Dementia Research

04:30 EST 17th February 2019 | BioPortfolio

Association of metformin, sulfonylurea and insulin use with brain structure and function and risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease: Pooled analysis from 5 cohorts.

To determine whether classes of diabetes medications are associated with cognitive health and dementia risk, above and beyond their glycemic control properties.

A new avenue for treating neuronal diseases: ceftriaxone, an old antibiotic demonstrating behavioral neuronal effects.

Several neurodegenerative disorders, namely Parkinson's disease dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, and Alzheimer's disease, share common pathophysiological features, such as (1) cognitive deficits, (2) glutamatergic hyperactivity-related excitotoxicity, and (3) deposition of α-synuclein (α-syn) and β-amyloid (Aβ). Ceftriaxone (CEF) is a well-tested and safe drug that has been used as an anti...

Challenging behavior and pain in dementia : Experiences of nursing staff in an acute care hospital.

People with dementia are receiving treatment in acute care hospitals at increasing rates. Most prominently, patients exhibiting behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are perceived as significant burdens for staff members. Non-detected pain is seen as one substantial reason for behavior that is seemingly unexplainable. In order to gather information about dealing with BPSD a sur...

Health Professional Perspectives on Rehabilitation for People With Dementia.

Multidisciplinary rehabilitation is not incorporated into the usual care pathway for dementia despite increasing demand from key advocates. Clinician views regarding the relevance of rehabilitation in dementia care are not well known. This qualitative study explored the perspectives of health professionals regarding barriers to provision of multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs for people with...

Population-based dementia prediction model using Korean public health examination data: A cohort study.

The early identification and prevention of dementia is important for reducing its worldwide burden and increasing individuals' quality of life. Although several dementia prediction models have been developed, there remains a need for a practical and precise model targeted to middle-aged and Asian populations. Here, we used national Korean health examination data from adults (331,126 individuals, 4...

Association Between Antipsychotics and All-Cause Mortality Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

Antipsychotics are prescribed to treat various symptoms in older adults, however, their safely in this context has not been fully evaluated. The objective was to evaluate mortality risks associated with off- label use of antipsychotics among older adults with no pre-existing mental illness or dementia relative to those with diagnosis of dementia.

Music Therapy and Physical Activity to Ease Anxiety, Restlessness, Irritability, and Aggression in Individuals With Dementia With Signs of Frontotemporal Lobe Degeneration.

The purpose of the current study was to evaluate whether a combined intervention of physical activity and music therapy could reduce anxiety, restlessness, irritability, and aggression among individuals with severe dementia. An exploratory design was used to evaluate a combined intervention of physical activity, music therapy, and daily walking. Interventions were systematically implemented for 8 ...

Detecting frontotemporal dementia syndromes using MRI biomarkers.

Diagnosing frontotemporal dementia may be challenging. New methods for analysis of regional brain atrophy patterns on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could add to the diagnostic assessment. Therefore, we aimed to develop automated imaging biomarkers for differentiating frontotemporal dementia subtypes from other diagnostic groups, and from one another.

Discontinuation of Antihypertensive Medication, Cognitive Complaints, and Incident Dementia.

To evaluate whether discontinuation of antihypertensive medication in community-dwelling older people is associated with a reduction in memory complaints and/or incident dementia.

Emerging Role of microRNAs in Dementia.

MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs regulating mRNA translation. They play a crucial role in regulating homeostasis in neurons, especially in regulating local and stimulation dependent protein synthesis. Since activity mediated protein synthesis in neurons is critical for memory and cognition, microRNAs have become key players in modulating these processes. Dementia is a broad term used for sympto...

Health and social care practitioners' understanding of the problems of people with dementia-related visual processing impairment.

It has been highlighted that health and social care staff need a greater awareness of the needs and problems of those people with young onset dementia in the UK. Symptoms of Alzheimer's disease are relatively well known (memory loss, disorientation, language difficulties and behavioural problems). However, there is less awareness of dementia-related visual processing impairments in Alzheimer's dis...

Quality Focus: Reducing the Dementia Burden through Appropriate Diagnosis and Treatment Methods.

Obesity and Longer Term Risks of Dementia in 65-74 Year Olds.

overweight or obesity at ages

Trazodone use and risk of dementia: A population-based cohort study.

