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Corneal Conditions Research

04:57 EDT 20th August 2018 | BioPortfolio

Improving precision for detecting change in the shape of the cornea in patients with keratoconus.

To investigate a method for precision analysis to discriminate true corneal change from measurement imprecision in keratoconus (KC). Thirty patients with KC and 30 healthy controls were included. Coefficients of repeatability and limits of agreement (LOA) were compared using multiple measurements for inter-observer and inter-device agreement with the Pentacam HR, Orbscan IIz, and Tomey Casia SS-10...

Mechanistic role of transglutaminase-2 in focal adhesions.

Transglutaminase (TG)-2 interacts with matrix proteins and integrins, forming focal adhesions (FA) to initiate cell migration, thus playing a vital role in wound healing. Previously we showed that TG-2 influenced phosphorylation of paxillin and other FA proteins. Here, we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of TG-2 regulation of paxillin. Human corneal epithelial cells expressing shRNA ag...

Ultrasharp h-BN Nanocones and Origin of Their High Mechanical Stiffness and Large Dipole Moment.

Herein we report on experimental synthesis and theoretical studies of ultrasharp BN-nanocones. Using a scanning electron microscope the cone-like morphology of synthesized products was confirmed. Theoretical analysis of the dipole moment nature in h-BN nanocones reveals that the moment has contributions from polarity of B-N bonds and electronic flexoelectric effect associated with a curved h-BN la...

Involvement of Toll-like receptor 2 on human corneal epithelium during an infection of Pythium insidiosum.

Pythium insidiosum, a pathogenic oomycete, is a common causative organism of infectious corneal ulcer. Studying the innate immune response at the ocular surface is important for better understanding of the underlying pathogenesis and host defense against P. insidiosum infection.

Quantum Spin Liquid with Even Ising Gauge Field Structure on Kagome Lattice.

Employing large-scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we study the extended XXZ model on the kagome lattice. A Z_{2} quantum spin liquid phase with effective even Ising gauge field structure emerges from the delicate balance among three symmetry-breaking phases including stripe solid, staggered solid, and ferromagnet. This Z_{2} spin liquid is stabilized by an extended interaction related to the...

Parent-child communication and timing of interventions are challenges in the Duchenne muscular dystrophy care.

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an x-linked myopathy affecting one in 3,600 - 6,000 live male births. The aim of this study was to gain further insight into how parents experience caring for boys with DMD.

Ocular complications of severe corneal abrasions after cosmetic blepharopigmentation.

A 53-year-old woman with hemiparesis and poor dexterity, underwent cosmetic blepharopigmentation on the both upper eyelids in the dermatology clinic of a private hospital. She was not asked for any information on her medical history and no informed consent was obtained and the procedure was performed without any protective ocular shields. The patient experienced severe lacrimation, discomfort, and...

Collagen fiber crimping following in vivo UVA-induced corneal crosslinking.

The purpose of this study was to measure collagen fiber crimping (CFC) using nonlinear optical imaging of second harmonic generated (SHG) signals to determine the effects of UVA-riboflavin induced corneal collagen crosslinking (UVA CXL) on collagen structure. Two groups, four rabbits each, were treated in the right eye with standard UVA CXL. In vivo confocal microscopy was performed at 1, 2, and 4...

Corneal Infections Associated with Sleeping in Contact Lenses - Six Cases, United States, 2016-2018.

Contact lenses, when worn and cared for properly, are a safe and effective form of vision correction used by an estimated 45 million Americans. However, contact lens wearers are at risk for contact lens-related eye infections, especially when wearers do not practice proper contact lens wear and care habits. These infections, affecting the cornea and known as microbial keratitis (Figure), can lead ...

Discrete temporal Talbot effect in synthetic mesh lattices.

We investigate the discrete temporal Talbot effect in a synthetic mesh lattice by employing two coupled fiber loops with different lengths. The lattice consists of the round-trip number and time delay of pulse trains propagating in the fiber loops. The Talbot effect occurs only as the incident pulse train in one loop has a temporal period that is 1, 2, or 4 folds of time interval corresponding to ...

Differential expression of corneal and limbal cytokines and chemokines throughout the clinical course of sulfur mustard induced ocular injury in the rabbit model.

The sight threatening sulfur mustard (SM) induced ocular injury presents specific symptoms for each clinical stage. The acute injury develops in all of the exposed eyes and is characterized by erosions and severe inflammation. The irreversible late pathology develops only in part of the eyes, and is clinically expressed by chronic inflammation and corneal neovascularization (NV). The mechanisms un...

Corneal collagen cross-linking following superficial keratectomy as treatment for corneal endothelial cell dystrophy in dogs: Preliminary clinical study.

To describe the outcome of corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) combined with superficial keratectomy (SK) as treatment for corneal edema due to corneal endothelial dystrophy (CED) in dogs.

Association between Skin Thickness Measurements with Corneal Biomechanical Properties and Dry Eye Tests in Systemic Sclerosis.

To analyse the association between skin score with corneal biomechanics and dry eye tests in systemic sclerosis (SSc).

Control of plasmon-polariton vortices on the surface of a metal layer.

Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) can be excited at the interface of a metal layer and a dielectric layer by various methods. If an inhomogeneity of permittivity with a curvilinear boundary is created in the metal layer by the external electric field, the incident SPPs and the reflected ones from this inhomogeneity interfere with one another. A nonrectangular vortex lattice appears when such SPP i...

Polar solvent induced lattice distortion of cubic CsPbI3 nanocubes and hierarchical self-assembly into orthorhombic single-crystalline nanowires.

Despite the recent surge of interest in inorganic lead halide perovskite nanocrystals, there are still significant gaps in their stability disturbance and the understanding of their destabilization, assembly, and growth processes. Here, we discover that polar solvent molecules can induce the lattice distortion of ligand-stabilized cubic CsPbI3, leading to the phase transition into orthorhombic pha...

Finger-to-Heart(F2H): Authentication for Wireless Implantable Medical Devices.

Any proposal to provide security for Implantable Medical Devices (IMDs), such as cardiac pacemakers and defibrillators, has to achieve a trade-off between security and accessibility for doctors to gain access to an IMD, especially in an emergency scenario. In this paper, we propose a Finger-to-Heart (F2H) IMD authentication scheme to address this trade-off between security and accessibility. This ...

Lattice Dynamics and Thermal Stability of Cubic Phase CsPbI Quantum Dots.

Bulk CsPbI3 has an orthorhombic to cubic phase transition at high temperature above 320 oC. Recently, cubic phase CsPbI3 quantum dots (QDs) have been synthesized and remain stable at room temperature, showing merits of the most suitable bandgap and high efficiency light absorption for solar cells. However, vital properties of cubic CsPbI3 including lattice dynamics and stability at high temperatur...

A Patient-derived iPSC Model Revealed Oxidative Stress Increases Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy-causative DUX4.

DUX4, the causative gene of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), is ectopically expressed in the skeletal muscle cells of FSHD patients because of chromatin relaxation at 4q35. The diminished heterochromatic state at 4q35 is caused by either large genome contractions (FSHD1) or mutations in genes encoding chromatin regulators, such as SMCHD1 (FSHD2). However, the mechanism by which DUX4 ...

Lattice and continuum modelling of a bioactive porous tissue scaffold.

A contemporary procedure to grow artificial tissue is to seed cells onto a porous biomaterial scaffold and culture it within a perfusion bioreactor to facilitate the transport of nutrients to growing cells. Typical models of cell growth for tissue engineering applications make use of spatially homogeneous or spatially continuous equations to model cell growth, flow of culture medium, nutrient tran...

The effect of corneal infiltrates on densitometry and higher-order aberrations.

This study aimed to measure the effects of persistent corneal subepithelial infiltrates associated with epidemic keratoconjunctivitis on corneal densitometry and total corneal higher order aberrations (HOAs), and to compare these measurements with the data obtained from their fellow unaffected healthy eyes.

A novel mutation of dystrophin in a Becker muscular dystrophy family with severe cardiac involvement: from genetics to clinicopathology.

Dystrophin gene defects are the pathogenic molecular basis of Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), characterised by skeletal myopathy and cardiomyopathy. Because of the broad phenotype spectrum, it was difficult to use the traditional diagnostic method to achieve an early accurate diagnosis of BMD-associated cardiomyopathy.

Real time in situ x-ray diffraction study of the crystalline structure modification of BaSrTiO during the post-annealing.

We report about an in situ study of crystalline structural changes during thermal treatment of a BaSrTiO (BSTO) film grown on MgO. The study covers the complete cycle of heating, annealing and cooling and reveals simultaneous phenomena of phase transitions and strain evolution, which have been characterized by in situ 2D reciprocal space mapping (2D-RSM) using high-resolution synchrotron x-ray dif...

Ambient Air Currents Activate Corneal Nerves During Ocular Desiccation in Rats: Simultaneous Recordings of Neural Activity and Corneal Temperature.

Previously we found two types of corneal neurons that we hypothesized to play an important role in tearing. One type is called low threshold-cold sensitive plus dry sensitive (LT-CS + DS), and the other is termed high threshold-cold sensitive plus dry sensitive (HT-CS + DS). The present study examined critical stimuli influencing the activity of these neurons to elucidate environmental factors tha...

Instability of TCF4 Triplet Repeat Expansion With Parent-Child Transmission in Fuchs' Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy.

Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) caused by the CTG triplet repeat expansion in the TCF4 gene (CTG18.1 locus) is the most common repeat expansion disorder. Intergenerational instability of expanded repeats and clinical anticipation are hallmarks of other repeat expansion disorders. In this study, we examine stability of triplet repeat allele length and FECD disease severity in parent-chi...

Differential Distribution of Laminin N-Terminus α31 Across the Ocular Surface: Implications for Corneal Wound Repair.

Laminin N-terminus (LaNt) α31 is a relatively unstudied protein derived from the laminin α3 gene but structurally similar to netrins. LaNt α31 has, to date, been investigated only in two-dimensional (2D) keratinocyte culture where it influences cell migration and adhesion, processes integral to wound repair. Here we investigated LaNt α31 distribution in ocular surface epithelium, during limbal...

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