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Cholesterol Research

00:47 EDT 21st September 2019 | BioPortfolio

Evaluation of the functional quality of rapeseed oil obtained by different extraction processes in a Sprague-Dawley rat model.

The nutritional function of vegetable oil is influenced by different oil extraction methods. In this study, the effects of different processing techniques on the quality of rapeseed oil and animal lipid metabolism were evaluated. Results showed that rapeseed oil obtained by the aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) method had the highest polyphenol (152.08 ± 11.44 mg GAE per kg), α-tocopherol (208....

Machine learning and blood pressure.

Machine learning (ML) is a type of artificial intelligence (AI) based on pattern recognition. There are different forms of supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms that are being used to identify and predict blood pressure (BP) and other measures of cardiovascular risk. Since 1999, starting with neural network methods, ML has been used to gauge the relationship between BP and pulse wave for...

Pharmacist-led academic detailing improves statin therapy prescribing for Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes: Quasi-experimental design.

Previous reports have highlighted the suboptimal utilization and prescription of statin therapy among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the Malaysian clinical practice. This study aims to test the impact of a pharmacist-led academic detailing program on improving the overall statin therapy prescribing in Malaysian hospital and primary care settings.

Cholesterol may not have a special place in kidneys.

Crocin treatment decreased pancreatic atrophy, LOX-1 and RAGE mRNA expression of pancreas tissue in cholesterol-fed and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Objective Oxidative stress in diabetic mellitus is a consequence of oxidative stress, which plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetic tissue damage. Receptors for advanced glycation end products and for oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDL) have critical contribution in oxidative tissue damage. The present study investigated whether anti-diabetic effects of Crocin via modulation of m...

Cholesterol induces T cell exhaustion.

New look for an old molecule - Solid/solid phase transition in cholesterol monolayers.

Surface pressure (π) - molecular area (A) isotherms of cholesterol were precisely measured to get insight into the orientation of molecules in Langmuir monolayers, which allowed to obtain detailed information on their phase behaviour. This was possible from the detailed analysis of the interfacial compressibility modulus versus surface pressure (C- π) plots (obtained from the experimental surfac...

Modulation of cell proteome by 25-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol: A link between cholesterol metabolism and antiviral defense.

Physiological cholesterol metabolism implies the generation of a series of oxidized derivatives, whose oxysterols are by far the most investigated ones for their potential multifaceted involvement in human pathophysiology. In this regard, noteworthy is the broad antiviral activity displayed by defined side chain oxysterols, in particular 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC) and 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC...

Dyslipidemia Management in Adults With Diabetes.

Lipid abnormalities beyond elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol contribute to increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in type 2 diabetes. We searched for English language randomized controlled trials of lipid-lowering therapies primarily since 2012 that included patients with diabetes. Diet and lifestyle advice are always a starting point for ASCVD prevention...

Binding and intracellular transport of 25-hydroxycholesterol by Niemann-Pick C2 protein.

Side-chain oxidized cholesterol derivatives, like 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OH-Chol) are important regulators of cellular cholesterol homeostasis. How transport of oxysterols through the endo-lysosomal pathway contributes to their biological function is not clear. The Niemann-Pick C2 protein (NPC2) is a small lysosomal sterol transfer protein required for export of cholesterol from late endosomes ...

Soluble expression, purification and biochemical characterization of a C-7 cholesterol dehydrogenase from Drosophila melanogaster.

The C-7 cholesterol dehydrogenase (NVD), which converts cholesterol to 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) by 7,8-dehydrogenation, plays a pivotal role in the metabolism of cholesterol and steroid intermediates. The NVD protein was successfully expressed in insect Sf9 cells. To reduce the production cost for industrial application, the NVD gene was cloned into E. coli BL21(DE3). However, the His-tagged N...

Maternal exposure to different sizes of polystyrene microplastics during gestation causes metabolic disorders in their offspring.

Microplastics (MPs) are highly concerned environmental pollutants that are ubiquitous in the environmental and might affect human and animal health. In this study, we exposed pregnant mice to 0.5 and 5 μm with 100 and 1000 μg/L polystyrene MPs, then investigated maternal MPs exposure during gestation and evaluated the potential effects on the mice offspring (PND42). In the F1 offspring, the se...

Epstein-Barr virus subverts mevalonate and fatty acid pathways to promote infected B-cell proliferation and survival.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes infectious mononucleosis and is associated with multiple human malignancies. EBV drives B-cell proliferation, which contributes to the pathogenesis of multiple lymphomas. Yet, knowledge of how EBV subverts host biosynthetic pathways to transform resting lymphocytes into activated lymphoblasts remains incomplete. Using a temporal proteomic dataset of EBV primary huma...

