mouse Brain.

Despite vast numbers of studies of stained cells in the mouse brain, no current brain atlas provides region-by-region neuron counts. In fact, neuron numbers are only available for about 4% of brain of regions and estimates often vary by as much as 3-fold. Here we provide a first 3D cell atlas for the whole mouse brain, showing cell positions constructed algorithmically from whole brain Nissl and g...

Clinical Efficacy of a Novel Therapeutic Principle, Anakoinosis.

Classic tumor therapy, consisting of cytotoxic agents and/or targeted therapy, has not overcome therapeutic limitations like poor risk genetic parameters, genetic heterogeneity at different metastatic sites or the problem of undruggable targets. Here we summarize data and trials principally following a completely different treatment concept tackling systems biologic processes: the principle of com...

Involvement of Human Papillomaviruses in Cervical Cancer.

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the first viruses to have been acknowledged to prompt carcinogenesis, and they are linked with cancers of the uterine cervix, anogenital tumors, and head and neck malignancies. This paper examines the structure and primary genomic attributes of HPV and highlights the clinical participation of the primary HPV serotypes, focusing on the roles that HPV-16 and 18 play ...

CD38: A Target for Immunotherapeutic Approaches in Multiple Myeloma.

Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a hematological cancer characterized by proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM). MM represents the second most frequent hematological malignancy, accounting 1% of all cancer and 13% of hematological tumors, with ~9,000 new cases per year. Patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and asymptomatic smoldering MM (SMM) usu...

Ginsenoside F1 Promotes Cytotoxic Activity of NK Cells via Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1-Dependent Mechanism.

Ginsenosides are the principal active components of ginseng and are considered attractive candidates for combination cancer therapy because they can kill tumors and have favorable safety profiles. However, the overall benefit of ginsenosides remains unclear, particularly in cancer immunosurveillance, considering the controversial results showing repression or promotion of immune responses. Here we...

Memory-Like NK Cells: Remembering a Previous Activation by Cytokines and NK Cell Receptors.

Natural Killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic innate lymphoid cells serving at the front line against infection and cancer. In inflammatory microenvironments, multiple soluble and contact-dependent signals modulate NK cell responsiveness. Besides their innate cytotoxic and immunostimulatory activity, it has been uncovered in recent years that NK cells constitute a heterogeneous and versatile cell subset...

Injectable Biomimetic Hydrogels as Tools for Efficient T Cell Expansion and Delivery.

Biomaterial-based scaffolds are promising tools for controlled immunomodulation. They can be applied as three dimensional (3D) culture systems , whereas they may be used to dictate cellular localization and exert spatiotemporal control over cues presented to the immune system. As such, scaffolds can be exploited to enhance the efficacy of cancer immunotherapies such as adoptive T cell transfer, i...

The Emerging Role of CD244 Signaling in Immune Cells of the Tumor Microenvironment.

In cancer, immune exhaustion contributes to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Exhausted immune cells demonstrate poor effector function and sustained expression of certain immunomodulatory receptors, which can be therapeutically targeted. CD244 is a Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule (SLAM) family immunoregulatory receptor found on many immune cell types-including NK cells, a sub...

Morbidity in open versus minimally invasive hybrid esophagectomy (MIOMIE): Long-term results of a randomized controlled clinical study.

The minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) for esophageal cancer was introduced assuming a reduction of morbidity and operation time. After implementation of MIE at our institution, a randomized controlled trial was designed.

Dysregulated microRNA expression profiles in gastric cancer cells with high peritoneal metastatic potential.

Despite significant developments in its clinical treatment, the reported incidence and mortality of gastric cancer have exhibited marked increases. The molecular mechanisms of gastric cancer initiation and progression remain to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to identify novel microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) with a role in the peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer by comparing the ...

miR-671-5p inhibits gastric cancer cell proliferation and promotes cell apoptosis by targeting URGCP.

Various studies have demonstrated that microRNA (miRNA) serves an important role in the development of gastric cancer. However, the expression level, clinical significance and the biological function of miRNA in gastric cancer remain largely unknown. The present study investigated the exact roles of miR-671-5p in gastric cancer, confirmed its target and explored its mechanism. Initially, the low e...

Quantum dot-based fluorescent probes for targeted imaging of the EJ human bladder urothelial cancer cell line.

QDs are a type of inorganic nanoparticle with unique optical properties. As a fluorescent label, QDs are widely used in biomedical fields. In the present study, fluorescent probes of quantum dots (QDs) conjugated with a prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) monoclonal antibody (QD-PSCA) were prepared to study the targeted imaging of QD-PSCA probes in EJ human bladder urothelial cancer cells and analyz...

Long non-coding RNA LINC01410 promotes colon cancer cell proliferation and invasion by inhibiting miR-3128.

A previous study implied that long intergenic non-coding RNA 1410 (LINC01410) promotes angiogenesis and metastasis of gastric cancer. However, the role of LINC01410 in colon cancer (CC) has remained elusive. In the present study, LINC01410 was identified to be highly expressed in CC tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues. It was indicated that high expression of LINC01410 in CC tissues was as...

Oridonin enhances the radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells by upregulating Bax and downregulating Bcl-2.

Oridonin is an active component of the traditional Chinese herb . The present study aimed to evaluate the antitumor effects of oridonin on human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and explore whether oridonin could enhance their radiosensitivity. Oridonin was demonstrated to inhibit the proliferation of SPC-A-1 and HCC827 lung cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which was dete...

Long non-coding RNA SNHG20 promotes nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell migration and invasion by upregulating TGF-β1.

Small nucleolar RNA host gene 20 (SNHG20) has been reported to serve roles in several types of malignancies, while its role in nasopharyngeal carcinoma remains unknown. In the present study, tumor tissues and adjacent healthy tissues of patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, as well as blood samples from patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and heathy controls were collected, and expression leve...

TNFAIP8 promotes cell growth by regulating the Hippo pathway in epithelial ovarian cancer.

Tumor necrosis factor-α-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8) is an independent prognostic factor for cancer-specific and disease-free survival in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, the exact mechanism of the biological role of TNFAIP8 in EOC remains unclear. In the present study, a siRNA specifically targeting TNFAIP8 was prepared to knock down TNFAIP8 in EOC cells. Cell growth, colon...

MicroRNA-466 inhibits osteosarcoma cell proliferation and induces apoptosis by targeting CCND1.

Emerging pieces of evidence indicate that microRNA-466 (miR-466) serves as a tumor suppressor in several human tumors, including colorectal cancer and prostate cancer. However, whether miR-466 is involved in osteosarcoma (OS) progression remains largely unknown. The present study demonstrated that miR-466 was significantly downregulated in OS tissues and cell lines. Furthermore, it was revealed th...

MicroRNA-182-5p contributes to the protective effects of thrombospondin 1 against lipotoxicity in INS-1 cells.

The dysfunction of beta cells serves an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). An improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying beta cell mass and failure will be useful for identifying novel approaches toward preventing and treating this disease. Recent studies have indicated that free fatty acids (FFAs) can cause beta cell dysfunction. In the prese...

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