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Cancer Research

08:17 EDT 27th May 2018 | BioPortfolio

Crystal Structure of Mistletoe Lectin I (ML-I) from Viscum album in Complex with 4-N-Furfurylcytosine at 2.85 Å Resolution.

Viscum album (the European mistletoe) is a semi-parasitic plant, which is of high medical interest. It is widely found in Europe, Asia and North America. It contains at least three distinct lectins (i.e. ML-I, II, and III), varying in molecular mass and specificity. Among them ML-I is in focus of medical research for various activities, including anti-cancer activities. To understand the molecular...

Inhibition of Mutated Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 in Cancer.

R132H mutation of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) are found in ~75% of low-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastomas as well as in several other types of cancer. More chemotypes of inhibitors of IDH1(R132H) are therefore needed.

Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 1H-1,2,3-Triazole-Linked-1H‑Dibenzob,hxanthenes as Inductors of ROS-Mediated Apoptosis in the Breast Cancer Cell Line MCF-7.

Low molecular weight 1,2,3-triazoles and naphthoquinones are endowed with various types of biological activity, such as against cancer, HIV and bacteria. However, in some cases, the conjugation of these two nuclei considerably increases their biological activities Objective: In this work, we decided to study the synthesis and screening of bis-naphthoquinones and xanthenes tethered to 1,2,3-triazol...

The PDGFRβ/ERK1/2 pathway regulates CDCP1 expression in triple-negative breast cancer.

CDCP1, a transmembrane protein with tumor pro-metastatic activity, was recently identified as a prognostic marker in TNBC, the most aggressive breast cancer subtype still lacking an effective molecular targeted therapy. The mechanisms driving CDCP1 over-expression are not fully understood, although several stimuli derived from tumor microenvironment, such as factors present in Wound Healing Fluids...

Pulse actinomycin D as first-line treatment of low-risk post-molar non-choriocarcinoma gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

Little data exists predicting the resistance to actinomycin D (Act-D) single-agent for gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). The objective was to determine the overall success of pulse Act-D and the factors predictive of resistance to pulse Act-D in the treatment of low-risk, non-choriocarcinoma post-molar GTN.

Estimated intraoperative blood loss correlates with postoperative cardiopulmonary complications and length of stay in patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic lung cancer lobectomy: a retrospective cohort study.

The purpose of our study was to estimate the influence of estimated intraoperative blood loss (EIBL) on postoperative cardiopulmonary complications (PCCs) in patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Involvement of the CB cannabinoid receptor in cell growth inhibition and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest via the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 in renal cell carcinoma.

The anti-tumor properties of cannabinoids have been investigated in many in vitro and in vivo studies. Many of these anti-tumor effects are mediated via cannabinoid receptor types 1 and 2 (CB and CB), comprising the endocannabinoid system (ECS). In this study, we investigated the ECS based on CB and CB receptor gene and protein expression in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines. In view of thei...

Carbonic anhydrase related protein expression in astrocytomas and oligodendroglial tumors.

Carbonic anhydrase related proteins (CARPs) VIII, X and XI functionally differ from the other carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes. Structurally, they lack the zinc binding residues, which are important for enzyme activity of classical CAs. The distribution pattern of the CARPs in fetal brain implies their role in brain development. In the adult brain, CARPs are mainly expressed in the neuron bodies bu...

Radioligand therapy of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: current approaches.

Prostate Cancer is the forth most common type of cancer. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is anchored in the cell membrane of prostate epithelial cells. PSMA is highly expressed on prostate epithelial cells and strongly up-regulated in prostate cancer. Therefore it is an appropriate target for diagnostic and therapy of prostate cancer and its metastases. This article discusses several art...

Nanoparticle delivery of grape seed-derived proanthocyanidins to airway epithelial cells dampens oxidative stress and inflammation.

Chronic respiratory diseases, whose one of the hallmarks is oxidative stress, are still incurable and need novel therapeutic tools and pharmaceutical agents. The phenolic compounds contained in grape are endowed with well-recognized anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-aging activities. Considering that natural anti-oxidants, such as proanthocyanidins, have poor water solubility ...

Wedge-shaped microfluidic chip for circulating tumor cells isolation and its clinical significance in gastric cancer.

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have great potential in both basic research and clinical application for the managements of cancer. However, the complicated fabrication processes and expensive materials of the existing CTCs isolation devices, to a large extent, limit their clinical translation and CTCs' clinical value. Therefore, it remains to be urgently needed to develop a new platform for achiev...

Short-term outcomes of robot-assisted minimally invasive esophagectomy for esophageal cancer: a propensity score matched analysis.

Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) was shown to be effective in reducing the morbidity and was adopted increasingly. The robot-assisted minimally invasive esophagectomy (RAMIE) remains in the initial stage of application. This study evaluated its safety and feasibility by comparing short-term outcomes of RAMIE and video-assisted minimally invasive esophagectomy (VAMIE).

