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Endocrinology Research

08:28 EDT 24th May 2018 | BioPortfolio

Lateral hypothalamic orexin glucose-inhibited neurons may regulate reward-based feeding by modulating glutamate transmission in the ventral tegmental area.

Glucose inhibits ∼60% of lateral hypothalamic (LH) orexin neurons. Fasting increases the activation of LH orexin glucose-inhibited (GI) neurons in low glucose. Increases in spontaneous glutamate excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) onto putative VTA DA neurons in low glucose are orexin dependent (Sheng et al., 2014). VTA DA neurons modulate reward-based feeding (Aston-Jones et al., 2010). W...

Anti-allergy and anti-tussive activity of Clitoria ternatea L. in experimental animals.

Clitoria ternatea flower is traditionally used in the treatment of respiratory disorders including bronchitis and is one of the ingredients in different Ayurvedic preparations that are used in respiratory disorders. However, till date there is no scientific report on the anti-asthmatic activity of this flower.

Developing neurites from mouse basal forebrain gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons use Sonic hedgehog to modulate their growth.

Hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are required for fertility in all mammalian species studied to date. GnRH neuron cell bodies reside in the basal forebrain, and most extend long neurites in the caudal direction to terminate at the median eminence (ME), the site of hormone secretion. Using in vitro neurite growth assays, histological methods, and genetic deletion strategie...

Dehydroepiandrosterone: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic implications in osteoarthritis.

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a 19-carbon steroid hormone primarily synthesized in the adrenal gland, exerts a chondroprotective effect against osteoarthritis (OA) and has been considered an effective candidate of disease-modifying OA drugs (DMOADs) that slow disease progression. We and others previously demonstrated that DHEA exerted a beneficial effect on osteoarthritic cartilage by positively ...

High-fructose diet during adolescent development increases neuroinflammation and depressive-like behavior without exacerbating outcomes after stroke.

Diseases, disorders, and insults of aging are frequently studied in otherwise healthy animal models despite rampant co-morbidities and exposures among the human population. Stressor exposures can increase neuroinflammation and augment the inflammatory response following a challenge. The impact of dietary exposure on baseline neural function and behavior has gained attention; in particular, a diet ...

The association of panic and hyperventilation with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizures (PNES) are events that appear epileptic but are instead thought to have a psychological origin. Increased rates of several psychiatric disorders have been reported in PNES, including anxiety and panic disorders. Some theories suggest panic and/or hyperventilation have aetiological roles in PNES, though these remain unproven.

Prolonged performance-related neuroendocrine activation and perseverative cognition in low- and high-anxious university music students.

Music performances are social-evaluative situations that can elicit marked short-term neuroendocrine activation and anxious thoughts especially in musicians suffering from music performance anxiety (MPA). The temporal patterns of neuroendocrine activity and concert-related worry and rumination (perseverative cognition, PC) days before and after a concert in low- and high-anxious musicians are unkn...

Long term outcomes of acute and transient psychotic disorders: The missed opportunity of preventive interventions.

Acute and transient psychotic disorders (ATPD) are characterized by an acute onset and a remitting course, and overlap with subgroups of the clinical high-risk state for psychosis. The long-term course and outcomes of ATPD are not completely clear.

Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposures and thyroid hormones in children at age 3 years.

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) reduce serum thyroid hormone concentrations in animal studies, but few studies have examined the impact of early-life PBDE exposures on thyroid hormone disruption in childhood.

Repeated superovulation increases the risk of osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases by accelerating ovarian aging in mice.

Superovulation procedures and assisted reproductive technologies have been widely used to treat couples who have infertility problems. Although generally safe, the superovulation procedures are associated with a series of complications, such as ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome, thromboembolism, and adnexal torsion. The role of long-term repeated superovulation in ovarian aging and especially in ...

Structure-Function Relationships in Endocrinology.

The effects of leptin on plasma concentrations of prolactin, growth hormone, and melatonin vary depending on the stage of pregnancy in sheep.

The effects of hyperleptinemia and leptin resistance during gestation are unclear. Leptin, an important neuroendocrine regulator, has anorexic effects, but its interactions with other metabolic hormones during pregnancy are unclear. We examined potential roles of leptin in regulating prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH) and melatonin plasma concentrations during pregnancy in Polish Longwool ewes. ...

