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Epigenetics Research

23:36 EST 17th January 2019 | BioPortfolio

DNA Methylation Markers of Type 2 Diabetes among HIV-Positive and -Negative Male Veterans.

Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation are associated with both HIV infection and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We investigated epigenetic associations with T2DM according to HIV-infection status and assessed interaction effects among 681 male participants of the Veterans Aging Cohort Study. Methylation at previously reported sites, cg1963031 (TXNIP), cg18181703 (SOCS3), and cg09152259 (PROC),...

Epigenetic Basis for the Beneficial Effect of Breastfeeding.

Metal carcinogen exposure induces cancer stem cell-like property through epigenetic reprograming: A novel mechanism of metal carcinogenesis.

Arsenic, cadmium, nickel and hexavalent chromium are among the most common environmental pollutants and potent carcinogens. Chronic exposure to these metals causes various types of cancer in humans, representing a significant environmental health issue. Although under active investigation, the mechanisms of metal carcinogenesis have not been clearly defined. One common feature of these metal carci...

Intracellular HSP70L1 inhibits human dendritic cell maturation by promoting suppressive H3K27me3 and H2AK119Ub1 histone modifications.

Epigenetic regulation has been attracting increasing attention due to its role in cell differentiation and behaviors. However, the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate human dendritic cell (DC) differentiation and development remain poorly understood. Our previous studies show that extracellular heat shock protein 70-like protein (HSP70L1) is a potent adjuvant of Th1 responses via stimulating DCs w...

Neighborhood Environment and DNA Methylation: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease Risk.

Exposure to chronic stress such as living in disadvantaged neighborhoods has been related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Chronic stress may increase the risk for CVD by increasing levels of systemic inflammation (e.g., higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines). Differential DNA methylation of inflammation-related candidate genes is also related to higher risk for CVD. Thus, the purpose of thi...

Epigenetic alterations in amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells derived from normal and fetus-affected gestations: a focus on myogenic and neural differentiations.

Amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs) are autologous to the fetus and represent a potential alternative source for the regenerative medicine and treatment of perinatal disorders. To date, AF-MSCs differentiation capacity to non-mesodermal lineages and epigenetic regulation are still poorly characterized. The present study investigated the differentiation potential of AF-MSCs towa...

Epigenetic regulation of myelination in health and disease.

Myelin is lipid-rich structure that is necessary to avoid leakage of electric signals and to ensure saltatory impulse conduction along axons. Oligodendrocytes in central nervous system (CNS) and Schwann cells in peripheral nervous system (PNS) are responsible for myelin formation. Axonal demyelination after injury or diseases greatly impairs normal nervous system function. Therefore, understanding...

Chemical epigenetics: the impact of chemical- and chemical biology techniques on bromodomain target validation.

Epigenetics is currently the focus of intense research across a broad range of disciplines due to its involvement in a multitude of biological processes and disease states. At the molecular level, epigenetic functions result partly from modification of the nucleobases in DNA and RNA, and/or post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histone proteins. Much evidence has emerged to demonstrate that t...

Genome-wide DNA methylation and transcriptomic profiles in the lifestyle strategies and asexual development of the forest fungal pathogen Heterobasidion parviporum.

Heterobasidion parviporum is the most devastating fungal pathogen of conifer forests in Northern Europe. The fungus has dual life strategies, necrotrophy on living trees and saprotrophy on dead woods. DNA cytosine methylation is an important epigenetic modification in eukaryotic organisms. Our presumption is that the lifestyle transition and asexual development in H. parviporum could be driven by ...

The "nuclear physics" behind genetic and epigenetic control of cell fate.

Periconceptional maternal alcohol consumption leads to behavioural changes in adult and aged offspring and alters the expression of hippocampal genes associated with learning and memory and regulators of the epigenome.

Maternal alcohol consumption throughout pregnancy can result in long term behavioural deficits in offspring. However, less is known about the impact of alcohol during the periconceptional period (PC). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of PC ethanol (PC:EtOH) exposure on long term cognitive function; including memory and anxiety. Rats were exposed to a liquid diet containing ethanol (...

The placenta as a window to the brain: A review on the role of placental markers in prenatal programming of neurodevelopment.

During development, the placenta can be said to be the most important organ, however, the most poorly researched. There is currently a broader understanding of how specific insults during development affect the fetal brain, and also the importance of placental signaling in neurodevelopmental programming. Epigenetic responses to maternal and fetal signals are an obvious candidate for transforming e...

Epigenetic control in skin development, homeostasis and injury repair.