Associations of discretionary screen time with mortality, cardiovascular disease and cancer are attenuated by strength, fitness and physical activity: findings from the UK Biobank study.

Discretionary screen time (time spent viewing a television or computer screen during leisure time) is an important contributor to total sedentary behaviour, which is associated with increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to determine whether the associations of screen time with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality were modified by levels o...

Longevity and pleural mesothelioma: age-period-cohort analysis of incidence data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program, 1973-2013.

This study investigates the hypothesis that an increasing fraction of incident pleural mesothelioma (PM) in the US population may be related to longevity, i.e., to expansion of the population over age 75 years with an age-related elevation in risk. An age-period-cohort analysis of the SEER 9 cancer registries (1973-2013) was conducted using 5-year intervals of age, calendar period, and birth coho...

Effect of postoperative goal-directed therapy in cancer patients undergoing high-risk surgery: a randomized clinical trial and meta-analysis.

Perioperative goal-directed hemodynamic therapy (GDHT) has been advocated in high-risk patients undergoing noncardiac surgery to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that using cardiac index (CI)-guided GDHT in the postoperative period for patients undergoing high-risk surgery for cancer treatment would reduce 30-day mortality and postoperative complications.

The PERSONS score for symptoms assessment in simultaneous care setting: A pilot study.

One of the first steps to early integrate palliative care into oncology practice is a timely and efficient evaluation of symptoms (Bakitas et al., 2015; Davis et al., 2015; Temel et al., 2010). In a recent position paper, the Italian Association of Medical Oncology tells oncologists that they "must be able to prevent, recognize, measure, and treat all cancer-related symptoms" (Zagonel et al., 2017...

An update on the use of immunohistochemistry and molecular pathology in the diagnosis of pre-invasive and malignant lesions in gynecological oncology.

One of the most common challenges in everyday clinical practice of gynecological oncology is to identify the type and the primary origin of a tumor. This is a crucial step in the management, treatment, prognosis, and survival of patients suffering from a gynecological malignancy. Immunohistochemistry has been widely adopted over the last three decades in pathology laboratories all over the world. ...

The Case | A 69-year-old man with bladder carcinoma and renal lesions.

Nanobody-antigen conjugates elicit HPV-specific anti-tumor immune responses.

High-risk human papillomavirus-associated cancers express viral oncoproteins (e.g., E6 and E7) that induce and maintain the malignant phenotype. The viral origin of these proteins makes them attractive targets for development of a therapeutic vaccine. Camelid-derived single-domain antibody fragments (nanobodies or VHHs) that recognize cell surface proteins on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) can se...

Metabolic and physiologic imaging biomarkers of the tumor microenvironment predict treatment outcome with radiation or a hypoxia-activated prodrug in mice.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by hypoxic niches that lead to treatment resistance. Therefore, studies of tumor oxygenation and metabolic profiling should contribute to improved treatment strategies. Here we define two imaging biomarkers that predict differences in tumor response to therapy: 1) partial oxygen pressure (pO2), measured by EPR imaging; and 2) [1-13C] pyruvat...

BET inhibition overcomes receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated cetuximab resistance in HNSCC.

Cetuximab, the FDA-approved anti-EGFR antibody for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), has displayed limited efficacy due to the emergence of intrinsic and acquired resistance. We and others have demonstrated that cetuximab resistance in HNSCC is driven by alternative receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) including HER3, MET, and AXL. In an effort to overcome cetuximab resistance and circumve...

PEDF regulates plasticity of a novel lipid-MTOC axis in prostate cancer associated fibroblasts.

Prostate tumors make metabolic adaptations to ensure adequate energy and amplify cell cycle regulators such as centrosomes to sustain their proliferative capacity. It is not known whether cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) undergo metabolic re-programming. We postulated that CAFs augment lipid storage and amplify centrosomal or non-centrosomal microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) through a pig...

One gene - many endocrine and metabolic syndromes: PTEN-opathies and precision medicine.

An average of 10% of all cancers (range 1-40%) are caused by heritable mutations and over the years, have become powerful models for precision medicine practice. Furthermore, such cancer predisposition genes for seemingly rare syndromes have turned out to help explain mechanisms of sporadic carcinogenesis and often inform normal development. The tumor suppressor PTEN encodes a ubiquitously express...

Challenges with biomarkers in cancer drug discovery and development.

Newer human inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2 (hIMPDH2) inhibitors as potential anticancer agents.

Human inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2 (hIMPDH2), being an age-old target, has attracted attention recently for anticancer drug development. Mycophenolic acid (MPA), a well-known immunosuppressant drug, was used a lead structure to design and develop modestly potent and selective analogues. The steep structure-activity relationship (SAR) requirements of the lead molecule left little scope ...

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