The neuroprotective effects of simvastatin on high cholesterol following traumatic brain injury in rats.

High cholesterol has been correlated with a higher risk of cerebrovascular diseases. Whether pre-existing high cholesterol exacerbates traumatic brain injury (TBI), and whether treatment with the cholesterol lowering agent simvastatin has neuroprotective effects, especially anti-neuroinflammtory effects, after TBI are not well investigated.

Prediction of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions causing atorvastatin-induced rhabdomyolysis using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling.

Atorvastatin and its lactone form metabolite are reported to be associated with statin-induced myopathy (SIM) such as myalgia and life-threatening rhabdomyolysis. Though the statin-induced rhabdomyolysis is not common during statin therapy, its incidence will significantly increase due to pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with inhibitor drugs which inhibit atorvastatin's and its lacton...

Association of serum lipids with β-cell function in obese children and adolescents.

Few data are available on the association between serum lipids and insulin secretion (ISEC) in children. We evaluated the association of triglycerides (TG), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) with ISEC in 1150 non-diabetic obese children and adolescents using multivariable robust median regression. The following models were employed: 1) IGI or incAUCR as the ISEC response variable...

Uptake of HDL-cholesterol contributes to lipid accumulation in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), which accounts for the majority of kidney cancer, is known to accumulate excess cholesterol. However, the mechanism and functional significance of the lipid accumulation for development of the cancer remains obscure. In this study, we analyzed 42 primary ccRCC samples, and determined that cholesterol levels of ~ 70% of the tumors were at least two-fold high...

Decreased H3K9 acetylation level of LXRα mediated dexamethasone-induced placental cholesterol transport dysfunction.

Due to the insufficient fetal cholesterol synthesis, maternal cholesterol transport through the placenta becomes an important source of fetal cholesterol pool, which is essential for fetal growth and development. This study aimed to investigate the effects of dexamethasone on fetal cholesterol levels, and explore its placental mechanism. Pregnant Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with dexam...

Individualized Management of Genetic Diversity in Niemann-Pick C1 through Modulation of the Hsp70 Chaperone System.

Genetic diversity provides a rich repository for understanding the role of proteostasis in the management of the protein fold in human biology. Failure in proteostasis can trigger multiple disease states, affecting both human health and lifespan. Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) disease is a rare genetic disorder triggered by mutations in NPC1, a multi-spanning transmembrane protein that is trafficked throu...

Statin administration activates System Xc in skeletal muscle: a potential mechanism explaining statin-induced muscle pain.

Statins are a cholesterol-lowering drug class that significantly reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Despite their safety and effectiveness, musculoskeletal side-effects, particularly myalgia, are prominent and the most common reason for discontinuance. The cause of statin-induced myalgia is unknown, so defining the underlying mechanism(s) and potential therapeutic strategies is of clinical import...

Statin use and peripheral nerve function - a prospective follow-up study.

To examine the association between use of statins and risk of deterioration of peripheral nerve function.

Association of blood lipids, atherosclerosis and statin use with dementia and cognitive impairment after stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Trial and observational evidence is conflicting in terms of the association of blood lipids, atherosclerosis and statin use with dementia and cognitive impairment in the general population. It is uncertain whether the associations occur in stroke patients, who are at known higher risk of cognitive decline. This systematic review was to synthesize the evidence for these associations among stroke pa...

ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY) in lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis: An updated review.

ATP citrate lyase (ACLY) is an important enzyme linking carbohydrate to lipid metabolism by generating acetyl-CoA from citrate for fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis. Mendelian randomization of large human cohorts has validated ACLY as a promising target for low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering and cardiovascular protection. Among current ACLY inhibitors, Bempedoic acid (ETC-1...

Familial hypercholesterolemia with bilateral cholesterol granuloma: A case series.

Cholesterol granuloma is a benign mass that commonly involves the petrous apex but rarely affects other structures, such as the mastoid cavity. It is diagnosed histologically by the presence of giant cells, and Its management is individualized based on some factors such as the size and location of the lesion.

Statin-induced delayed rhabdomyolysis.

An elderly woman with a history of hypertension, hypothyroidism, mesenteric vein thrombosis, depression and hyperlipidaemia on statins for >9 years presented with new-onset leg weakness, falls, dark-coloured urine, transaminitis and rhabdomyolysis (creatinine phosphokinase 12 896 U/L; aldolase 45.9 (normal

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