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Cancer Research

05:03 EST 18th January 2018 | BioPortfolio

Is early tracheostomy better for severe traumatic brain injury? A meta-analysis.

Tracheotomy have been proven to be benefit for the patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. However, whether early tracheotomy (less than 10 days) could also improve the outcome of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patient (GCS≤8) remains controversial. The aim of this study was trying to clarify this question.

Multifocality as a prognostic factor in thyroid cancer: A meta-analysis.

Thyroid cancer is one of the most common endocrine cancers whose incidence has been steadily increasing. Previous studies have suggested that multifocality in thyroid cancer is associated with poor prognosis. The present study aims to quantify the data on multifocality as a factor indicating poor prognosis by meta-analysis.

Human Pancreatic Tumor Organoids Reveal Loss of Stem Cell Niche Factor Dependence during Disease Progression.

Despite recent efforts to dissect the inter-tumor heterogeneity of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) by determining prognosis-predictive gene expression signatures for specific subtypes, their functional differences remain elusive. Here, we established a pancreatic tumor organoid library encompassing 39 patient-derived PDACs and identified 3 functional subtypes based on their stem cell niche...

Metabolomics Reveals that Dietary Xenoestrogens Alter Cellular Metabolism Induced by Palbociclib/Letrozole Combination Cancer Therapy.

Recently, the palbociclib/letrozole combination therapy was granted accelerated US FDA approval for the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Since the underlying metabolic effects of these drugs are yet unknown, we investigated their synergism at the metabolome level in MCF-7 cells. As xenoestrogens interact with the ER, we additionally aimed at deciphering the impact of the...

Brain perfusion alterations in Tick-Borne Encephalitis - preliminary report.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes in Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) are nonspecific and pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to their formation remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate brain perfusion in TBE patients using dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MR perfusion imaging.

Mimicking the 3D biology of osteochondral tissue with microfluidic-based solutions: breakthroughs towards boosting drug testing and discovery.

The development of tissue-engineering (TE) solutions for osteochondral (OC) regeneration has been slowed by technical hurdles related to the recapitulation of their complex and hierarchical architecture. OC defects refer to damage of both the articular cartilage and the underlying subchondral bone. To repair an OC tissue defect, the complexity of the bone and cartilage must be considered. To help ...

Stem cells as vehicles and targets of nanoparticles.

Modulation of endogenous adult stem cell niches represents a promising strategy for regeneration of tissues and to correct cell abnormalities, including cancer. Recent advances show the possibility to target endogenous stem cells or their progenies by using nanoparticles conjugated with specific biomolecules. In addition, the targeting of the stem cell niche can be accomplished by using stem cells...

Anti-angiogenic effects of Qingdu granule on breast cancer through inhibiting NFAT signaling pathway.

Qingdu granule (QDG), a traditional Chinese herbal prescription, had anti-tumor effect on breast cancer. However the underlying mechanism of QDG was unclear.

Apoptosis induction by Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer extracts on colorectal cancer cell lines.

Pleurotus sajor-caju (PSC) is an edible mushroom used in food supplements, presenting antitumor properties through induction of cell death pathways. The PSC potential against colorectal cancer was analyzed by exposing HCT116wt cells to different PSC extracts. The PSC n-hexane extract (PSC-hex) showed the highest cytotoxicity effect (IC50 value 0.05 mg/mL). The observed cytotoxicity was then asso...

Differential Effects of Alzheimer's Disease Aβ40 and 42 on Endocytosis and Intraneuronal Trafficking.

Anomalous neuronal accumulation of Aβ peptides was shown to affect synaptic transmission and contribute to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. Neuronal cells internalize amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides from the brain extracellular space even under normal physiological conditions, and these endocytotic pathways go awry during AD progression. We hypothesized that exposure to toxic Aβ ...

Expression of GAEC1 mRNA and protein and its association with clinical and pathological parameters of patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma.

GAEC1 (Gene amplified in esophageal cancer 1) is an oncogene with key regulatory roles in the pathogenesis of oesophageal and colorectal carcinomas. The aim of this study was to investigate expression profiles and clinicopathological significance of GAEC1 mRNA and protein in patients with colorectal carcinomas.

Intratumoral morphological heterogeneity can be an indicator of genetic heterogeneity in colorectal cancer.

Anti-EGFR-targeted therapy is used to treat metastatic colorectal cancers with RAS wild-type. However, resistance to targeted therapy is often observed and can be primary or acquired. One reason for primary resistance is the presence of mutations that are undetected due to genetic heterogeneity, which can be expressed by differences present in primary tumor and distant metastasis or recurrence or ...

MiR-142-5p act as an oncogenic microRNA in colorectal cancer: Clinicopathological and functional insights.

miR-142-5p was noted aberrantly expressed and plays important roles in different pathophysiological conditions in human. The present study aims to examine the expression of miR-142-5p and its association with clinicopathological factors in a large cohort of patients with colorectal cancer. In addition, the cellular effects of miR-142-5p and its interacting targets in colon cancer cells were invest...

Mathematical modeling of tumor-induced immunosuppression by myeloid-derived suppressor cells: implications for therapeutic targeting strategies.

