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Corneal Conditions Research

22:50 EDT 25th May 2018 | BioPortfolio

A reliable targeted next-generation sequencing strategy for diagnosis of myopathies and muscular dystrophies, especially for the giant titin and nebulin genes.

Myopathies and muscular dystrophies (M-MDs) are genetically heterogeneous diseases, with more than 100 identified genes, including the giant and complex titin (TTN) and nebulin (NEB) genes. Next-generation sequencing technology revolutionized M-MD diagnosis and revealed high frequency of TTN and NEB variants. We developed a next-generation sequencing diagnostic strategy targeted on the coding sequ...

In-situ analysis of grain rotation and lattice strain within a magnesium polycrystal based on synchrotron polychromatic X-ray diffraction technique: (I) prior to twin.

Hexagonal-close-packed structure aggregates exhibit complicated deformation behaviors, involving different slips and twinning. Synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction (micro-XRD) was utilized to study in situ an extruded Mg-3Al-1Zn strip subjected to uniaxial tension. The evolution of grain rotation and lattice strain was analyzed under the load levels from 12 to 73 MPa. The micro-XRD d...

Candida parapsilosis infection in a corneal transplant patient.

Inflammatory myopathy in the context of an unusual overlapping laminopathy.

Laminopathies are genetic disorders associated with alterations in nuclear envelope proteins, known as lamins. The LMNA gene encodes lamins A and C, and LMNA mutations have been linked to diseases involving fat (type 2 familial partial lipodystrophy [FPLD2]), muscle (type 2 Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy [EDMD2], type 1B limb-girdle muscular dystrophy [LGMD1B], and dilated cardiomyopathy), nerv...

Neopterin/7,8-dihydroneopterin is elevated in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and protects mdx skeletal muscle function.

Macrophage infiltration is a hallmark of dystrophin-deficient muscle. We tested the hypothesis that Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients would have elevated levels of the macrophage synthesized pterins, neopterin and 7,8-dihydroneopterin compared to unaffected age-matched controls. Urinary neopterin/creatinine and 7,8-dihydroneopterin/creatinine were elevated in DMD patients and 7,8-dihydron...

A robust and non-invertible fingerprint template for fingerprint matching system.

Fingerprint Recognition System is widely deployed in variety of application domain, ranging from forensic to mobile phones. Its widespread deployment in various applications were person authentication are required, has caused concern that a leaked fingerprint template may be used to reconstruct the original fingerprint and the reconstructed fingerprint can be used to circumvent all the application...

Two-photon microscopy of fungal keratitis-affected rabbit cornea ex vivo using moxifloxacin as a labeling agent.

Two-photon microscopy (TPM) is a three dimensional (3D) microscopic technique based on nonlinear two-photon fluorescence, which has been tested as an alternative to reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) for detecting fungal keratitis via optical imaging. Although TPM provided images with better contrast than RCM for fungal keratitis, its imaging speed was relatively low because of weak intrinsic s...

3D printing of drug-loaded gyroid lattices using selective laser sintering.

Three-dimensional printing (3DP) is gaining momentum in the field of pharmaceuticals, offering innovative opportunities for medicine manufacture. Selective laser sintering (SLS) is a novel, high resolution and single-step printing technology that we have recently introduced to the pharmaceutical sciences. The aim of this work was to use SLS 3DP to fabricate printlets (3D printed tablets) with cyli...

Exploration of alternative test methods to evaluate phototoxicity of ophthalmic agents by using Statens Seruminstitut Rabbit Cornea cell lines and 3D human reconstituted cornea models.

Many chemicals have been reported to induce phototoxicity. The absorbance of light energy within the sunlight range is a common characteristic of phototoxicity. The 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test (PT) in 3T3 mouse skin fibroblasts has been used to identify the phototoxic potential induced by excited chemicals after exposure to ultra violet (UV). However, as phototoxicity may occur in ocular cells, it ...

CD133+ cells derived from skeletal muscles of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients have a compromised myogenic and muscle regenerative capability.

Cell-mediated gene therapy is a possible means to treat muscular dystrophies like Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Autologous patient stem cells can be genetically-corrected and transplanted back into the patient, without causing immunorejection problems. Regenerated muscle fibres derived from these cells will express the missing dystrophin protein, thus improving muscle function. CD133+ cells derived...

Influence of the beam profile crosslinking setting on changes in corneal topography and tomography in progressive keratoconus: Preliminary results.

To evaluate the effect of accelerated corneal crosslinking (CXL) with a "higher peripheral intensity" profile setting compared with a standard "top hat" profile setting performed using different CXL systems.

"Gel in core carbosomes as novel ophthalmic vehicles with enhanced corneal permeation and residence".

Carbopol is a good bio-adhesive polymer that increases the residence time in the eye. However, the effect of blinking and lacrimation still reduce the amount of polymer and the incorporated drug available for bioadhesion. Gel-core liposomes are advanced systems offering benefits making it a good tool for improved ocular drug delivery and residence time. Incorporation of carbopol in gel-core liposo...

Hyaluronic-acid-modified lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles as an efficient ocular delivery platform for moxifloxacin hydrochloride.

To improve the ocular bioavailability of the strongly hydrophilic moxifloxacin hydrochloride, hyaluronic-acid-modified lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (HA-LCS-NPs) were designed and characterized. An in vivo precorneal retention study in rabbits showed that the mean residence time (MRT) and area under the curve (AUC) of HA-LCS-NPs were up to 6.74-fold and 4.29-fold higher than those of the comm...

