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Eating Disorders Research

02:20 EST 18th January 2019 | BioPortfolio

Sleep Duration Differentially Affects Brain Activation in Response to Food Images in Adolescents with Overweight/Obesity Compared to Adolescents with Normal Weight.

Sleep is an important behavior that affects appetite and eating in adolescents. Our study examined food-related neural activation in brain regions associated with food reward and inhibition in adolescents under sleep-restricted and well-rested conditions.

Altered R-spondin 1/CART neurocircuit in the hypothalamus contributes to hyperphagia in diabetes.

Hyperphagia is common in diabetes and may worsen hyperglycemia and diabetic complications. The responsible mechanisms are not well understood. The hypothalamus is a key center for the control of appetite and energy homeostasis. The ventromedial nucleus (VMH) and arcuate nucleus (ARC) are two critical nuclei involved in these processes. We have reported that R-spondin 1 (Rspo1) and its receptor LGR...

Screening for Personality Disorders: A Three-Item Screener From the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-3).

To encourage screening for personality disorders (PDs), we developed (in previous work) self-report scales for PDs using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP). The combined score from three of the scales-inter-personal sensitivity, interpersonal ambivalence, and aggression-requiring 15 items (IIP-15) did the best job of distinguishing between respondents with any versus no PD. The goals fo...

An Emotional Neglect-Personality Disorder Approach: Quantifying a Dimensional Transdiagnostic Model of Trauma-Related and Personality Disorders.

Are personality disorders (PDs) associated with emotional neglect? Draijer (2003) developed a dimensional model of trauma-related disorders and PD. The first dimension consists of the severity of the trauma endured. The second dimension consists of emotional neglect, which is assumed to be related primarily to personality pathology. In this article, we investigate whether an association between re...

A Meta-Structural Model of Common Clinical Disorder and Personality Disorder Symptoms.

A large and consistent research literature demonstrates the superiority of dimensional models of mental disorder. Factor analytic research has mapped the latent dimensions underlying separate sets of mental disorders (e.g., emotional disorders), but a common framework-unencumbered by arbitrary historical boundaries between disorder groups-requires additional research. Using empirically derived mea...

"I just want to be skinny.": A content analysis of tweets expressing eating disorder symptoms.

There is increasing concern about online communities that promote eating disorder (ED) behaviors through messages and/or images that encourage a "thin ideal" (i.e., promotion of thinness as attractive) and harmful weight loss/weight control practices. The purpose of this paper is to assess the content of body image and ED-related content on Twitter and provide a deeper understanding of EDs that ma...

Gaining Weight: Insulin-Eating Islet Macrophages.

The role of the immune system in homeostasis of pancreatic β cells in type 2 diabetes mellitus is poorly characterized. In a recent issue of Cell Metabolism, Ying et al. (2018) report that two subpopulations of macrophages expand during obesity to impair β cell function.

Plant-based (vegan) diets for pets: A survey of pet owner attitudes and feeding practices.

People who avoid eating animals tend to share their homes with animal companions, and moral dilemma may arise when they are faced with feeding animal products to their omnivorous dogs and carnivorous cats. One option to alleviate this conflict is to feed pets a diet devoid of animal ingredients-a 'plant-based' or 'vegan' diet. The number of pet owners who avoid animal products, either in their own...

Genetics of movement disorders-rare but important.

Rare genetic movement disorders are a heterogeneous group of diseases. The causes of many of these rare movement disorders could be resolved due to the progress in molecular genetic diagnostics. This led to a better pathophysiological characterization of rare movement disorders and also to the fact that many phenotypical overlaps could be found between different diseases. The classification of g...

Shifting Age of Peak Binge Drinking Prevalence: Historical Changes in Normative Trajectories Among Young Adults Aged 18 to 30.

This study examined the extent to which the developmental pattern of prevalence of binge drinking in the past 2 weeks from ages 18 through 30 has changed across 29 cohorts of U.S. young adults, and whether the changes differed by gender.

High-resolution characterization of the abiotic environment and disturbance regimes on the Great Barrier Reef, 1985-2017.

This data compilation synthesizes 36 static environmental and spatial variables, and temporally explicit modeled estimates of three major disturbances to coral cover on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR): (1) coral bleaching, (2) tropical cyclones, and (3) outbreaks of the coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster cf. solaris. Data are provided on a standardized grid (0.01° × 0.01° ~ 1 ×...

Association Between Autism Spectrum Disorders With or Without Intellectual Disability and Depression in Young Adulthood.