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) belong to immature myeloid cells that are generated and accumulated during the tumor development. MDSCs strongly suppress the anti-tumor immunity and provide conditions for tumor progression and metastasis. In this study, we present a mathematical model based on ordinary differential equations (ODE) to describe tumor-induced immunosuppression caused by MDSC...

99mTc-vinorelbine tartrate loaded spherulites: Lung disposition study in Sprague-Dawley rats by gamma scintigraphy.

Vinorelbine Tartrate (VLB) is the first line chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, whose non-specific distribution causes unwanted side effects. The aim of the present investigation was to formulate VLB loaded spherulites intended for targeting the lung. Spherulites were composed of Soyabean Phosphatidylcholine (SPC), Cholesterol (Chol), Potassium oleate and Mannitol....

Revealing determinants of two-phase dynamics of P53 network under gamma irradiation based on a reduced 2D relaxation oscillator model.

This study proposes a two-dimensional (2D) oscillator model of p53 network, which is derived via reducing the multidimensional two-phase dynamics model into a model of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and Wip1 variables, and studies the impact of p53-regulators on cell fate decision. First, the authors identify a 6D core oscillator module, then reduce this module into a 2D oscillator model whil...

Network-based method for detecting dysregulated pathways in glioblastoma cancer.

The knowledge on the biological molecular mechanisms underlying cancer is important for the precise diagnosis and treatment of cancer patients. Detecting dysregulated pathways in cancer can provide insights into the mechanism of cancer and help to detect novel drug targets. Based on the wide existing mutual exclusivity among mutated genes and the interrelationship between gene mutations and expres...

Host expression of PD-L1 determines efficacy of PD-L1 pathway blockade-mediated tumor regression.

Programmed death-1 receptor (PD-L1, B7-H1) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) pathway blockade is a promising therapy for treating cancer. However, the mechanistic contribution of host and tumor PD-L1 and PD-1 signaling to the therapeutic efficacy of PD-L1 and PD-1 blockade remains elusive. Here, we evaluated 3 tumor-bearing mouse models that differ in their sensitivity to PD-L1 blockade a...

Dinaciclib induces immunogenic cell death and enhances anti-PD-1-mediated tumor suppression.

Blockade of the checkpoint inhibitor programmed death 1 (PD1) has demonstrated remarkable success in the clinic for the treatment of cancer; however, a majority of tumors are resistant to anti-PD1 monotherapy. Numerous ongoing clinical combination therapy studies will likely reveal additional therapeutics that complement anti-PD1 blockade. Recent studies found that immunogenic cell death (ICD) imp...

Synthesis, spectroscopic investigation, and DFT study of N,N'-disubstituted ferrocene-based thiourea complexes as potent anticancer agents.

In the present work, the synthesis, characterization (FT-IR, multinuclear (1H and 13C) NMR, AAS, Raman, and elemental analyses), DNA binding (cyclic voltammetry, UV-Vis spectroscopy), and in vitro biological screening of nine new ferrocene-incorporated thioureas (A1-A9) are reported. Furthermore, the single-crystal X-ray structure of compound A8 was also determined. The ferrocene-based N,N'-disubs...

Polysaccharides Reduce Absorption and Mutagenicity of 3-Amino-1,4-Dimethyl-5H-Pyrido4,3-bIndole In Vitro and In Vivo.

3-Amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1) is a group 2B carcinogen characterized by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and great efforts have been taken to reduce Trp-P-1 mutagenicity to humans. In this study, the effect of a reduction of Trp-P-1 on intestinal absorption as a promising strategy was investigated. The data showed that when 20 mM Trp-P-1 cotransported ...

CRISPR-Cas9-Edited Site Sequencing (CRES-Seq): An Efficient and High-Throughput Method for the Selection of CRISPR-Cas9-Edited Clones.

The emergence of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-Cas9 (CRISPR-Cas9) gene editing systems has enabled the creation of specific mutants at low cost, in a short time and with high efficiency, in eukaryotic cells. Since a CRISPR-Cas9 system typically creates an array of mutations in targeted sites, a successful gene editing project requires careful selection of edited clones....

Making Use of Cancer Genomic Databases.

The vast amounts of genomic data now deposited in public repositories represent rich resources for cancer researchers. Large-scale genomics initiatives such as The Cancer Genome Atlas have made available data from multiple molecular profiling platforms (e.g., somatic mutation, RNA and protein expression, and DNA methylation) for the same set of over 10,000 human tumors. There has been much collect...

Transfection by Electroporation.

Electroporation-the use of high-voltage electric shocks to introduce DNA into cells-can be used with most cell types, yields a high frequency of both stable transformation and transient gene expression, and, because it requires fewer steps, can be easier than alternate techniques. This unit describes electroporation of mammalian cells, including ES cells for the preparation of knock-out, knock-in,...

Frailty in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia, conceptual misapprehension of chronological age.

In haematology practice, patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) are generally assessed for frailty only if they are older and not able to tolerate intensive and remission targeted treatments. We aimed to focus on frailty in patients with AML, in all ages and aimed to evaluate its role and practicality in daily routine. Data of patients diagnosed and treated for AML between 2006 and 2016 are r...

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