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Compliance Research

02:21 EDT 19th August 2018 | BioPortfolio

Universal Scaling Laws in Schottky Heterostructures Based on Two-Dimensional Materials.

We identify a new universality in the carrier transport of two-dimensional (2D) material-based Schottky heterostructures. We show that the reversed saturation current (J) scales universally with temperature (T) as log(J/T^{β})∝-1/T, with β=3/2 for lateral Schottky heterostructures and β=1 for vertical Schottky heterostructures, over a wide range of 2D systems including nonrelativistic electro...

Should There Be a Disclosure Mandate for Physicians Caring for Perinatally Infected Adolescents Who Don't Know Their HIV Serostatus?

With advances in antiretroviral therapies, perinatally infected children are now living with HIV well beyond adolescence. Parents and health care practitioners thus face the challenge of deciding how best to disclose positive serostatus to children living with HIV. Although many adolescents living with HIV are sexually active, parents often delay disclosure, which presents US physicians with an et...

Cognitive reappraisal moderates the relationship between PTSD symptoms and alcohol use over time in post-9/11 U.S. military veterans.

Rates of comorbid alcohol use disorder (AUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are increasing among post-9/11 veterans, and emotion regulation problems have been identified as a feature of both disorders. However, no studies to date have explored how individual differences in emotion regulation may moderate the relationship between PTSD symptoms and alcohol use. We evaluated how two core em...

The ethics conundrum in Recall by Genotype (RbG) research: Perspectives from birth cohort participants.

Recall by genotype (RbG) research recruits on the basis of genetic variation. Increased use of this approach presents an ethical conundrum for cohort studies/biobanks: whether to inform individuals of their genetic information and deviate from standard practice of non-disclosure of results, or mask this information at the level of the individual participant. This paper examines the perspectives of...

Nanomaterial-involved neural stem cell research: Disease treatment, cell labeling, and growth regulation.

Neural stem cells (NSCs) have been widely investigated for their potential in the treatment of various diseases and transplantation therapy. However, NSC growth regulation, labeling, and its application to disease diagnosis and treatment are outstanding challenges. Recently, nanomaterials have shown promise for various applications including genetic modification, imaging, and controlled drug relea...

Prediction of the caved rock zones' scope induced by caving mining method.

Critical medium column theory has typically been used to predict the scope of caved rock zone (CRZ) caused by caving mining method. It is essential to understand the distribution laws of lateral pressure induced by caving mining method with different dipping angles. In this study, a self-designed scaled physical model was used to investigate the distribution laws with angles ranging from 80° to 9...

Real-World Evidence in the Real World: Beyond the FDA.

The 21 Century Cures Act ("Cures Act") relies on the concept of real-world evidence ("RWE") to improve the Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") approval process. This has amplified interest and furthered momentum in applying RWE more broadly, beyond FDA regulation. In this article, we discuss the understandable appeal of RWE's pragmatic application and its many potential benefits. But we also ca...

New and Improved? 21 Century Cures Act Revisions to Certificates of Confidentiality.

Certificates of Confidentiality ("Certificates") are a federal legal tool designed to protect sensitive, identifiable research data from compelled disclosure. Congress first authorized their use in 1970 to facilitate research on illegal drug use. The scope of their use was later expanded to cover mental health research and then again to apply broadly to identifiable, sensitive research data, regar...

Model assessment of the prevailing fouling mechanisms in a submerged membrane anaerobic reactor treating low-strength wastewater.

Three models (blocking laws, combined and resistance-in-series) were applied to identify the prevailing fouling mechanisms in a submerged membrane in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating municipal wastewater. Experimental runs were carried out at lab-scale with filtration periods of 4 and 10 min, followed by relaxation periods of one minute with and without nitrogen bubbling. In ...

Postdural Puncture Headache in a Postpartum Female With Previous Spinal Surgery-Successful Treatment With Caudal Epidural Blood Patch: A Case Report.

The occurrence of a postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is a known risk associated with epidural procedures. The primary nonconservative treatment option for PDPH is the performance of an epidural blood patch. This case report describes the use of image guidance for placement of a caudal epidural to treat a PDPH in a postpartum patient. A caudal catheter was placed under real-time guidance and visu...

Regulation of Melanopsin Signalling: Key Interactions of the Non-visual Photopigment.

Melanopsin is a G protein-coupled receptor with a peak sensitivity in the blue part of the spectrum, which plays a key role in non-visual light-mediated signalling. Recently its importance in forming visual pathway as well as its role in blood vessels photorelaxation was also revealed. Melanopsin was discovered in 1998 in Xenopus leavis. Since then the melanopsin presence was demonstrated across t...

