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Clincial Trials Research

01:24 EDT 21st May 2018 | BioPortfolio

Synaptic mechanisms of interference in working memory.

Information from preceding trials of cognitive tasks can bias performance in the current trial, a phenomenon referred to as interference. Subjects performing visual working memory tasks exhibit interference in their responses: the recalled target location is biased in the direction of the target presented on the previous trial. We present modeling work that develops a probabilistic inference model...

Selective equal spin Andreev reflection at vortex core center in magnetic semiconductor-superconductor heterostructure.

Sau, Lutchyn, Tewari and Das Sarma (SLTD) proposed a heterostructure consisting of a semiconducting thin film sandwiched between an s-wave superconductor and a magnetic insulator and showed possible Majorana zero mode. Here we study spin polarization of the vortex core states and spin selective Andreev reflection at the vortex center of the SLTD model. In the topological phase, the differential co...

Formation of zinc sulfide species during roasting of ZnO with pyrite and its contribution on flotation.

In this paper, formation of zinc sulfide species during roasting of ZnO with FeS was investigated and its contribution on flotation was illustrated. The evolution process, phase and crystal growth were investigated by thermogravimetry (TG), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) along with thermodynamic calculation and scanning electron microscopy-Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), respectively, to ...

Physical properties and field-induced metamagnetic transitions in UAuSb.

We have successfully synthesized single crystals of UAuSb using a flux method and present a comprehensive study of its physical properties by measuring the magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity and specific heat. Evidence for at least three magnetic phases is observed in the field-temperature phase diagram of UAuSb. In zero field, the system undergoes an antiferromagnetic transition at 7...

Electronic states of deep trap levels in a-plane GaN templates grown on r-plane sapphire by HVPE.

We report on the defect states incorporated in a-plane GaN crystals grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE), using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Two defect states were observed at 0.2 eV and 0.55 eV below the conduction band minimum with defect densities of 5 × 10/cm and 4.7 × 10/cm, respectively. The size of capture cross section, non-l...

Single measurement detection of individual cell ionic oscillations using an n-type semiconductor - electrolyte interface.

Pollen tubes are used as models in studies on the type of tip-growth in plants. They are an example of polarised and rapid growth because pollen tubes are able to quickly invade the flower pistil in order to accomplish fertilisation. How different ionic fluxes are perceived, processed or generated in the pollen tube is still not satisfactorily understood. In order to measure the H, K, Ca and Cl fl...

Aberrant modulation of ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation confers acquired resistance to MAPK pathway inhibitors in BRAF-mutant melanoma.

BRAF and MEK inhibitors have shown remarkable clinical efficacy in BRAF-mutant melanoma; however, most patients develop resistance, which limits the clinical benefit of these agents. In this study, we found that the human melanoma cell clones, A375-DR and A375-TR, with acquired resistance to BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib and MEK inhibitor trametinib, were cross resistant to other MAPK pathway inhibito...

Ginkgo biloba extracts prevent aortic rupture in angiotensin II-infused hypercholesterolemic mice.

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a chronic vascular disease characterized by pathological luminal dilation. Aortic rupture is the fatal consequence of AAAs. Ginkgo biloba extracts (GBEs), a natural herb extract widely used as food supplements, drugs, and cosmetics, has been reported to suppress development of calcium chloride-induced AAAs in mice. Calcium chloride-induced AAAs do not rupture,...

Acute effect of equicaloric meals varying in glycemic index and glycemic load on arterial stiffness and glycemia in healthy adults: a randomized crossover trial.

Dietary carbohydrate quality and quantity fluctuate but it is unknown which attribute takes precedence in vascular health preservation. We investigated all four permutations of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) on acute vascular and glycemic responses.

Empagliflozin reduces cardiovascular events, mortality and renal events in participants with type 2 diabetes after coronary artery bypass graft surgery: subanalysis of the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® randomised trial.

After coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery in individuals with type 2 diabetes, there remains a considerable residual cardiovascular risk. In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® trial in participants with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease, empagliflozin reduced the risk of cardiovascular death by 38%, all-cause mortality by 32%, hospitalisation for heart failure by 35% and incident ...

Time-shifting effects of methylphenidate on daily rhythms in the diurnal rodent Arvicanthis ansorgei.

People suffering of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and treated with the psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH) show sleep-wake cycle and daily rhythm alterations despite the beneficial effects of MPH on behavioral symptoms (i.e., hyperactivity, attention). In nocturnal rodents (i.e., mice), chronic exposure to MPH alters the neural activity of the circadian clock in the suprachiasm...

A systematic review on the off-label use of montelukast in atopic dermatitis treatment.

Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common form of eczema. As leukotriene mediators are involved in the inflammatory phase of atopic dermatitis, montelukast has been suggested as a possible therapy. Aim of the review To evaluate the safety and efficacy of montelukast off-label use for the treatment atopic dermatitis. Method A search was performed from database inception until March 20...

