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Eating Disorders Research

18:23 EDT 17th October 2018 | BioPortfolio

Genetic correlations among psychiatric and immune-related phenotypes based on genome-wide association data.

Individuals with psychiatric disorders have elevated rates of autoimmune comorbidity and altered immune signaling. It is unclear whether these altered immunological states have a shared genetic basis with those psychiatric disorders. The present study sought to use existing summary-level data from previous genome-wide association studies to determine if commonly varying single nucleotide polymorph...

Israeli and British women's wellbeing and eating behaviours in pregnancy and the postpartum.

The study had two main objectives: (a) track changes in self-esteem, eating behaviours and body satisfaction from early pregnancy to 24 months postpartum and (b) to compare changes by context (Israel vs. UK) and maternal body mass index (BMI).

Mobile Self-Help Interventions as Augmentation Therapy for Patients with Anorexia Nervosa.

It has been suggested that patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) who are resistant to first-line treatment would benefit from second-level interventions targeting specific features, an adaptive form of intervention. Guided self-help programs administered via mobile technology have the dual focus of instigating behavior change and managing anxiety associated with eating disorders in the moment and in...

Impulsive choice does not predict binge-like eating in rats.

Binge eating disorder is an addiction-like disorder characterized by recurrent, excessive food consumption within discrete periods of time, and it has been linked to increased trait impulsivity. Within impulsivity components, while impulsive action was shown to predict binge-like and addictive-like eating, the role of impulsive choice is instead unknown. The goal of this study was to determine if ...

Streptococcal Infections and Exacerbations in PANDAS: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

The pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS) hypothesis suggests an association between group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS) infections and subsequent onset or exacerbation of neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or tic disorders.

Effects of Psychiatric Disorders on Suicide Attempt: Similarities and Differences Between Older and Younger Adults in a National Cohort Study.

Several common psychiatric disorders are associated with increased risk of suicide attempts, and the strength of these associations may vary between younger and older adults, which may explain age differences in suicide risk. Because psychiatric disorders often co-occur, it remains unclear whether (1) the risk of suicide attempt in older and younger adults is due to specific psychiatric disorders ...

Examining the pattern of new foods and beverages consumed during obesity treatment to inform strategies for self-monitoring intake.

Maintaining dietary self-monitoring during obesity treatment may improve outcomes. As dietary variety is associated with energy intake, understanding the pattern of when new foods and beverages are consumed may assist with identifying when self-monitoring should occur. This study examined dietary variety (total number of differing foods and beverages consumed) from the first 40 days of self-monito...

Transient Episode of Alice in Wonderland Syndrome after Ventriculoatrial Shunt Revision.

Visual misperceptions as a result of neurosurgical disorders are well documented. Alice in Wonderland Syndrome (AWS) is typically reported in neurological and psychiatric disorders. We present a patient who developed symptoms of AWS post-operatively.

Changes in levels of cortical metabotropic glutamate 2 receptors with gender and suicide but not psychiatric diagnoses.

We previously reported that, compared to controls, there are lower levels of [H]LY341495 binding to metabotropic 2/3 receptors (GRM2/3) in Brodmann's area (BA) 24, but not 17 or 46, from subjects with major depressive disorders (MDD) but not bipolar disorders (BD) or schizophrenia. To be able to better interpret these data we have now measured levels of GRM2 in two of these cortical regions.

Childhood trauma, dissociation, and the internal eating disorder 'voice'.

Many individuals diagnosed with eating disorders describe their disorder as being represented by an internal 'voice'. In line with cognitive models of voice-hearing, previous research has identified associations between voice appraisals and eating psychopathology in anorexia nervosa. Whether these findings generalise to other eating disorder subtypes remains unknown. The aetiology of the internal ...

Binge drinking in adolescence predicts an atypical cortisol stress response in young adulthood.

Adolescence is a sensitive developmental period in which substance use can exert long-term effects on important biological systems. Emerging cross-sectional research indicates that problematic alcohol consumption may be associated with dysregulated neuroendocrine system functioning. The current study evaluated the prospective effects of binge drinking in adolescence on cortisol stress reactivity i...

Dehumanization of psychiatric patients: Experimental and clinical implications in severe alcohol-use disorders.

Dehumanization, defined as the denial of one's membership to humanity, is a process repeatedly reported in extreme contexts (e.g., genocides) but also in everyday life interactions. Some antecedents of dehumanizing experiences (e.g., social exclusion, negative stereotypes) have been reported among patients presenting psychiatric disorders, but dehumanization's experience remains completely unexplo...

