Environmental Health Research

12:42 EST 21st January 2019 | BioPortfolio

LFMM 2: Fast and accurate inference of gene-environment associations in genome-wide studies.

Gene-environment association (GEA) studies are essential to understand the past and ongoing adaptations of organisms to their environment, but those studies are complicated by confounding due to unobserved demographic factors. Although the confounding problem has recently received considerable attention, the proposed approaches do not scale with the high-dimensionality of genomic data. Here, we pr...

Survival of Mycobacterium leprae and association with Acanthamoeba from environmental samples in the inhabitant areas of active leprosy cases: A cross sectional study from endemic pockets of Purulia, West Bengal.

Mycobacterium leprae being an obligate intracellular parasite cannot be cultured in any artificial culture media but it has been shown to reside in wild armadillos in North America. Many studies suggested that M. leprae could be found in the environment and may have a role in continuing transmission of the disease. The exact role of the environment in the transmission dynamics is still speculative...

Silver nanoparticles: An integrated view of green synthesis methods, transformation in the environment, and toxicity.

Nowadays, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most widely used nanoparticles (NPs) in the industry due to their peculiar biocidal features. However, the use of these NPs still runs into limitations mainly because of the low efficiency of environmental friendly synthesis methods and lack of size standardization. When NPs are release in the environment, they can be transformed by oxidation, adsorpt...

Supercritical Water Oxidation of P-aminonaphthalenesulfonic Acid and Enhancement by Fenton Agent.

The introduction of Fe into supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) and the formation of Fenton reagent with oxidant HO form a new environment, namely, supercritical Fenton oxidation (SCFO) environment. P-aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid was selected as the typical organic pollutant to explore the effects of temperature, oxidant multiple, reaction time and Fenton conditions on the TOC removal rate. SCFO...

Receiver performance characteristics of single-photon lidar in a strong background environment.

The detection performance of the single-photon lidar (SPL) receiver is investigated as a function of optical attenuation and superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD) parameters (detection efficiency and dead time) in a strong background environment. With detection theory, it is found that there is optimal attenuation to make detection probability the highest at a given false alarm p...

Use of Deep Learning to Examine the Association of the Built Environment With Prevalence of Neighborhood Adult Obesity.

More than one-third of the adult population in the United States is obese. Obesity has been linked to factors such as genetics, diet, physical activity, and the environment. However, evidence indicating associations between the built environment and obesity has varied across studies and geographical contexts.

Long-term exposure to chemicals in sewage sludge fertilizer alters liver lipid content in females and cancer marker expression in males.

The increased incidence of diseases, including metabolic syndrome and infertility, may be related to exposure to the mixture of chemicals, which are ubiquitous in the modern environment (environmental chemicals, ECs). Xeno-detoxification occurs within the liver which is also the source of many plasma proteins and growth factors and plays an important role in the regulation of homeostasis.

The effect of esterase enzyme on aging dental composites.

We measured the push-out and diametral tensile strength of dental restorative composites following aging under environmental conditions relevant to the oral cavity; air (A), artificial saliva (AS), acidified (50 mM CH COOH, pH = 4.7) artificial saliva (AS + HAc), and AS with esterase enzyme (AS + ENZ). Cylindrical test specimens (6.3 mm diameter by 5.1 mm long) were prepared by placing 0.3 g of na...

Limited effects of the maternal rearing environment on the behaviour and fitness of an insect herbivore and its natural enemy.

The maternal rearing environment can affect offspring fitness or phenotype indirectly via 'maternal effects' and can also influence a mother's behaviour and fecundity directly. However, it remains uncertain how the effects of the maternal rearing environment cascade through multiple trophic levels, such as in plant-insect herbivore-natural enemy interactions. Pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) show ...

Emergence of nanoplastic in the environment and possible impact on human health.

On account of environmental concerns, the fate and adverse effects of plastics have attracted considerable interest in the last years. Recent studies have indicated the potential for fragmentation of plastic materials into nanoparticles, i.e., "nanoplastics" and their possible accumulation in the environment. Nanoparticles can show markedly different chemical and physical properties than their bul...

What is an autonomy supportive environment in geriatric care units? Focus group interviews with healthcare professionals.

Grounded in Self-Determination Theory (SDT), the aim of the study was to define an autonomy supportive environment through the perceptions of different healthcare professionals in three geriatric care units within French public and private hospitals.

Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Affordance in the Home Environment for Motor Development.

