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Diabetes Research

03:00 EDT 22nd September 2018 | BioPortfolio

Metabolic Acidosis in Postsurgical Patient on Canagliflozin and Metformin: A Case Report.

Canagliflozin is a novel drug for diabetes mellitus with the mechanisms of inducing glucosuria through inhibition of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 in the kidney independent of insulin activity. We are reporting euglycemic ketoacidosis with severe life-threatening metabolic acidosis. The 2 patients described had type 2 diabetes mellitus and were in a state of relative starvation after abdomina...

Wolcott-Rallison Syndrome With Different Clinical Presentations and Genetic Patterns in 2 Infants.

Wolcott-Rallison syndrome is a rare disease presenting with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DM) before 6 months old, skeletal dysplasia after 6 months old, and liver failure. Other manifestations are renal failure, microcephaly, epilepsy, central hypothyroidism, neutropenia, and dental and dermal problems. The cases were 2 patients from 2 different states of Iran (Khoozestan and Fars) who had...

Albuminuria and diabetes: a question of eye and skin points of view: Erratum.

Type 2 diabetes management: A practice guide for NPs.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an endocrine and metabolic disorder that requires ongoing medical management. If T2DM is not adequately assessed and managed, a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and complications may occur. This article provides clinical guidance to NPs on the management of T2DM in primary care settings.

CHANGES IN DIABETIC RETINOPATHY SEVERITY WHEN TREATING DIABETIC MACULAR EDEMA WITH RANIBIZUMAB: DRCR.net Protocol I 5-Year Report.

To explore 5-year changes from baseline in diabetic retinopathy severity among eyes treated with ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema.

Diabetes and periprocedural outcomes in patients treated with rotablation during percutaneous coronary interventions.

This study is to assess differences in periprocedural outcomes among diabetic and non-diabetic patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and rotational atherectomy (RA).

What is diabulimia and what are the implications for practice?

Diabulimia has become a common term used to describe a condition when a person with type 1 diabetes has an eating disorder. The individual may omit or restrict their insulin dose to lose/control weight. Evidence suggests that as many as 20% of women with type 1 diabetes may have this condition. The serious acute and long-term complications of hyperglycaemia are well documented. Detection of this c...

Influence of testosterone substitution on glycemic control and endothelial markers in men with newly diagnosed functional hypogonadism and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial.

Effects of testosterone (T) on the cardiovascular system of men remain controversial. The impact of T-replacement therapy (TRT) in men with functional hypogonadism and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has to be elucidated. This study included 80 men (mean age 51.5 ± 6.3 years) with newly diagnosed T2DM (according to ADA criteria) and functional hypogonadism (according to EAU criteria). Random...

Multi-informant path models of the influence of psychosocial and treatment-related variables on adherence and metabolic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

We assessed the associations between metabolic control and adherence and a broad range of adolescent and family characteristics (e.g., gender, family structure), treatment-related variables (e.g., disease duration, treatment modality), and psychosocial factors (e.g., symptoms of depression and anxiety, parental support, self-efficacy) in a nationwide study of Danish adolescents (age 12-17 years) w...

Insulin Resistance Index from Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Predicts Ischemic Stroke Outcomes in Non-Diabetic Patients with Different Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate Strata.

Insulin resistance is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population. However, the relationship between insulin resistance and health outcomes is controversial in patients with impaired renal function. Our study aimed to investigate the association between insulin resistance and prognosis in a cohort of non-diabetic stroke patients with different estimated glomeru...

Pitfalls in the Diagnosis of Diabetes: Are we too Lax with Laboratory Parameters?

The diagnosis of diabetes is associated with pre-analytical and analytical problems. Fasting glucose (FG), oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) and HbA1c have advantages and shortcomings and have no equal diagnostic validity. oGTT is the most sensitive test, but its reproducibility is rather poor (CV± 15 %). FG detects only 70 - 80 % of overt diabetes. FG is falsified by inappropriate blo...

Changes in Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Rather Than in Paraoxonase1 are Associated with Changes in the Leptin/Leptin Receptor Ratio in Obese Children During Weight-Loss Therapy.

Oxidative stress and impaired production of adipokines in childhood obesity contribute to the development of obesity-related disorders. We assessed whether weight loss after lifestyle intervention alters biomarkers of oxidant/antioxidant status, and whether these alterations are associated with changes in anthropometric parameters and adipokines in obese children.

Changes in Serum Immunoglobulin G4 Levels in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Graves' Disease.

Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an immune-mediated condition that can affect almost any organ. We investigated the association between IgG4-RD and the main characteristics of Graves' disease (GD) at the time of diagnosis. Additionally, we evaluated whether serum IgG4 levels change during treatment.

Altered TEG Parameters Identify Hypercoagulablilty and are of Diagnosis Value for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Patients.

The goal of this study was to clarify the changes and clinical significance of thromboelastography (TEG) parameters in papillary thyroid carcinomas and nodular goiters.

Lipid Level Related with Osteoporosis in Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder characterizedby reduced bone mass, deteriorated bone structure. Various studies have tried to evaluate the association between lipid level and osteoporosis, but the results were proved to be controversial. The objectives of this study are to assess the correlation between BMD and serum lipid levels, to determine independent variables associated with ost...

Metastatic Phaeochromocytoma: Spinning Towards More Promising Treatment Options.

Phaeochromocytomas (PCC) and paragangliomas (PGL) are rare tumours arising from the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla (PCC) or the paraganglia located outside the adrenal gland (PGL). However, their incidence is likely to be underestimated; around 10% of all PCC/PGL are metastatic, with higher metastatic potential of PGLs compared to PCCs. If benign, surgery is the treatment of choice, but i...

Effects of proinsulin misfolding on β-cell dynamics, differentiation and function in diabetes.

ER stress due to proinsulin misfolding has an important role in the pathophysiology of rare forms of permanent neonatal diabetes (PNDM) and probably also of common type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Accumulation of misfolded proinsulin in the ER stimulates the unfolded protein response (UPR) that may eventually lead to apoptosis through a process called the terminal UPR. However, the β-cell ...

Regulation of islet glucagon secretion: Beyond calcium.

The islet of Langerhans plays a key role in glucose homeostasis through regulated secretion of the hormones insulin and glucagon. Islet research has focused on the insulin-secreting β-cells, even though aberrant glucagon secretion from α-cells also contributes to the aetiology of diabetes. Despite its importance, the mechanisms controlling glucagon secretion remain controversial. Proper α-cell ...

Role of ghrelin in pancreatic development and function.

Ghrelin is a gastric peptide with anabolic functions. It acutely stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion from the anterior pituitary glands and modulates hypothalamic circuits that control food intake and energy expenditure. Besides its central activity, ghrelin is also involved in the regulation of pancreatic development and physiology. Particularly, several studies highlighted the ability of gh...

Biosynthesis, structure, and folding of the insulin precursor protein.

Insulin synthesis in pancreatic β-cells is initiated as preproinsulin. Prevailing glucose concentrations, which oscillate pre- and postprandially, exert major dynamic variation in preproinsulin biosynthesis. Accompanying upregulated translation of the insulin precursor includes elements of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) translocation apparatus linked to successful orientation of the signal peptid...

Lysosomes in nutrient signalling: A focus on pancreatic β-cells.

Regulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells is a major process maintaining glucose homeostasis in mammals. Enhancing insulin release in response to chronic nutrient overload and obesity-related insulin resistance (pre-diabetes) requires several adaptive cellular mechanisms maintaining β-cell health under such stresses. Once these mechanisms are overwhelmed, β-cell failure occurs leading...

Sitagliptin treatment increases GLP-1 without improving diabetes outcomes after total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation.

Insulin independence after total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) is limited by a high rate of beta cell apoptosis [1]. The gut-derived hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) have beta cell protective properties, in addition to potentiating insulin secretion [2]. These hormones are degraded by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase...

Migrant Farmworker Nutritional Strategies: Implications for Diabetes Management.

Diabetes is a chronic disease prevalent in Hispanic/Latino adults, including migrant farmworkers in the US. Its management requires that individuals follow dietary guidelines, which may be difficult for migrant farmworkers due to work and environmental constraints. This analysis is designed to explore potential barriers to and supports for migrant farmworkers' practice of effective dietary self-ma...

Potassium control in chronic kidney disease: Implications for neuromuscular function.

In Australia approximately 1.7million adults have evidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This complex disease can result in a multitude of complications, including hyperkalaemia which common and well recognised. . The advent of new therapeutics aimed at lowering serum potassium have raised the possibility of optimising potassium control to enable greater use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone sys...

Prescribing High-intensity Interval Exercise by RPE in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes: Metabolic and Hemodynamic Responses.

We tested the hypothesis that rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is a tool as efficient as heart rate (HR) response to cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX) for prescribing and self-regulating high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), and that metabolic and hemodynamic response to HIIE is superior than to continuous moderate-intensity exercise (MICE) in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM...

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