Effects on skin of Stichopus japonicus viscera extracts detected with saponin including Holothurin A: Down-regulation of Melanin Synthesis and Up-regulation of Neocollagenesis Mediated by ERK Signaling Pathway.

Stichopus japonicus (sea cucumber), edible traditional food in Asia, and its extracts are renowned for their wound healing, pain relieving, and cosmetic effects in traditional medicine. Holothurins, toxins isolated from sea cucumber, are thought to be active components for their beneficial effects. However, researchers have yet to outline specific mechanisms thereof.

Correct knowledge of medical cannabis legal status in one's own state: Differences between adolescents and adults in the United States, 2004-2013.

Studies have found age-specific effects of medical cannabis laws (MCLs), particularly affecting adult cannabis use but not adolescent use. We examined whether age differences in MCL knowledge are in accordance with age differences in MCL effects on cannabis use.

Are language features and emotional regulation related with maternal depression in autism and language delay?

Language and communication is very important in social, emotional and cognitive development of children. Delay in language is usually the first complaint for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or developmental language delays (DLDs). This study evaluated language features and emotional regulation skills of children diagnosed with ASD and DLDs and their relationships with matern...

Circadian clock disruption by selective removal of endogenous carbon monoxide.

Circadian rhythms are regulated by transcription-translation feedback loops (TTFL) of clock genes. Previous studies have demonstrated that core transcriptional factors, NPAS2 and CLOCK, in the TTFL can reversibly bind carbon monoxide (CO) in vitro. However, little is known about whether endogenous CO, which is continuously produced during a heme metabolic process, is involved in the circadian syst...

Identifying Target RNAs of PARPs.

Posttranscriptional regulation of RNA is an important component of gene expression by controlling the total amount of mRNA available for translation into protein. It involves multiple pathways including nuclear processing of mRNA and its precursors, RNA silencing, and regulation of RNA decay. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs), enzymes that modify target proteins with ADP-ribose, play important ...

Fluorescent Reporter Mice for Nerve Guidance Conduit Assessment: A High-Throughput in vivo Model.

Use of cell culture and conventional in vivo mammalian models to assess nerve regeneration across guidance conduits is resource-intensive. Herein we describe a high-throughput platform utilizing transgenic mice for stain-free axon visualization paired with rapid cryosection techniques for low-cost screening of novel bioengineered nerve guidance conduit performance.

Regulation of blood pressure is influenced by gender: A study in obese Zucker rats.

The present study determined the role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), endothelin system, and eicosanoid system in the blood pressure (BP) regulation in male and female Zucker rats, and whether the pressor response change similarly in lean and obese animals.

Public Health Implications of Housing Laws: Nuisance Evictions.

'Author's Response to Letter to the Editor On 'Ultrasound-Guided Botulinum Toxin Injections in Cervical Dystonia Needs Prompt Muscle Selection, Appropriate Dosage and Precise Guidance'.

Bike lanes next to on-street parallel parking.

For decades it has been the conventional wisdom that crashes involving bicyclists and opening car doors are rare. This belief is based on motor vehicle crash reports, but these reports generally exclude this crash type by definition. More complete sources show that dooring crashes are one of the most common causes of urban bicycle-motor vehicle collisions, accounting for 12%-27% of the total. This...

Examining components of emotion regulation in relation to sleep problems and suicide risk.

Sleep has emerged as an important factor in elevated risk for suicide and suicidal behaviors; however, the mechanisms accounting for this relationship are poorly understood. Emotion regulation is a well-established correlate of self-injurious behaviors; however, the broad construct has recently been shown to provide limited predictive utility. More nuanced investigations into the processes involve...

Marketplaces, Markets, and Market Design.

Marketplaces are often small parts of large markets, and both markets and marketplaces come in many varieties. Market design seeks to understand what marketplaces must accomplish to enable different kinds of markets. Marketplaces can have varying degrees of success, and there can be marketplace failures. I’ll discuss labor markets like the market for new economists, and also markets for new lawy...

Spinal Motion Restriction in the Trauma Patient - A Joint Position Statement.

The American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma (ACS-COT), American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), and the National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP) have previously offered varied guidance on the role of backboards and spinal immobilization in out-of-hospital situations. This updated consensus statement on spinal motion restriction in the trauma patient represents the collectiv...

Update: Interim Guidance for Preconception Counseling and Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus for Men with Possible Zika Virus Exposure - United States, August 2018.

Zika virus infection can occur as a result of mosquitoborne or sexual transmission of the virus. Infection during pregnancy is a cause of fetal brain abnormalities and other serious birth defects (1,2). CDC has updated the interim guidance for men with possible Zika virus exposure who 1) are planning to conceive with their partner, or 2) want to prevent sexual transmission of Zika virus at any tim...

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