Gastric Emptying and the Personalized Management of Type 1 Diabetes.

What is the optimal systemic treatment of men with metastatic, hormone-naive prostate cancer? A STOPCAP systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Our prior Systemic Treatment Options for Cancer of the Prostate systematic reviews showed improved survival for men with metastatic hormone-naive prostate cancer when abiraterone acetate plus prednisolone/prednisone (AAP) or docetaxel (Doc), but not zoledronic acid (ZA), were added to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). Trial evidence also suggests a benefit of combining celecoxib (Cel) with ZA an...

Reproductive Hormones and Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in Midlife Women.

Reproductive hormones are understood to be important to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women. However, standard estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) assays lack sensitivity at the levels of postmenopausal women.

Contribution of mental and physical disorders to disability in military personnel.

Combat operations in Southwest Asia have exposed millions of military personnel to risk of mental disorders and physical injuries, including traumatic brain injury (TBI). The contribution of specific disorders to disability is, however, uncertain.

Need For Long-Term Care in Children is Increasingly Caused by Disorders of Psychological Development. Changes in the Care Causing Diagnoses According to German Social Code (SGB XI) Between 2009-2014.

There is an ongoing discussion on the increasing number of children with mental and developmental disorders, with some even needing long-term care according to the German Social Code XI. This study was performed to identify the main diagnoses justifying such care in children and to analyse their prevalence over time.

Acute pancreatitis secondary to oral contraceptive-induced hypertriglyceridemia: a case report.

Hypertriglyceridemia is the third most common cause of acute pancreatitis. Among the causes that lead to secondary hypertriglyceridemia, the use of contraceptive agents is the main reason to be assessed in young women. We report a case of a 31-year-old woman who had suffered two acute pancreatitis episodes secondary to hypertriglyceridemia. In the investigation, the previous medical team indicated...

Mineral and bone disorders in chronic heart failure.

In many patients, chronic heart failure (CHF) is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Virtually all patients with terminal CKD and many patients with early CKD display various disorders of mineral and bone metabolism (MBM) related with all-cause mortality and high risk of cardiovascular complications. This review addressed disorders of mineral and bone metabolism in patients with CHF, inc...

Putative Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Agonist Therapy and Dementia: An Application of Medicare Hospitalization Claims Data.

Estrogen and hormone replacement therapies to reduce Alzheimer's disease (AD) have yielded conflicting results. However, this study proposes that the well-characterized increase in serum gonadotropins following menopause or andropause are accountable for the increased risk of developing AD among the elderly population.

Effectiveness of Probiotics in Children With Functional Abdominal Pain Disorders and Functional Constipation: A Systematic Review.

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotics on functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPD) and functional constipation (FC).

Phenylalanine and Tryptophan stimulate gastrin and somatostatin secretion and H-K-ATPase activity in pigs through calcium-sensing receptor.

In rodents and humans, aromatic amino acids increase gut hormone secretion and H-K-ATPase activity by modulating calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). However, the role of CaSR and its related signaling molecules in amino acid-induced gut hormone secretion in swine has not been investigated. Here, we examined whether a CaSR-dependent pathway modulated gastrin and somatostatin (SS) secretion and H-K-ATP...

Different regulation of cortisol and corticosterone in the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum: responses to dexamethasone, angiotensin II, potassium, and diet.

When harmful environmental stimuli occur, glucocorticoids (GCs), cortisol and corticosterone are currently used to evaluate stress status in vertebrates, since their secretions are primarily associated to an increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. To advance in our comprehension about GCs regulation, we evaluated the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum to assess corti...

Electrodermal reactivity to emotional stimuli in healthy subjects and patients with disorders of consciousness.

After a coma, one major challenge is the detection of awareness in patients with disorders of consciousness. In some patients, the only manifestation indicative of awareness is an appropriate emotional response. Preferred music is a powerful medium to elicit emotions and auto-biographical memory. Furthermore, music has been shown to improve cognitive functions both in healthy subjects and patients...

The role of monoamines in the development of Alzheimer's disease and neuroprotective effect of a proline rich polypeptide.

We have analyzed the alterations in the brain monoaminergic system using the rat model of AD-like pathology. In addition, we have investigated potential neuroprotective effects of the hypothalamic proline-rich polypeptide (PRP-1).

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