Cell-type and cell-state specific patterns of covalent modifications on DNA and histone tails form global epigenetic profiles that enable spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression. These epigenetic profiles arise from coordinated activities of transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers, which result in cell-type specific outputs in response to dynamic environmental conditions and signaling ...

Moving beyond GWAS and eQTL Analysis to Validated Hits in Chronic Kidney Disease.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple chronic kidney disease (CKD)-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mainly localized to non-coding genomic regions. To understand which genes and which cell types are affected by these genetic variants, compartment-specific transcriptome, genome, and epigenome data were analyzed in an integrative manner in a recent study by...

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Study Mechanisms of Laminopathies: Focus on Epigenetics.

Laminopathies are a group of rare degenerative disorders that manifest with a wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes, including both systemic multi-organ disorders, such as the Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), and tissue-restricted diseases, such as Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy and lipodystrophies, often overlapping. Despite their clinical heterogeneity, whic...

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Women Toward Prenatal Genetic Testing.

We aim to address public knowledge, attitudes, and practices relative to prenatal genetic testing as a starting point for policy development in Jordan.

Simultaneous Targeted Methylation Sequencing (sTM-Seq).

Mapping patterns of DNA methylation throughout the epigenome are critical to our understanding of several important biological and regulatory functions, such as transcriptional regulation, genomic imprinting, and embryonic development. The development and rapid advancement of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have provided clinicians and researchers with accurate and reliable read-outs...

Epigenetic Arginine Methylation in Breast Cancer: emerging therapeutic strategies.

Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and the complexity of breast carcinogenesis is associated with epigenetic modification. There are several major classes of epigenetic enzymes that regulate chromatin activity. This review will focus on the nine mammalian protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), and the dysregulation of PRMT expression and function in breast cancer. This class of enzyme...

Integrative analysis defines distinct prognostic subgroups of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is the second most common primary liver cancer. It is defined by cholangiocytic differentiation and has poor prognosis. Recently, epigenetic processes have been shown to play an important role in cholangiocarcinogenesis. We here performed an integrative analysis on 52 iCCAs using both genetic and epigenetic data with specific focus on DNA methylation componen...

Impact of Epigenetic Regulation on Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

The most common type of head and neck cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), can develop therapeutic resistance that complicates its treatment. The 5-y survival rate for HNSCC remains at ~50%, and improving these outcomes requires a better understanding of the pathogenesis of HNSCC. Studies of HNSCC using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo approaches provide a novel conceptual framewor...

Identification and expression of mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus) histone deacetylase (Hdac) and lysine acetyltransferase (Kat) genes.

During gametogenesis and embryonic development, precise regulation of gene expression, across cell/tissue types and over time, is crucial. In vertebrates, transcription is partly regulated by histone lysine acetylation/deacetylation, an epigenetic mechanism mediated by lysine acetyltransferases (Kat) and histone deacetylases (Hdac). Well characterized in mammals, these enzymes are unknown in fish ...

Bisphenol S induced epigenetic and transcriptional changes in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7.

In recent years, concerns about using Bisphenol A (BPA) in daily consume products and its effects in many chronic human diseases have prompted the removal of BPA. However, the widely used BPA alternatives, including Bisphenol S (BPS), have a high structural similarity with BPA, suggesting that they may have similar biological effects towards human beings. Indeed, BPS was also found to have endocri...

Novel Direct Conversion of Microglia to Neurons.

Direct cell reprogramming, the process by which a somatic cell is converted to another cell type, can potentially circumvent epigenetic changes and proliferative stages resulting from de-differentiation. Recently, Matsuda et al. (Pioneer factor NeuroD1 rearranges transcriptional and epigenetic profiles to execute microglia-neuron conversion; Neuronin in press) demonstrated that expression of trans...

UVA irradiation strengthened an interaction between UBF1/2 proteins and H4K20 di-/tri-methylation.

Repair of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is a very important nuclear process due to the most active transcription of ribosomal genes. Proper repair of rDNA is required for physiological biogenesis of ribosomes. Here, we analyzed the epigenetics of the DNA damage response in a nucleolar compartment, thus in the ribosomal genes studied in nonirradiated and UVA-irradiated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). We...

Metabolic reprogramming in the pathogenesis of glioma: Update.

Cancer is a genetic disease that is currently classified not only by its tissue and cell type of origin but increasingly by its molecular composition. Increasingly, tumor classification and subtyping is being performed based upon the oncogene gains, tumor suppressor losses, and associated epigenetic and transcriptional features. However, cancers, including brain tumors, are also characterized by p...

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