Corneal Conditions Research

15:23 EST 19th January 2019 | BioPortfolio

Sleep Deprivation Induces Dry Eye Through Inhibition of PPARα Expression in Corneal Epithelium.

To determine if sleep deprivation induces dry eye through altering peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) expression in mice.

Assessment of Topical Therapies for Improving the Optical Clarity Following Stromal Wounding in a Novel Ex Vivo Canine Cornea Model.

To evaluate the effect of topical suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA) and 5-methyl-1-phenyl-2[1H]-pyridone (pirfenidone) on the degree of corneal haze in the stromal wounded ex vivo canine cornea.

Penetration of Nile red-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) across the porcine cornea.

Nile Red-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NR-NLCs), prepared by high-pressure homogenization technique, have been investigated for their transcorneal penetration using a confocal scanning microfluorometer (CSMF). Topical exposure of NR-NLCs led to their penetration into the epithelium and anterior stroma. The NR-NLC-40 (NR-NLCs of 40 nm) showed faster penetration compared to NR-NLC-150 (NR-...

Optical properties and lattice dynamics of a novel allotrope of orthorhombic elemental germanium.

Optical and vibrational properties of a novel allotrope of elemental germanium Ge(oP32), which crystallizes in the structure corresponding to the orthorhombic space group P$bcm$, are studied experimentally by means of absorption and polarized Raman scattering measurements and theoretically using the first principles Density Functional Theory. Material is found to be a direct ba...

Untersuchung des Tränenfilms und histologische Untersuchung der Augenlider von Möpsen.

To determine if qualitative tear film and histological changes of the eyelid margins in pugs compared to other brachycephalic dogs could be potential contributing factors to the high prevalence of corneal diseases in this breed.

Epithelial cells exert differential traction stress in response to substrate stiffness.

Epithelial wound healing is essential for maintaining the function and clarity of the cornea. Successful repair after injury involves the coordinated movements of cell sheets over the wounded region. While collective migration has been the focus of studies, the effects that environmental changes have on this form of movement are poorly understood. To examine the role of substrate compliancy on mul...

A Phase 1b Trial to Assess the Pharmacokinetics of Ezutromid in Pediatric Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Patients on a Balanced Diet.

Ezutromid (SMT C1100) is a small-molecule utrophin modulator that was developed to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Previous clinical trials of this agent revealed lower exposure in DMD patients compared with healthy volunteers, which may reflect differences in diet. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of ezutromid in patients with DMD who followed a balanced diet. This was a multice...

Muscle Stem Cells Give Rise to Rhabdomyosarcomas in a Severe Mouse Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

Most human cancers originate from high-turnover tissues, while low-proliferating tissues, like skeletal muscle, exhibit a lower incidence of tumor development. In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which induces increased skeletal muscle regeneration, tumor incidence is increased. Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMSs), a rare and aggressive type of soft tissue sarcoma, can develop in this context, but the impa...

Generation and probing of 3D helical lattices with tunable helix pitch and interface.

We propose a method for generation of tunable three-dimensional (3D) helical lattices with varying helix pitch. In order to change only the lattice helix pitch, a periodically varying phase along the propagation direction is added to the central beam - one of the interference beams for lattice construction. The phase periodicity determines the helix pitch, which can be reconfigured at ease. Furthe...

Wideband sub-THz half-wave plate using 3D-printed low-index metagratings with superwavelength lattice.

High-index dielectric metasurfaces are rarely reported around 0.1-0.3 THz, as an extremely large etching depth is needed according to the millimeter-scale wavelength. In this work, we propose an easy solution to sub-THz wideband polarization control by utilizing 3D-printed low-index (n~1.5) metagratings. The metagrating with subwavelength lattice is shown as a very efficient half-wave plate (net p...

Engineering surface lattice resonance of elliptical gold nanodisk array for enhanced strain sensing.

We demonstrate an elliptical gold nanodisk array (GNA) for engineering the spectral profile of surface lattice resonance (SLR). The nanodisk's shape has a great impact on SLR. Small linewidth of 20 nm at an aspect ratio of 1.17, as well as large wavelength tuning of 64 nm within 4% strain via different orientations and polarizations, are achieved experimentally. The enhanced wavelength response of...

Prominent regression of corneal crystalline deposits in multiple myeloma after treatment with proteasome inhibitor.

Epithelial Membrane Protein-2 (EMP2) Antibody Blockade Reduces Corneal Neovascularization in an In Vivo Model.

