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Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura TTP and HemolyticUremic Syndrome HUS - Biotech, Pharma and Life Science Channel

08:15 EST 23rd November 2017 | BioPortfolio

Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) are microangiopathic disorders—that is, they are characterized by abnormalities (chiefly blood clots) that occur within the small blood vessels of the body. Both HUS and TTP are distinguished by blood clots within the capillaries and arterioles of many organs. Such clotting is associated with hemolytic anemia (low red blood cell count due to cell rupture) and low numbers of platelets (cell-like bodies responsible for blood coagulation).

Hemolytic anemia results from the fragmentation of the red blood cells when they pass through areas of thrombi (masses or clots) or turbulence in the circulation. Such forces shear the cells in half, producing cell remnants that appear as helmets and other odd shapes when viewed under a microscope. In fact, the diagnosis of HUS-TTP is aided by microscopic examination of the blood for sheared red blood cells.

Causes and Risk Factors for HUS and TTP

Although the exact cause(s) of HUS and TTP are unknown, experts believe that an abnormal, inflammatory reaction within the blood stimulates the deposition of platelet-rich thrombi. It has been observed that a circulating and/or missing factor in the blood perpetuates the process. Therefore, HUS/TTP patients often benefit from treatment that removes the plasma (fluid, non-cellular part of the blood) and replaces it with donor plasma.

Source: HealthCommunities

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Diseases that result in THROMBOSIS in MICROVASCULATURE. The two most prominent diseases are PURPURA, THROMBOTIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC; and HEMOLYTIC-UREMIC SYNDROME. Multiple etiological factors include VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELL damage due to SHIGA TOXIN; FACTOR H deficiency; and aberrant VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR formation.

An acquired, congenital, or familial disorder caused by PLATELET AGGREGATION with THROMBOSIS in terminal arterioles and capillaries. Clinical features include THROMBOCYTOPENIA; HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA; AZOTEMIA; FEVER; and thrombotic microangiopathy. The classical form also includes neurological symptoms and end-organ damage, such as RENAL FAILURE.

Any form of purpura in which the PLATELET COUNT is decreased. Many forms are thought to be caused by immunological mechanisms.

An ADAMTS protease that contains eight thrombospondin (TS) motifs. It cleaves VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR to control vWF-mediated THROMBOSIS. Mutations in the ADAMTS13 gene have been identified in familial cases of PURPURA, THROMBOTIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC and defects in ADAMTS13 activity are associated with MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; PRE-ECLAMPSIA; and MALARIA.

A systemic non-thrombocytopenic purpura caused by HYPERSENSITIVITY VASCULITIS and deposition of IGA-containing IMMUNE COMPLEXES within the blood vessels throughout the body, including those in the kidney (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS). Clinical symptoms include URTICARIA; ERYTHEMA; ARTHRITIS; GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE; and renal involvement. Most cases are seen in children after acute upper respiratory infections.

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