Improvement of neurological and ocular symptoms of Behçet's disease after the introduction of infliximab.

Behçet's disease is a chronic inflammatory condition of unknown origin characterized by multiple organ involvement. The most common symptoms of Behçet's disease are recurrent oral and/or genital ulcerations in combination with symptoms affecting eyes, skin, central and peripheral nervous system, blood vessels and gastrointestinal tract. We present a 43-year-old female patient with the history o...

Therapeutic Approach to Hypertension Urgencies and Emergencies in the Emergency Room.

Hypertensive urgencies-emergencies are important and common events. They are defined as a severe elevation in BP, higher than 180/120 mmHg, associated or not with the evidence of new or worsening organ damage for emergencies and urgencies respectively. Anamnestic information, physical examination and instrumental evaluation determine the following management that could need oral (for urgencies) o...

Randomized Trial Comparing Resection of Primary Tumor with No Surgery in Stage IV Breast Cancer at Presentation: Protocol MF07-01.

The MF07-01 trial is a multicenter, phase III, randomized, controlled study comparing locoregional treatment (LRT) followed by systemic therapy (ST) with ST alone for treatment-naïve stage IV breast cancer (BC) patients.

Hemodynamic heterogeneity of connective tissue disease patients with borderline mean pulmonary artery pressure and its distinctive characters from those with normal pulmonary artery pressure: a retrospective study.

To clarify whether patients with connective tissue disease (CTD)-associated borderline mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) have distinctive hemodynamic characteristics from those with normal mPAP and whether pathogenesis is as heterogeneous as manifest pulmonary hypertension (PH). Seventy-five CTD patients who underwent right heart catheterization (RHC) from 2008 through 2016 were retrospectivel...

Lymph node metastasis in melanoma: a debate on the significance of nodal metastases, conditional survival analysis and clinical trials.

While there is no doubt that regional lymph node metastases are an enormously important factor in melanoma staging and treatment, the biology behind this significance and its precise implications for treatment planning have been a leading controversy in melanoma and other solid tumors for over a century. Recent clinical data, including data from prospective randomized clinical trials have refined ...

Review of clinical trial settings of drugs commonly used in primary care and approved between 2005 and 2012.

Frontal delta-beta cross-frequency coupling in high and low social anxiety: An index of stress regulation?

Cross-frequency coupling (CFC) between frontal delta (1-4 Hz) and beta (14-30 Hz) oscillations has been suggested as a candidate neural correlate of social anxiety disorder, a disorder characterized by fear and avoidance of social and performance situations. Prior studies have used amplitude-amplitude correlation (AAC) as a CFC measure and hypothesized it as a candidate neural mechanism of affecti...

An Early View of Real-World Patient Response to Sacubitril/Valsartan: A Retrospective Study of Patients with Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction.

Sacubitril/valsartan has been established as an effective treatment for heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction based on clinical trial data; however, little is known about its use or impact in real-world practice.

Preconcentration and Determination of Trace Nickel and Cobalt in Milk-Based Samples by Ultrasound-Assisted Cloud Point Extraction Coupled with Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.

In this study, ultrasound-assisted cloud point extraction (UA-CPE) method was developed for the determination of Ni(II) and Co(II) in milk-based products. After extraction and preconcentration, the Ni(II) and Co(II) contents of samples were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). After their complexation with hydroxy naphthol blue (HNB) in the presence of cationic surfactant, CT...

Pharmacokinetics of ADS-5102 (Amantadine) Extended Release Capsules Administered Once Daily at Bedtime for the Treatment of Dyskinesia.

Preclinical and clinical studies suggest amantadine immediate-release (IR) may reduce dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease (PD), although higher doses are associated with increased CNS adverse events (AEs). ADS-5102 is an extended release amantadine capsule formulation, designed for once-daily dosing at bedtime (qhs) to provide high concentrations upon waking and throughout the day, with lower conc...

Is it necessary to have a dentist within an intensive care unit team? Report of a randomised clinical trial.

To evaluate the effectiveness of dental treatment in improving oral health in critical patients.

Care provider allocation on admissions to acute mental health wards: The development and validation of the Admission Team Score List.

Currently, support tools are lacking to prioritize steps in the care coordination process to enable safe practice and effective clinical pathways in the first phase of acute psychiatric admissions. This study describes the development, validity, and reliability of an acute care coordination support tool, the Admission Team Score List (ATSL). The ATSL assists in care provider allocation during admi...

Cost-efficient magnetic nanoporous carbon derived from citrus peel for the selective adsorption of seven insecticides.

A magnetic solid-phase extraction adsorbent that consisted of citrus peel-derived nanoporous carbon and silica-coated Fe O microspheres (C/SiO @Fe O ) was successfully fabricated by co-precipitation. As a modifier for magnetic microspheres, citrus peel-derived nanoporous carbon was not only economical and renewable for its raw material, but exerted enormous nanosized pore structure, which could di...

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