Pathologic corneal neovascularization is a major cause of blindness worldwide, and treatment options are currently limited. VEGF is one of the critical mediators of corneal neovascularization but current anti-VEGF therapies have produced limited results in the cornea. Thus, additional therapeutic agents are needed to enhance the antiangiogenic arsenal. Our group previously demonstrated epithelial ...

Association of Diabetes With Central Corneal Thickness Among a Multiethnic Asian Population.

Thicker or thinner central corneas may lead to either overestimation or underestimation of intraocular pressure, which is the most important causal and treatable risk factor for glaucoma. However, the findings on the associations between diabetes, random glucose, and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) with central corneal thickness (CCT) are conflicting.

Preschool Children Exhibit Evident Compensatory Role of Internal Astigmatism in Distribution of Astigmatism: The Nanjing Eye Study.

To determine the prevalence and associated risk factors for total, corneal, and residual astigmatism and to evaluate the relations between components of astigmatism in Chinese preschool children.

The Effects of Diabetes and High-Fat Diet on Polymodal Nociceptor and Cold Thermoreceptor Nerve Terminal Endings in the Corneal Epithelium.

There is a substantial body of evidence indicating that corneal sensory innervation is affected by pathology in a range of diseases. However, there are no published studies that have directly assessed whether the nerve fiber density of the different subpopulations of corneal sensory neurons are differentially affected. The present study explored the possibility that the intraepithelial nerve fiber...

Corneal thickness, optic nerve sheath diameter, and retinal nerve fiber layer evaluation to assess the risk of cerebral edema in type 1 diabetes in children.

Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) as a new method of detecting copper deposits forming the Kayser-Fleischer ring in patients with Wilson disease.

Kayser-Fleischer ring pathognomonic for Wilson disease (WD) is formed of corneal copper deposits present predominantly within the anterior chamber angle at the Schwalbe's line. The slit-lamp assessment commonly used as a standard of care cannot detect them early enough, as the angle view is obscured by the corneal limbus. The aim of the research was to evaluate the anterior segment optical coheren...

The use of bone age for evaluating bone density in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a preliminary report.

Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) exhibit low bone mineral density and increased fracture risk. Because glucocorticoid therapy results in delayed puberty and short stature, it is important to account for delayed skeletal development when interpreting their bone mineral density.

Unconventional Flatband Line States in Photonic Lieb Lattices.

Flatband systems typically host "compact localized states" (CLS) due to destructive interference and macroscopic degeneracy of Bloch wave functions associated with a dispersionless energy band. Using a photonic Lieb lattice (LL), such conventional localized flatband states are found to be inherently incomplete, with the missing modes manifested as extended line states that form noncontractible loo...

Observation of a Dynamical Sliding Phase Superfluid with P-Band Bosons.

Sliding phases have been long sought after in the context of coupled XY models, as they are of relevance to various many-body systems such as layered superconductors, freestanding liquid-crystal films, and cationic lipid-DNA complexes. Here we report an observation of a dynamical sliding phase superfluid that emerges in a nonequilibrium setting from the quantum dynamics of a three-dimensional ultr...

Measuring the Single-Particle Density Matrix for Fermions and Hard-Core Bosons in an Optical Lattice.

Ultracold atoms in optical lattices provide clean, tunable, and well-isolated realizations of paradigmatic quantum lattice models. With the recent advent of quantum-gas microscopes, they now also offer the possibility to measure the occupations of individual lattice sites. What, however, has not yet been achieved is to measure those elements of the single-particle density matrix, which are off- di...

Doublon Formation by Ions Impacting a Strongly Correlated Finite Lattice System.

Strongly correlated systems of fermions have a number of exciting collective properties. Among them, the creation of a lattice that is occupied by doublons, i.e., two quantum particles with opposite spins, offers interesting electronic properties. In the past a variety of methods have been proposed to control doublon formation, both, spatially and temporally. Here, a novel mechanism is proposed an...

Operational Magic Intensity for Sr Optical Lattice Clocks.

We experimentally investigate the lattice-induced light shift by the electric-quadrupole (E2) and magnetic-dipole (M1) polarizabilities and the hyperpolarizability in Sr optical lattice clocks. Precise control of the axial as well as the radial motion of atoms in a one-dimensional lattice allows observing the E2-M1 polarizability difference. Measured polarizabilities determine an operational latti...

Tracking Structural Self-Reconstruction and Identifying True Active Sites toward Cobalt Oxychloride Precatalyst of Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

Unravelling the intrinsic mechanism of electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) by use of heterogeneous catalysts is highly desirable to develop related energy conversion technologies. Albeit dynamic self-reconstruction of the catalysts during OER is extensively observed, it is still highly challenging to operando probe the reconstruction and precisely identify the true catalytically activ...

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