Eating Disorders Research

15:25 EDT 21st August 2018 | BioPortfolio

Venom of prey-specialised spiders is more toxic to their preferred prey: a result of prey-specific toxins.

1.In specialised predators a variety of adaptations have evolved to such a level of specificity that they allow very effective exploitation of focal prey. Venom is an essential adaptive trait of predatory venomous species, such as spiders, yet our knowledge of spider venom is incomplete. 2.In agreement with the prey preference hypothesis, we expected that the venom of spider specialists should be ...

Examining Patterns of Change in the Acquired Capability for Suicide Among Eating Disorder Patients.

Several models of suicidal behavior posit that, to transition from suicidal ideation to attempting suicide, individuals must have an acquired capability for suicide (ACS), comprised of fearlessness about death (FAD) and pain tolerance. ACS is hypothesized to increase monotonically through exposure to painful and provocative experiences. However, recent research suggests that ACS can decrease, brin...

Orexin/hypocretin and dysregulated eating: Promotion of foraging behavior.

At its discovery, orexin/hypocretin (OX) was hypothesized to promote food intake. Subsequently, with the identification of the participation of OX in numerous other phenomena, including arousal and drug seeking, this neuropeptide was proposed to be involved in highly motivated behaviors. The present review develops the hypothesis that the primary evolutionary function of OX is to promote foraging ...

Neural coding of food experiences in the amygdala.

Real-life experiences involve the consumption of various foods, yet it is unclear how the brain distinguishes and categorizes such food experiences. Despite the crucial roles of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in appetitive behavior and emotion, how BLA pyramidal cells and interneurons encode food experiences has not yet been well characterized. Here we employ large-scale tetrode recording techniqu...

Is it time to revise the diagnostic criteria for apathy in brain disorders? The 2018 international consensus group.

Apathy is a very common behavioural and psychological symptom across brain disorders. In the last decade, there have been considerable advances in research on apathy and motivation. It is thus important to revise the apathy diagnostic criteria published in 2009. The main objectives were to: a) revise the definition of apathy; b) update the list of apathy dimensions; c) operationalise the diagnosti...

Fatty acids profile in patients after heart or renal transplantation who developed metabolic complications.

Diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia are frequently observed after organ transplantation. It is known that in these disorders the fatty acid metabolism is impaired. The aim of this study was to compare the fatty acid profile in the heart and renal transplant recipients who developed metabolic disorders since there is no such research available.

Depressive vulnerability in women with Alzheimer's disease: Relationship with personality traits and abnormal personality dimensions.

This study sought to determine the evaluation of current and pre-morbid depressive vulnerability dimensions in Alzheimer's disease. Sidney Blatt´s personality developmental perspective, the Five-Factor model and Axis II personality disorders were taken as references.

The effect of environmental lead exposure on human health and the contribution of inflammatory mechanisms, a review.

Lead (Pb) pollution has been considered as a major threat for human health due to induction of inflammatory cascades in various tissues. The aim of present review is to summarize the literature on the effects of lead exposure on respiratory, neurologic, digestive, cardiovascular and urinary disorders and the role of inflammation as an underlying mechanism for these effects. Various databases such ...

Decreased Cannabinoid CB Receptors in Male Tobacco Smokers Examined With Positron Emission Tomography.

Previous studies showed reduction of brain cannabinoid CB receptors in adults with cannabis and alcohol use disorders. Preclinical data suggest that these receptors also contribute to nicotine reward and dependence. Tobacco smoking may confound clinical studies of psychiatric disorders because many patients with such disorders smoke tobacco. Whether human subjects who smoke tobacco but are otherwi...

Complete sequence of the ANKK1 gene in Mexican-Mestizo individuals with obesity, with or without binge eating disorder.

The aim of this study was to investigate if Mexican-Mestizo individuals with obesity, with or without binge eating disorder (BED), exhibited mutations or other type of genetic variants in the sequence of ANKK1.

Emerging role of the P2X7-NLRP3-IL1β pathway in mood disorders.

The science of neuroimmunopsychiatry has evolved rapidly in the last few years with the hope of tackling the unmet need in mood disorders. This article focuses on an inflammatory pathway, highly conserved in myeloid cells that may play a role in neuroinflammatory disorders including depression. Within the brain tissue, microglia are the myeloid cells that express the P2X7 ion channel that is conne...

