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Endocrinology Research

09:47 EDT 19th August 2018 | BioPortfolio

Synthetic isoflavones and doping: a novel class of aromatase inhibitors?

Anectodical information suggests that flavonoids may be widely used among athletes for their multiple biochemical and pharmacological effects. We have evaluated in vitro the effects of two synthetic isoflavones, methoxyisoflavone and ipriflavone, on the catalytic activity of human aromatase (CYP19), the enzyme catalyzing the conversion of androgens (i.e. testosterone or androstenedione) to estroge...

Gestational chronodisruption leads to persistent changes in the rat fetal and adult adrenal clock and function.

Light at night is essential to a 24/7 society, but it has negative consequences on health. Basically, light at night induces an alteration of our biological clocks, known as chronodisruption also during pregnancy. Here we explored the developmental impact of gestational chronodisruption (chronic photoperiod shift -CPS-) on adult and fetal adrenal biorhythms and function. We found that gestational ...

Endocrine Deficiency as a Function of Radiation Dose to the Hypothalamus and Pituitary in Pediatric and Young Adult Patients With Brain Tumors.

Purpose There are sparse data defining the dose response of radiation therapy (RT) to the hypothalamus and pituitary in pediatric and young adult patients with brain tumors. We examined the correlation between RT dose to these structures and development of endocrine dysfunction in this population. Materials and Methods Dosimetric and clinical data were collected from children and young adults (< 2...

Traumatic brain injury and stroke: does recovery differ?

Traumatic brain injury and stroke often lead to cognitive, neurological and psychological disorders, which can result in many difficulties. Despite the existence of various disorders, improving cognitive capacities may be possible for these two pathologies.

Potential application of testosterone replacement therapy as treatment for obesity and type 2 diabetes in men.

Sedentary lifestyle and over-nutrition are the main causes of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the same causes are major triggers of hypogonadism. Many T2D patients show low testosterone levels while hypogonadal men seem to be prone to become diabetic. Testosterone plays a major role in the regulation of muscle mass, adipose tissue, inflammation and insulin sensitivity and is therefore ...

The opioid system in stress-induced memory disorders: From basic mechanisms to clinical implications in posttraumatic stress disorder and Alzheimer's disease.

Cognitive and emotional impairment are a serious consequence of stress exposure and are core features of neurological and psychiatric conditions that involve memory disorders. Indeed, acute and chronic stress are high-risk factors for the onset of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), two devastating brain disorders associated with memory dysfunction. Besides the sympa...

Prenatal maternal anxiety and children's brain structure and function: A systematic review of neuroimaging studies.

Maternal anxiety disorders are common during pregnancy and postpartum, and are associated with increased behaviour problems and risk of mental health difficulties in children. Understanding alterations in brain structure and function associated with maternal anxiety may help elucidate potential mechanisms via which high maternal anxiety could affect children.

Metabolomics changes in patients with PAPP-A2 deficiency in response to rhIGF1 treatment.

Mutations in the pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 (PAPP-A2) gene have recently been shown to cause postnatal growth failure in two prepubertal patients from a non-consanguineous Spanish family due to the resulting decrease in IGF1 bioavailability. Although a specific pharmacological treatment of this entity is yet to be established, both children received progressive subcutaneous doses (40 t...

Giant adrenal cyst.

Adrenal cysts are a rare entity which makes their treatment somewhat tough. Discovered in a fortuitous way or in the course of explorations for very aspecific symptoms, it is necessary to decide on a case-by-case basis, and after a careful clinical examination, whether the lesion is to be treated through surgery or if a follow-up iconography is sufficient. Three main parameters will influence this...

Do emotional responses to food images differ within different types of eating disorders?

To investigate emotional responses to food images in women with eating disorders (EDs) and healthy controls (HCs); and in underweight individuals post weight-restoration.

Activation of Nrf2 in the liver is associated with stress resistance mediated by suppression of the growth hormone-regulated STAT5b transcription factor.

The transcription factor Nrf2 (encoded by Nfe2l2) induces expression of numerous detoxifying and antioxidant genes in response to oxidative stress. The cytoplasmic protein Keap1 interacts with and represses Nrf2 function. Computational approaches were developed to identify factors that modulate Nrf2 in a mouse liver gene expression compendium. Forty-eight Nrf2 biomarker genes were identified using...

The prognostic value of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level post-lobectomy in low- and intermediate-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma.

