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Dyslexia Research

12:32 EDT 20th September 2019 | BioPortfolio

Near optimal encoding of numerosity in typical and dyscalculic development.

Dyscalculia is often associated with poor numerosity sensitivity. However, it is not known whether the perceptual systems of dyscalculics have implicit access to the sensory noise of numerosity judgements, and whether their perceptual systems take the noise levels into account in optimizing their perception. We tackled this question by measuring central tendency and serial dependence with a number...

Dyslexia-related impairments in sequence learning predict linguistic abilities.

Dyslexia is often characterized by disordered word recognition and spelling, though dysfunction on various non-linguistic tasks suggests a more pervasive deficit may underlie reading and spelling abilities. The serial-order learning impairment in dyslexia (SOLID) hypothesis proposes that sequence learning impairments fundamentally disrupt cognitive abilities, including linguistic processes, among ...

Music-related abilities among readers with dyslexia.

Research suggests that a central difficulty in dyslexia may be impaired rapid temporal processing. Good temporal processing is also needed for musical perception, which relies on the ability to detect rapid changes. Our study is the first to measure the perception of adults with and without dyslexia on all three dimensions of music (rhythm, pitch, and spectrum), as well as their capacity for audit...

Validation of curriculum-based reading passages and comparison of college students with and without dyslexia or ADHD.

Although reading is an essential skill for college success, little is known about how college students with and without disabilities read within their actual college curriculum. In the present article, we report on two studies addressing this issue. Within study 1, we developed and validated curriculum-based oral reading fluency measures using a sample of college students without disabilities (N...

Dyslexia: an invisible disability.

Statistical learning abilities of children with dyslexia across three experimental paradigms.

Statistical learning (SL) difficulties have been suggested to contribute to the linguistic and non-linguistic problems observed in children with dyslexia. Indeed, studies have demonstrated that children with dyslexia experience problems with SL, but the extent of the problems is unclear. We aimed to examine the performance of children with and without dyslexia across three distinct paradigms using...

Visual statistical learning and orthographic awareness in Chinese children with and without developmental dyslexia.

This study examined the role of visual statistical learning in reading and writing and its relationship to orthographic awareness in Hong Kong Chinese children with and without developmental dyslexia. Thirty-five 7- to 8-year-old children with developmental dyslexia and 37 chronologically age-matched controls were tested on visual statistical learning, orthographic awareness, nonverbal cognitive a...

Children with dyslexia in different cultures: Investigation of anxiety and coping strategies of children with dyslexia in Indonesia and Germany.

Hitherto the majority of research on anxiety and coping was undertaken on individuals with specific profiles (i.e., individuals with specific difficulties or in cross-cultural settings). However, to our knowledge, no studies have combined cross-cultural and specific difficulty settings to grant a complex analysis of this paradigm nor conducted an investigation of children to reveal the development...

Numerical processing profiles in children with varying degrees of arithmetical achievement.

Recent studies show basic cognitive abilities such as the rapid and precise apprehension of small numerosities in object sets ("subitizing"), verbal counting and numerical magnitude comparison significantly influence the acquisition of arithmetic and continues to modulate more advanced stages of mathematical cognition. Additionally, children with low arithmetic achievement (LAA) and Developmental ...

Delayed development of phonological constancy in toddlers at family risk for dyslexia.

Phonological constancy refers to infants' ability to disregard variations in the phonetic realisation of speech sounds that do not indicate lexical contrast, e.g., when listening to accented speech. In typically-developing infants, this ability develops between 15- and 19-months of age, coinciding with the consolidation of infants' native phonological competence and vocabulary growth. Here we inve...

Phonemes, words, and phrases: Tracking phonological processing in pre-schoolers developing dyslexia.

Individuals with dyslexia often suffer from deficient segmental phonology, but the status of suprasegmental phonology (prosody) is still discussed.

Introduction to the special issue: Developmental Dyslexia: from Genes to Remediation.

Working Memory Profiles of Children With Dyslexia, Developmental Language Disorder, or Both.

Purpose Compared to children with typical development, children with dyslexia, developmental language disorder (DLD), or both often demonstrate working memory deficits. It is unclear how pervasive the deficits are or whether the deficits align with diagnostic category. The purpose of this study was to determine whether different working memory profiles would emerge on a comprehensive battery of ce...

Executive functions in children with dyslexia.

This study aimed to verify whether children with dyslexia have difficulties in executive functions (shifting, working memory, inhibition).