Risk of metabolic disorders in childless men: a population-based cohort study.

To study whether male childlessness is associated with an increased risk of metabolic disorders such as metabolic syndrome (MetS) and diabetes.

Role of the Circadian Clock in the Metabolic Syndrome and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in industrialized nations and is strongly associated with the metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of NAFLD continues to rise along with the epidemic of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic homeostasis is linked to the circadian clock (rhythm), with multiple signaling pathways in organs regulated by circadian clock genes,...

Body Image Dissatisfaction and the Adrenarchal Transition.

Puberty marks a transition in risk for body image disturbance and disordered eating. Yet few studies have examined these symptoms across puberty and none have examined links with adrenarche, the earliest phase in the pubertal hormonal cascade.

Visceral adiposity and insular networks: associations with food craving.

Accumulation of visceral adiposity can disrupt the brain's sensitivity to interoceptive feedback, which is coded in the insula. This study aimed to test the link between visceral fat and the functional connectivity of two insulae regions relevant for eating behavior: the middle-dorsal insula (mIns), which codes homeostatic changes, and the rostral insula (rIns), which codes stable representations ...

Quality of Life across Mental Disorders in Psychiatric Outpatients.

Literature has shown that individuals with various psychiatric disorders experience a lower quality of life (QoL). However, few have examined QoL across disorders. The current study explored differences in QoL and symptom severity across 4 psychiatric diagnostic groups: anxiety disorders (including obsessive compulsive disorder [OCD]), depressive disorders, schizophrenia, and pathological gambling...

Psychiatric comorbidity as a risk factor for mortality in people with anorexia nervosa.

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is found associated with increased mortality. Frequent comorbidities of AN include substance use disorders (SUD), affective disorders (AD) and personality disorders (PD). We investigated the influence of these psychiatric comorbidities on all-cause mortality with demographic and socioeconomic factors considered as confounders in the observation window between January 2007 and...

Impaired social contacts with familiar anesthetized conspecific in CA3-restricted BDNF knockout mice.

Familiarity is conveyed by social cues and determines behaviors towards conspecifics. Here we characterize a novel assay for social behaviors in mice - contacts with anesthetized conspecific - which eliminates reciprocal interactions including inter-male aggression and reveals behaviors that are independent of the demonstrator's activity. During the initial 10 minutes (phase-1), the wild-type subj...

Bone effects of binge alcohol drinking using prepubescent pigs as a model.

Although chronic alcohol consumption in adults is an established risk factor for osteoporotic fractures, there is a huge gap in our knowledge about bone effects of binge drinking in adolescents. The aim of this pilot study was therefore to assess skeletal effects of binge alcohol drinking using prepubescent pigs as a large animal model.

Development of a methodology to combine fMRI and EMG to measure emotional responses in patients with anorexia nervosa.

Individuals with eating disorders are theorized to have basic impairments in affective appraisal and social-emotional processing that contribute to pathogenesis of the disease. We aimed to determine if facial electromyography could be used to discriminate between happy and disgust emotions during simultaneous acquisition of an fMRI BOLD sequence in efforts to establish a novel tool for investigati...

Emotion-focused therapy for binge-eating disorder: A review of six cases.

This study aimed to provide preliminary evidence of the usefulness of emotion-focused therapy (EFT) for binge-eating disorder (BED).

Prevalence and correlates of hazardous alcohol consumption and binge drinking among men who have sex with men (MSM) in San Francisco.

To describe heavy alcohol use patterns and correlates in a diverse sample of MSM.

Traumatic brain injury and stroke: does recovery differ?

Traumatic brain injury and stroke often lead to cognitive, neurological and psychological disorders, which can result in many difficulties. Despite the existence of various disorders, improving cognitive capacities may be possible for these two pathologies.

Estrogen effects on oxytocinergic pathways that regulate food intake.

Multiple stimulatory and inhibitory neural circuits control eating, and these circuits are influenced by an array of hormonal, neuropeptide, and neurotransmitter signals. For example, estrogen and oxytocin (OT) both are known to decrease food intake, but the mechanisms by which these signal molecules influence eating are not fully understood. These studies investigated the interaction between estr...

Positive impact of a cooking skills intervention among Brazilian university students: Six months follow-up of a randomized controlled trial.

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the Nutrition and Culinary in the Kitchen (NCK) Program to evaluate the improvement of cooking skills and healthy eating of university students.

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