Diagnosis and Therapy of Internet Addiction.

Internet dependence, especially online computer games, social networks and online pornography, is increasingly understood as a behavioral addiction. Addiction criteria, as used in the diagnosis of substance-related addiction disorders, have also proven effective in these cases. Prevalence estimates for Germany assume a frequency of around 1%, although the proportion in younger populations is alrea...

The Association of Dietary Quality Indices and Cancer Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Cohort Studies.

This study aimed to systematically review and do a meta-analysis on available evidence on the association of diet quality indices with cancer mortality. We searched for relevant papers published up to August 2017 through Web of science, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Prospective cohort studies examined the association of any dietary quality indices with cancer mortality were included....

The influence of feeding behaviour on growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics of growing pigs.

This study investigated the effect of the feeding behaviour on growth performance, and carcass and meat characteristics of 96 barrows fed ad libitum or restrictively with high or low amino acids (AA) diets according to a 2 × 2 factorial design. The feeding behaviour traits were measured with automated feeders. From 86 kg BW, half of the pigs were given feeds with high indispensable (AA) contents,...

Autism spectrum disorder and food neophobia: clinical and subclinical links.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been linked with eating- and feeding-related atypicalities, including food neophobia (FN) (refusal to try unfamiliar foods), since its earliest description. Nevertheless, whether associations between ASD traits and FN extend subclinically into the broader population of children and their potential additive health impacts remains unexplored.

Leptin Levels in the Synovial Fluid of Patients With Temporomandibular Disorders.

This study was conducted to measure concentrations of leptin and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the synovial fluid (SF) of 38 patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and 7 healthy controls and to analyze the correlation between leptin and IL-6.

Hippocampal deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders.

Neurodevelopmental disorders result from impaired development or maturation of the central nervous system. Both genetic and environmental factors can contribute to the pathogenesis of these disorders; however, the exact causes are frequently complex and unclear. Individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders may have deficits with diverse manifestations, including challenges with sensory function, ...

Development and validation of a virtual agent to screen tobacco and alcohol use disorders.

Substance use disorders are under-detected and not systematically diagnosed or screened for by primary care. In this study, we present the acceptability and validity of an Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) designed to screen tobacco and alcohol use disorder, in individuals who did not seek medical help for these disorders.

Characterizing emotional overeating among patients with and without binge-eating disorder in primary care.

Emotional overeating and loss-of-control eating are associated with poorer weight-related and psychiatric outcomes, yet our understanding of the relationship between these variables is limited, particularly among individuals in primary care. This study examined the frequency of emotional overeating and relationship with loss-of-control eating among patients with and without binge-eating disorder (...

Importance of Psychiatric Outpatient Clinics in Primary Care of Somatic Disorders.

General practitioners are mainly responsible for primary health care. Patients with mental disorders, in particular patients with complex or multiple needs, use these services infrequently in case of somatic complaints. Psychiatric outpatient clinics have to deal with these patients and have perhaps an additional role in diagnosing and treating somatic co-morbidities. This should be evaluated.

Curtailing the communicability of psychiatric disorders.

Although psychiatric disorders are classified as non-communicable diseases, we believe this classification is too rigid and limiting. We present evidence of the communicability of psychiatric disorders through three major pathways: infectious and ecological, familial, and sociocultural communicability. Successful strategies developed to control the spread of communicable infectious diseases are re...

Binge drinking and frequent or heavy drinking among adolescents: prevalence and associated factors.

To analyze the sociodemographic, school, and family factors associated with the patterns of binge drinking and frequent or heavy drinking among adolescents.

Minimum wages and public health: A literature review.

We evaluate evidence for the effectiveness of raising minimum wages on various measures of public health within the US, Canada, the UK, and Europe. We search four scientific websites from the inception of the research through May 20, 2018. We find great variety (20+) in measured outcomes among the 33 studies that pass our initial screening. We establish quality standards in a second screening resu...

Whole-exome sequencing for the genetic diagnosis of congenital red blood cell membrane disorders in Taiwan.

Congenital hemolytic anemia caused by red blood cell (RBC) membrane defects is a heterogeneous group of disorders. The present study aimed to search the causative gene mutations in patients with RBC membrane disorders in Taiwan.

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