DSM-5 Research

00:55 EST 17th February 2019 | BioPortfolio

Association Between Age and Familial Risk for Alcoholism on Functional Connectivity in Adolescence.

Youth with a family history of alcohol use disorder (family history positive; FHP) are at increased risk for developing maladaptive substance use relative to family history negative (FHN) peers. Building on earlier studies demonstrating morphological differences and distinct patterns of neural activation in FHP, the purpose of the present study was to investigate differential intrinsic functional ...

Treatment Gains Are Sustainable in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Three-Year Follow-Up From the NordLOTS.

This study evaluates the long-term outcomes of a stepped care treatment for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and investigates whether response to first-step cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an important indicator of three-year outcomes.

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Childhood and Adolescence and the Risk of Crime in Young Adulthood in a Danish Nationwide Study.

To determine the risk of long-term conviction and incarceration associated with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and to identify risk and protective factors including associations with active treatment with ADHD medication.

Association Between Repeated Episodes of Gastroenteritis and Mental Health Problems in Childhood and Adolescence.

The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (MAVAN) cohorts were used to determine if repeated exposure to gastroenteritis in early life could predict risk for psychiatric problems in childhood and in ALSPAC adolescents. We determined if inflammatory biomarkers moderate the association between repeated gastroenteritis and ...

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, School Performance, and Effect of Medication.

Individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk of poor school performance and pharmacological treatment of ADHD may have beneficial effects on school performance. Conclusions from previous research have been limited by small sample sizes, outcome measures, and treatment follow-up. The current study analyzed school performance in students with ADHD compared t...

Double-Blind, Sham-Controlled, Pilot Study of Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation for ADHD.

Trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS), a minimal risk, non-invasive neuromodulation method, has showed potential benefits for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in an unblinded open study. This blinded sham-controlled trial was conducted to assess efficacy and safety of TNS for ADHD, as well as potential changes in brain spectral power using resting-state quantitative electroencephalogra...

Structural Brain Alterations in Youth With Psychosis and Bipolar Spectrum Symptoms.

Adults with established diagnoses of serious mental illness (bipolar disorder and schizophrenia) exhibit structural brain abnormalities, yet less is known about how such abnormalities manifest earlier in development.

Sex Differences in Comorbidity Patterns of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

To investigate sex differences in associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a spectrum of comorbid disorders.

Psychotic-Like Experiences in Offspring of Parents With Bipolar Disorder and Community Controls: A Longitudinal Study.

To compare the prevalence and risk factors associated with Psychotic-Like-Experiences (PLE) in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) and offspring of community control parents.

Shortened Sleep Duration Causes Sleepiness, Inattention, and Oppositionality in Adolescents With ADHD: Findings From a Crossover Sleep Restriction/Extension Study.

Although poor sleep is often reported in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), prior studies have been correlational. This study investigated whether sleep duration is causally linked to sleepiness, inattention, and behavioral functioning in adolescents with ADHD.

Prescription Drug Misuse: Sources of Controlled Medications in Adolescents.

Adolescent controlled prescription drug misuse (PDM) co-occurs with significant consequences, including lower educational achievement, substance use disorder (SUD) symptoms, and psychopathology. Nonetheless, adolescent PDM sources and the prevalence of other substance use, SUD and mental health outcomes associated with sources remain poorly understood.

Common Polygenic Variations for Psychiatric Disorders and Cognition in Relation to Brain Morphology in the General Pediatric Population.

To examine the relationship between polygenic scores (PGS) for five major psychiatric disorders and two cognitive traits with brain MRI morphological measurements in a large population-based sample of children. Additionally, we tested whether differences in brain morphology mediated associations between PGS for psychiatric disorders and related behavioral phenotypes.

Trajectories of Symptom Change in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study.

Depression is the most prominent mental health disorder among youth with profound impacts with respect to morbidity and mortality if not addressed. The Treatment for Adolescent Depression Study (TADS) is one of the largest randomized controlled trials that compared the effectiveness of four treatments: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), combined Cognitive Behavioral and fluoxeti...