Depression is a frequently occurring mental disorder and may be common in adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but there is a lack of longitudinal population-based studies examining this association. Whether any increased risk of depression in ASD has a shared familial basis and whether it differs by co-occurring intellectual disability is not well known.

Exploring the Role of Family Functioning in the Association Between Frequency of Family Dinners and Dietary Intake Among Adolescents and Young Adults.

Eating meals, particularly dinner, with family members has been associated with improved dietary intake among youths. However, existing studies have not examined how family functioning may moderate or confound this association.

Adulthood and childhood ADHD in patients consulting for obesity is associated with food addiction and binge eating, but not sleep apnea syndrome.

The exact mechanisms underlying the established association between ADHD and obesity remain unclear. Food addiction and binge eating may contribute to this link. We examined for the first time the association between childhood/adult ADHD and food addiction/binge eating in patients with obesity, as well as the association between ADHD and sleep apnea syndrome.

"I try, I do": Child feeding practices of motivated, low-income parents reflect trade-offs between psychosocial and nutrition goals.

Although there is increased focus on behavior change programs targeting parents to promote healthy child feeding, success of these programs has been limited. To close this gap, we sought to understand parents' goals for child feeding and their motivations, abilities, and contextual environment that challenged or enabled goal achievement, with a focus on parents' own childhood food experiences. We ...

Interleukin (IL)-8 polymorphisms and risk of prostate disorders.

Prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) as two prevalent age-related disorders in male have some shared genetic and immunological underlying mechanisms. However, researchers have aimed at identification of specific biomarkers with the ability to differentiate between these disorders. In the present study, we genotyped the rs4073, rs2227306 and rs1126647 single nucleotide polymo...

Desired weight and treatment outcome among adolescents in a novel family-based partial hospitalization program.

The purpose of the current study was to investigate desired weight percentage and weight difference percentage and their association with treatment outcome in a novel family-based partial hospitalization program. Twenty-six adolescents with anorexia nervosa or subthreshold anorexia nervosa between the ages of 12 and 19 completed the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) at intake and upon completion f...

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and the risk of anxiety disorders in adolescence: Findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

The effect of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) on offspring anxiety disorders in adolescence is not yet known. This study aims to examine the association between HDP and offspring anxiety disorders at age 15 years.

Anti-HSV-2 antibody in patients with MS and NMO.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system. There is growing evidence that viruses may play a causal role in these diseases. Human herpes viruses have been of special attention since their DNA have been detected in many of MS patients' samples. Human herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a member of this family which has not been in...

Estimated exposure to mercury from fish consumption among women anglers of childbearing age in the Great Lakes region.

Women of childbearing age (WCBA) are advised by state, tribal, and federal agencies to limit their consumption of certain fish, in part, because of concerns about the ingestion of methylmercury and its impact on the development of fetuses. We studied the fish-eating habits of WCBA who had a fishing license and lived near the Great Lakes, where mercury in locally-caught fish is a concern, as these ...

Willingness to eat bread with health benefits: habits, taste and health in bread choice.

The association between the perceived importance of taste and health benefits and bread-eating habits is still not well recognized referring to products with the improved health value, in particular when it comes to the character of the health modification applied in the food product. In many populations, the crucial issue is to decrease the intake of salt and to increase the intake of fibre in th...

Infectious and Other Complications of Immunobiologic Agents.

Individuals with HIV infection are living longer, and are at risk of autoimmune disorders and cancers associated with aging. Many of these conditions are treated with immunobiologic agents that affect immune function and may increase risk of opportunistic infections (OIs) and other immune disorders in individuals with HIV infection. For example, tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors, used to trea...

Inactivating PTH/PTHrP Signaling Disorders.

Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP), pseudo-PHP, acrodysostosis, and progressive osseous heteroplasia are heterogeneous disorders characterized by physical findings, differently associated in each subtype, including short bones, short stature, a stocky build, ectopic ossifications (features associated with Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy), as well as laboratory abnormalities consistent with hormon...

When compared to comparator treatment, specialist interventions for anorexia nervosa are more effective in reducing weight-based symptoms, but not psychological symptoms.

Chromogranin A: its known and possible roles in obstetrics and gynecology.

Chromogranin A (CgA) is a prohormone initially extracted from the adrenal medulla, however, increased quantities of CgA are secreted by a wide array of human tissues in the course of a variety of disorders. This protein exhibits a number of interesting endocrine and non-endocrine functions. Here we briefly review the possible involvements of CgA in the areas covered by obstetrics and gynecology. O...

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