This study aimed to translate the Affordance in the Home Environment for Motor Development (AHEMD) scales (3-18 months (IS) and 18-42 month (SR) versions) into Persian and examine its cultural adaptation and psychometric properties.

Exposure to Enriched Environment Restores Altered Passive Avoidance Learning and Ameliorates Hippocampal Injury in Male Albino Wistar Rats Subjected to Chronic Restraint Stress.

The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of exposure to enriched environment (EE) on passive avoidance learning and hippocampal cellular morphology in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress.

Quantitatively evaluate the environmental impact factors of the life expectancy in Tibet, China.

Life expectancy is influenced by both innate human self-factors and external environmental factors. Due to the individual difference of self-factors, the external environment impacts on life expectancy are especially important under the geoscience perspective. However, few studies discussed impacts of various socioeconomic and environmental factors comprehensively, and quantitative analysis of mul...

Pathways between maternal depression, the family environment, and child BMI z scores.

Modifiable aspects of the family environment that contribute to overweight in younger children have been identified, including parental feeding practices, child eating behaviors, and parenting practices related to eating and household routines. Maternal depression influences many of these factors, yet research examining pathways that may link maternal depression through the family environment to c...

H-NS uses an autoinhibitory conformational switch for environment-controlled gene silencing.

As an environment-dependent pleiotropic gene regulator in Gram-negative bacteria, the H-NS protein is crucial for adaptation and toxicity control of human pathogens such as Salmonella, Vibrio cholerae or enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Changes in temperature affect the capacity of H-NS to form multimers that condense DNA and restrict gene expression. However, the molecular mechanism through w...

The On-Off chiral mesoporous silica nanoparticles for delivering achiral drug in chiral environment.

In the current stage, the On-Off mechanism of chiral mesoporous silica nanoparticles (CMSN) for delivering achiral drug in chiral environment has rarely been reported. Herein, On-Off chiral mesoporous silica nanoparticles (On-Off-D-CMSN and On-Off-L-CMSN) were successfully synthesized and its particular contribution in delivering achiral drug indometacin (IMC) in chiral environment was mainly stud...

Physicochemical parameters and phytoplankton as indicators of the aquatic environment in karstic springs of South China.

As the concentrated discharge outlet of an aquifer or groundwater system, a karst spring is partly independent from the aquifer, due to its formation of a pool or lake after outcropping onto the surface. Understanding how to evaluate the unique and sensitive environment of the karst spring is essential for water resource protection. Five karst springs in South China were investigated by analyzing ...

Corrigendum to: "Urinary phthalate metabolite and bisphenol A associations with ultrasound and delivery indices of fetal growth" Environment International 94 (2016) 531-537.

Corrigendum to "Thyroid hormone parameters during pregnancy in relation to urinary bisphenol A concentrations: A repeated measures study" Environment International 104 (2017) 33-40.

Corrigendum to "Environmental phenol associations with ultrasound and delivery measures of fetal growth" Environment International 112 (2018) 243-250.

What features of the built environment matter most for mobility? Using wearable sensors to capture real-time outdoor environment demand on gait performance.

A growing body of research has demonstrated relationships between built environment characteristics and outdoor mobility. However, most of this work has relied on composite scores of the built environment.

Quantitative Evaluation of the Effect of the Hydrophobicity of the Environment Surrounding Brønsted Acid Sites on Their Catalytic Activity for the Hydrolysis of Organic Molecules.

Sulfo-functionalized siloxane gels with a variety of surface hydrophobicities were fabricated to elucidate the effect of the environment surrounding the Brønsted acid site on their catalytic activity for the hydrolysis of organic molecules. A detailed structural analysis of these siloxane gels by elemental analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier-transformed infrared (FT-IR) and 29Si M...

Moderating effects of family environment on overweight/obese adolescents' dietary behaviours.

The familial environment can influence adolescents' risk for obesity. However, we do not fully understand the mechanisms through which parents can influence overweight/obese adolescents' dietary behaviours, specifically whether parenting practices (e.g., rules or routines) and/or their own dietary behaviours are associated with their overweight/obese adolescent's dietary quality.

Non-nutritive artificial sweeteners as an emerging contaminant in environment: A global review and risks perspectives.

Generally, non-nutritive artificial sweeteners are widely utilized as sugar substitute in various applications. With various applications, non-nutritive artificial sweeteners are now being recognized as emerging contaminants with high water persistence and are chemically stable in environment. Although non-nutritive artificial sweeteners were documented on their occurrence in environment, yet thei...

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