Ethnic Differences in Referral Routes to Youth Mental Health Services.

To examine whether there are ethnic differences in referral route to youth mental health services.

Quantifying the Optimal Structure of the Autism Phenotype: A Comprehensive Comparison of Dimensional, Categorical, and Hybrid Models.

The two primary - seemingly contradictory - strategies for classifying child psychiatric syndromes are categorical and dimensional; conceptual ambiguities appear to be greatest for polythetic syndromes such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recently, a compelling alternative has emerged that integrates both categorical and dimensional approaches (ie, hybrid model) thanks to the increasing sophist...

Psychiatric outcome at least 20 years after trauma: A survey on the status of subjective general health and psychiatric symptoms with a focus on posttraumatic stress disorder.

Information on long-term psychiatric sequelae after severe trauma is sparse. We therefore performed a survey addressing several symptoms related to post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients that sustained multiple injuries more than 20 years after trauma.

Neurocognitive assessment in obsessive compulsive disorder patients: Adherence to behavioral decision models.

In economics, models of decision-making under risk are widely investigated. Since many empirical studies have shown patterns in choice behavior that classical models fail to predict, several descriptive theories have been developed. Due to an evident phenotypic heterogeneity, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients have shown a general deficit in decision making when compared to healthy contr...

Long-acting injectable antipsychotics: Six-month follow-up of new outpatient treatments in Bologna Community Mental Health Centres.

This study aims to describe factors associated to treatment continuity and psychiatric relapses in patients treated with Long Acting Injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) in Bologna Community Mental Health Centers (CMHCs).

Personally relevant online advertisements: Effects of demographic targeting on visual attention and brand evaluation.

Global investments in online advertising rise quickly but internet users often avoid looking at ads due to established banner blindness. Demographic targeting is expected to overcome this tendency by attracting users' attention to more self-relevant ad content. However, little is known about the effect of demographically targeted versus non-targeted ads on users' actual attention allocation during...

Behavioural and psychiatric phenotypes in female carriers of genetic mutations associated with X-linked ichthyosis.

X-linked ichthyosis (XLI) is a rare X-linked dermatological condition arising from deficiency for the enzyme steroid sulfatase (STS). STS is normally expressed in the brain, and males with XLI exhibit personality differences from males in the general population, and are at increased risk of developmental and mood disorders. As the STS gene escapes X-inactivation, female carriers of XLI-associated ...

Changes in fear-avoidance beliefs and work participation after occupational rehabilitation for musculoskeletal- and common mental disorders: secondary outcomes of two randomized clinical trials.

To assess: (i) whether changes in the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ) were greater for multicomponent inpatient rehabilitation vs outpatient cognitive behavioural therapy, and (ii) whether baseline scores and changes (pre- to post-intervention) in FABQ were associated with future work-participation.

The process of change in psychotherapy with a pregnant patient following perinatal losses: An analysis of a case study.

Despite research suggesting increased anxiety and depressive symptoms after a perinatal loss and during future pregnancies, little knowledge exists to guide clinicians treating pregnant women after perinatal loss. This case study explores processes that facilitated therapeutic change for a pregnant patient with major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder after perinatal losse...

Successful spinal cord stimulation for severe medication-refractory restless legs syndrome.

Slow segmentation of faces in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Atypical visual segmentation, affecting object perception, might contribute to face processing problems in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The current study investigated impairments in visual segmentation of faces in ASD. Thirty participants (ASD: 16; Control: 14) viewed texture-defined faces, houses, and homogeneous images, while electroencephalographic and behavioral responses were recorded. The...

Automatic ICD code Assignment of Chinese Clinical Notes based on Multilayer Attention BiRNN.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) code is an important label of electronic health record. The automatic ICD code assignment based on the narrative of clinical documents is an essential task which has drawn much attention recently. When Chinese clinical notes are the input corpus, the nature of Chinese brings some issues that need to be considered, such as the accuracy of word segmenta...

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