Brain activity patterns of phonemic representations are atypical in beginning readers with family risk for dyslexia.

There is an ongoing debate whether phonological deficits in dyslexics should be attributed to (1) less specified representations of speech sounds, like suggested by studies in young children with a familial risk for dyslexia, or (2) to an impaired access to these phonemic representations, as suggested by studies in adults with dyslexia. These conflicting findings are rooted in between study differ...

Benefits from morphological regularities in dyslexia are task dependent.

Are difficulties of individuals with dyslexia (IDDs) reduced or enhanced in tasks where linguistic regularities typically facilitate performance, such as vocabulary acquisition and reading? If impaired short-term memory and poor phonological decoding pose the main impediments to IDDs, then they are expected to compensate for these difficulties with a greater reliance on linguistic regularities, to...

Is excessive visual crowding causally linked to developmental dyslexia?

For about 10% of children reading acquisition is extremely difficult because they are affected by a heritable neurobiological disorder called developmental dyslexia (DD), mainly associated to an auditory-phonological disorder. Visual crowding is a universal phenomenon that impairs the recognition of stimuli in clutter, such as a letter in a word or a word in a text. Several studies have shown an e...

Combining Old and New for Better Understanding and Predicting Dyslexia.

Despite decades of research, it has been difficult to achieve consensus on a definition of common learning disabilities such as dyslexia. This lack of consensus represents a fundamental problem for the field. Our approach to addressing this issue is to use model-based meta-analyses and Bayesian models with informative priors to combine the results of a large number of studies for the purpose of yi...

Syntactic ambiguity resolution in dyslexia: An examination of cognitive factors underlying eye movement differences and comprehension failures.

This study examined eye movements and comprehension of temporary syntactic ambiguities in individuals with dyslexia, as few studies have focused on sentence-level comprehension in dyslexia. We tested 50 participants with dyslexia and 50 typically developing controls, in order to investigate (a) whether dyslexics have difficulty revising temporary syntactic misinterpretations and (b) underlying cog...

Irlen syndrome: systematic review and level of evidence analysis.

Scotopic sensitivity syndrome, later called Meares-Irlen syndrome or simply Irlen syndrome (IS) has been described as symptoms of poor reading ability due to poor color matching and distorted graphic images. Individuals with this syndrome are considered slow, ineffective readers with low comprehension and visual fatigue. It is still uncertain whether the disease pathophysiology is an independent e...

Relationships between gray matter volume and reading ability in typically developing children, adolescents, and young adults.

Reading is explicitly taught and foreshadows academic and vocational success. Studies comparing typical readers to those with developmental dyslexia have identified anatomical brain differences in bilateral temporo-parietal cortex, left temporo-occipital cortex, and bilateral cerebellum. Yet, it is unclear whether linear relationships exist between these brain structures and single real word readi...

Neural Responses of the Anterior Ventral Occipitotemporal Cortex in Developmental Dyslexia: Beyond the Visual Word Form Area.

For the past 2 decades, neuroimaging studies in dyslexia have pointed toward a hypoactivation of the ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOTC), a region that has been closely associated to reading through the extraction of a representation of words which is invariant to position, size, font or case. However, most of the studies are confined to the visual word form area (VWFA), while recent studies ha...

An extensive pattern of atypical neural speech-sound discrimination in newborns at risk of dyslexia.

Identifying early signs of developmental dyslexia, associated with deficient speech-sound processing, is paramount to establish early interventions. We aimed to find early speech-sound processing deficiencies in dyslexia, expecting diminished and atypically lateralized event-related potentials (ERP) and mismatch responses (MMR) in newborns at dyslexia risk.

Speech Envelope Enhancement Instantaneously Effaces Atypical Speech Perception in Dyslexia.

Increasing evidence exists that poor speech perception abilities precede the phonological deficits typically observed in dyslexia, a developmental disorder in learning to read. Impaired processing of dynamic features of speech, such as slow amplitude fluctuations and transient acoustic cues, disrupts effortless tracking of the speech envelope and constrains the development of adequate phonological...

Own-race and other-race face recognition problems without visual expertise problems in dyslexic readers.

Both intact and deficient neural processing of faces has been found in dyslexic readers. Similarly, behavioral studies have shown both normal and abnormal face processing in developmental dyslexia. We tested whether dyslexic adults are impaired in tests of own-race and other-race face recognition. As both face and word recognition rely considerably on visual expertise, we wished to investigate whe...

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