High electromechanical strain and enhanced temperature characteristics in lead-free (Na,Bi)TiO-BaTiO thin films on Si substrates.

Here, we demonstrate the high electromechanical strain and enhanced temperature characteristics in the c-axis-oriented lead-free (Na,Bi)TiO-BaTiO (NBT-BT) polycrystalline thin film prepared on Si substrates by rf magnetron sputtering. The effective transverse piezoelectric coefficient, e, estimated from the electromechanical strain measured under high electric field, reaches a high level of -12.5...

Tacrolimus-induced asymptomatic thrombotic microangiopathy diagnosed by laboratory tests in pig-to-rhesus corneal xenotransplantation: A case report.

Tacrolimus-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) is a rare complication. TA-TMA is characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and organ damage due to thrombus. We report asymptomatic TA-TMA diagnosed by laboratory tests in pig-to-rhesus corneal xenotransplantation. Corneal transplantation had been conducted from a wild-type SNU miniature pig to a rhesus macaque....

UVA/riboflavin collagen crosslinking stiffening effects on anterior and posterior corneal flaps.

The UVA/riboflavin collagen crosslinking (CXL) is one of the treatment procedure for stopping the progression of keratoconus. The inclusion criterion for this procedure is a minimum corneal thickness of 400 μm, which is not often met in patients with advanced keratoconus. Preoperatively swelling of thin corneas was shown to stabilize the keratectasia without any postoperative endothelial damage. ...

Computer simulation of neutral drift among limbal epithelial stem cells of mosaic mice.

The use of mice that are mosaic for reporter gene expression underlies many lineage-tracing studies in stem cell biology. For example, using mosaic LacZ reporter mice, it was shown that limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs) around the periphery of the cornea maintain radial sectors of the corneal epithelium and that radial stripe numbers declined with age. Originally, the corneal results were inter...

Experimental and theoretical study of fingerprint spectra of 2-(4-fluorophenyl)benzimidazole and 2-(4-chlorophenyl)benzimidazole in terahertz range.

Due to wide variety of biological and pharmacological activities of benzimidazole derivatives, the terahertz fingerprint spectra of 2-(4-fluorophenyl)benzimidazole and 2-(4-chlorophenyl)benzimidazole are researched by employing terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and density functional theory systematically. Although the substituent at the para position on the benzene moiety are the same family ele...

3D DNA Origami Crystals.

3D crystals assembled entirely from DNA provide a route to design materials on a molecular level and to arrange guest particles in predefined lattices. This requires design schemes that provide high rigidity and sufficiently large open guest space. A DNA-origami-based "tensegrity triangle" structure that assembles into a 3D rhombohedral crystalline lattice with an open structure in which 90% of th...

Competing spin fluctuations and trace of vortex dynamics in two-dimensional triangular-lattice antiferromagnet AgCrS2.

The spin dynamics of the two-dimensional triangular-lattice antiferromagnet AgCrS2 is investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The g-factor is found to show an unusual non-monotonously temperature dependent behavior, which, along with the super-Curie behavior observed in the ESR intensity data, provides clear evidences for the competition between FM and AFM fluctuations at tempe...

Strain Mapping of Two-Dimensional Heterostructures with Sub-Picometer Precision.

Next-generation, atomically thin devices require in-plane, one-dimensional heterojunctions to electrically connect different two-dimensional (2D) materials. However, the lattice mismatch between most 2D materials leads to unavoidable strain, dislocations, or ripples, which can strongly affect their mechanical, optical, and electronic properties. We have developed an approach to map 2D heterojuncti...

Absence of Long-Range Order in a Triangular Spin System with Dipolar Interactions.

The antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the triangular lattice is perhaps the best known example of frustrated magnets, but it orders at low temperatures. Recent density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations find that the next nearest neighbor interaction J_{2} enhances the frustration, and it leads to a spin liquid for J_{2}/J_{1}∈(0.08,0.15). In addition, a DMRG study of a dipolar...

Faraday-Shielded dc Stark-Shift-Free Optical Lattice Clock.

We demonstrate the absence of a dc Stark shift in an ytterbium optical lattice clock. Stray electric fields are suppressed through the introduction of an in-vacuum Faraday shield. Still, the effectiveness of the shielding must be experimentally assessed. Such diagnostics are accomplished by applying high voltage to six electrodes, which are grounded in normal operation to form part of the Faraday ...

Dirac and Chiral Quantum Spin Liquids on the Honeycomb Lattice in a Magnetic Field.

Motivated by recent experimental observations in α-RuCl_{3}, we study the K-Γ model on the honeycomb lattice in an external magnetic field. By a slave-particle representation and variational Monte Carlo calculations, we reproduce the phase transition from zigzag magnetic order to a field-induced disordered phase. The nature of this state depends crucially on the field orientation. For particula...

Weakly Nonergodic Dynamics in the Gross-Pitaevskii Lattice.

The microcanonical Gross-Pitaevskii (also known as the semiclassical Bose-Hubbard) lattice model dynamics is characterized by a pair of energy and norm densities. The grand canonical Gibbs distribution fails to describe a part of the density space, due to the boundedness of its kinetic energy spectrum. We define Poincaré equilibrium manifolds and compute the statistics of microcanonical excursion...

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