In vitro and animal studies have suggested that trazodone, a licensed antidepressant, may protect against dementia. However, no studies have been conducted to assess the effect of trazodone on dementia in humans. This electronic health records study assessed the association between trazodone use and the risk of developing dementia in clinical practice.

Activation of the Brain to Postpone Dementia: A Concept Originating from Postmortem Human Brain Studies.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by decreased neuronal activity and atrophy, while hyperactivity of neurons seems to make them resistant to aging and neurodegeneration, a phenomenon which we have paraphrased as 'use it or lose it'. Our hypothesis proposes that (1) during their functioning, neurons are damaged; (2) accumulation of damage that is not repaired is the basis of aging; (3) the ...

Attenuation of hyperhomocysteinemia induced vascular dementia by sodium orthovanadate perhaps via PTP1B: pertinent downstream outcomes.

Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common form of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, but drug regulatory authorities have not approved any effective medication for this indication. Researchers are keenly aware of the need to uncover precise and druggable targets for VaD. However, finding such a target is an experimentally impractical and challenging task, owing to the highly complex inter...

Homozygosity for the A431E mutation in PSEN1 presenting with a relatively aggressive phenotype.

We report a 35 year-old male with childhood learning disability and early onset dementia who is homozygous for the A431E variant in the PSEN1 gene. Presenilin1 mutations are associated with autosomal dominant Alzheimer's dementia with young and somewhat stereotyped onset. Such variants may cause Alzheimer's dementia through aberrant processing of amyloid precursor protein through effects on γ-sec...

The inner fluctuations of the brain in presymptomatic Frontotemporal Dementia: The chronnectome fingerprint.

Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) is preceded by a long period of subtle brain changes, occurring in the absence of overt cognitive symptoms, that need to be still fully characterized. Dynamic network analysis based on resting-state magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is a potentially powerful tool for the study of preclinical FTD. In the present study, we employed a "chronnectome" approach (recurrin...

Increased risk of dementia in patients with craniofacial trauma: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

The role of maxillofacial trauma in dementia risk is less well established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between craniofacial trauma, including facial bone fracture and TBI, and dementia.

Depression and Antidepressants as Potential Risk Factors in Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of 18 Longitudinal Studies.

To investigate whether depression and/or antidepressants can be a potential risk factor for the development of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

Gray and white matter changes in presymptomatic genetic frontotemporal dementia: a longitudinal MRI study.

In genetic frontotemporal dementia, cross-sectional studies have identified profiles of presymptomatic neuroanatomical loss for C9orf72 repeat expansion, MAPT, and GRN mutations. In this study, we characterize longitudinal gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) brain changes in presymptomatic frontotemporal dementia. We included healthy carriers of C9orf72 repeat expansion (n = 12), MAPT (n = 15...

Progression of logopenic aphasia to frontotemporal dementia in an amyloid β-negative and F-THK-5351-positive patient.

Clinical diagnoses among individuals with primary age-related tauopathy versus Alzheimer's neuropathology.

Primary age-related tauopathy (PART) is increasingly recognized as a pathologic entity distinct from Alzheimer's disease (AD). Given that the diagnosis of PART is an autopsy diagnosis, it is unclear how PART is perceived in clinical practice. Thus, we investigated the presumptive primary and contributing diagnoses in individuals who had cognitive impairment while alive and who met neuropathologic ...

Clinical and neuroimaging investigations of language disturbance in frontotemporal dementia-motor neuron disease patients.

This study systematically investigated the neuropsychological profile of language disturbance in frontotemporal dementia-motor neuron disease (FTD-MND) using a data-driven approach. Neuroanatomical correlates of language profiles were also examined. Patients with FTD-MND (N = 26), pure motor neuron disease (N = 34), progressive non-fluent aphasia (N = 30), semantic dementia (N = 17...

Progressive signaling changes in the olfactory nerve of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

Olfaction declines with aging and appears to be a prodromal sign of cognitive decline in progressive neurodegenerative diseases. Nevertheless, very little is known about the pathophysiological changes underlying smell loss that may reflect early network dysfunction. A cross-sectional histoanatomical study was conducted on postmortem olfactory nerves of patients with increasing severity of dementia...

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