This study was undertaken to determine the optimal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) value associated with structural recurrence in patients with low-risk or intermediate-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) who underwent thyroid lobectomy.

Demonstration of Infectious Transgression through the Skull Base Occurring 9 years after Pituitary Adenoma Resection.

Sellar infections represent less than 1% of all sellar lesions and can be life-threatening. These infections occur de novo in up to 70% of patients, or can less commonly develop after surgical treatment of another primary lesion, such as a pituitary adenoma.

HTRA2 Defect: A Recognizable Inborn Error of Metabolism with 3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria as Discriminating Feature Characterized by Neonatal Movement Disorder and Epilepsy-Report of 11 Patients.

Neonatal-onset movement disorders, especially in combination with seizures, are rare and often related to mitochondrial disorders. 3-methylglutaconic aciduria (3-MGA-uria) is a marker for mitochondrial dysfunction. In particular, consistently elevated urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid is the hallmark of a small but growing group of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) due to defective phos...

Generation of Pancreatic β-cells From iPSCs and their Potential for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Replacement Therapy and Modelling.

Diabetes type 1 (T1D) is a common autoimmune disease characterized by permanent destruction of the insulin-secreting β-cells in pancreatic islets, resulting in a deficiency of the glucose-lowering hormone insulin and persisting high blood glucose levels. Insulin has to be replaced by regular subcutaneous injections, and blood glucose level must be monitored due to the risk of hyperglycemia. Recen...

The Neurobiological Basis of Sleep and Sleep Disorders.

The functions of sleep remain a mystery. Yet they must be important since sleep is highly conserved, and its chronic disruption is associated with various metabolic, psychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders. This review will cover our evolving understanding of the mechanisms by which sleep is controlled and the complex relationship between sleep and disease states.

Characterization of communication disorders according to the categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth (ICF-CY).

Characterize the performance of outpatients regarding aspects of communication disorders according to the categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY).

A lower energetic, protein and uncooked cornstarch intake is associated with a more severe outcome in glycogen storage disease type III: an observational study of 50 patients.

Growth Hormone Treatment in Children Born Small for Gestational Age (SGA).

Greater Lifetime Stress Exposure Predicts Blunted Cortisol but Heightened DHEA Responses to Acute Stress.

Although prior research has examined how early adversity and chronic stress exposure relate to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to acute stress, to date, no studies have examined how stressors occurring over the entire lifespan predict such responses. To address this issue, we recruited 61 healthy young adults and measured their exposure to 55 different types of acute life event...

Early embryonic modification of maternal hormones differs systematically among embryos of different laying order: a study in birds.

Vertebrate embryos are exposed to maternal hormones that can profoundly affect their later phenotype. Although it is known that the embryo can metabolize these maternal hormones, the metabolic outcomes, their quantitative dynamics and timing are poorly understood. Moreover, it is unknown whether embryos can adjust their metabolic activity to, for example, hormones or other maternal signals. We stu...

Fetal Goitrous Hypothyroidism and Polyhydramnios in a Patient with Compound Heterozygous DUOXA2 Mutations.

Fetal goiter is only rarely observed in pregnant women without autoimmune thyroid disorders, and there is no epidemiological data on its pathophysiology. Dual oxidase maturation factor 2 (DUOXA2), together with dual oxidase 2, serves pivotal roles in thyroid hormone biosynthesis. To date, all reported patients with DUOXA2 mutations were diagnosed postnatally through newborn screening for congenita...

Effect of Growth Hormone Therapy on Height Velocity in Korean Children with Idiopathic Short Stature: A Phase III Randomised Controlled Trial.

The SYNERGY (Saizen® for Your New Life and Brighter Tomorrow without Growth Deficiency) study is the first randomised multi-centre, open-label study to assess the short-term efficacy and safety of this recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH) preparation for prepubertal children with idiopathic short stature in South Korea.

Cortisol reactivity and weight gain among adolescents who vary in prenatal drug exposure.

Low inhibitory control is linked with weight gain among youth. Inhibitory problems are associated with disruption to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis cortisol response. Increased cortisol predicts appetite and weight gain (though may be gender specific). This study hypothesized that cortisol reactivity explains the association between inhibition and weight gain while considering the moderat...

MULTI-SYSTEM SARCOIDOSIS CAUSING PANHYPOPITUITARISM: RAPID IMPROVEMENT WITH CORTICOSTEROID THERAPY.

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