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Herpes simplex virus HSV 1 HSV 2 HHV 1 HHV 2 - Biotech, Pharma and Life Science Channel

13:22 EST 18th February 2018 | BioPortfolio

Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), also known as Human herpes virus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and -2), are two members of the herpes virus family that infect humans. HSV-1 and HSV-2 cause the viral disease herpes simplex which can be categorized into one of several distinct disorders based on the site of infection: oral herpes with the visible symptoms of cold sores or fever blisters, genital herpes and other forms including ocular herpes (keratitis).

On an annual basis, without the use of antivirals or condoms, the transmission risk of HSV-2 from infected male to female is approximately 8-10%. Transmission risk from infected female to male is approximately 4-5% annually. Suppressive antiviral therapy reduces these risks by 50%. Antivirals also help prevent the development of symptomatic HSV in infection scenarios—meaning the infected partner will be seropositive but symptom free—by about 50%.

Vaccines for HSV are undergoing trials. Once developed, they may be used to help with prevention or minimize initial infections as well as treatment for existing infections. A laboratory at Harvard Medical School has developed dl5-29 (now known as ACAM-529), a replication-defective mutant virus that has proved successful both in preventing HSV-2/HSV-1 infections, and in combating the virus in already infected hosts, in animal models. This vaccine is now being researched and developed by Accambis, and is due to be applied as an Investigational New Drug in 2009. A private company called BioVex began Phase I clinical trials for ImmunoVEX, another proposed vaccine, in March 2010.

Antivirals may reduce asymptomatic shedding; it is believed asymptomatic genital HSV-2 viral shedding occurs on 20% of days per year in patients not undergoing antiviral treatment, versus 10% of days while on antiviral therapy. There is no method to eradicate herpes virus from the body, but antiviral medications can reduce the frequency, duration, and severity of outbreaks. Analgesics such as ibuprofen and acetaminophen can reduce pain and fever. Topical anesthetic treatments such as prilocaine, lidocaine, benzocaine or tetracaine can also relieve itching and pain. Topical microbicides which contain chemicals that directly inactivate the virus and block viral entry are being investigated.

Source; Wikipedia

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Trans-acting protein that combines with host factors to induce immediate early gene transcription in herpes simplex virus.

A cellular transcriptional coactivator that was originally identified by its requirement for the stable assembly IMMEDIATE-EARLY PROTEINS of the HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS. It is a nuclear protein that is a transcriptional coactivator for a number of transcription factors including VP16 PROTEIN; GA-BINDING PROTEIN; EARLY GROWTH RESPONSE PROTEIN 2; and E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. It also interacts with and stabilizes HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS PROTEIN VMW65 and helps regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES in HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS.

Infection of the genitals (GENITALIA) with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in either the males or the females.

A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)

Herpes simplex, caused by type 1 virus, primarily spread by oral secretions and usually occurring as a concomitant of fever. It may also develop in the absence of fever or prior illness. It commonly involves the facial region, especially the lips and the nares. (Dorland, 27th ed.)

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