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Epigenetics Research

03:42 EDT 21st May 2018 | BioPortfolio

Maternal overnutrition programs epigenetic changes in the regulatory regions of hypothalamic Pomc in the offspring of rats.

Maternal overnutrition has been implicated in affecting the offspring by programming metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes, by mechanisms that are not clearly understood. This study aimed to determine the long-term impact of maternal high-fat (HF) diet feeding on epigenetic changes in the offspring's hypothalamic Pomc gene, coding a key factor in the control of energy balance. Further, ...

DNA methylation variant, B-vitamins intake and longitudinal change in body mass index.

Growing evidence has implicated DNA methylation (DNAm) in the regulation of body adiposity; a recent epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) identified a genetic variant determining DNAm at the SREBF1 gene that affected body mass index (BMI).

ZNFX-1 Functions within Perinuclear Nuage to Balance Epigenetic Signals.

Animal cells have a remarkable capacity to adopt durable and heritable gene expression programs or epigenetic states that define the physical properties and diversity of somatic cell types. The maintenance of epigenetic programs depends on poorly understood pathways that prevent gain or loss of inherited signals. In the germline, epigenetic factors are enriched in liquid-like perinuclear condensat...

Some Implications of an Epigenetic-Based Omnigenic Model of Psychiatric Disorders.

Assisted Reproductive Technologies and imprinting disorders: Results of a study from a French congenital malformations registry.

Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) is increasingly used to help infertile couples to have children around the world. A number of studies have been published reporting an increased risk of major malformations in children born following ART, especially an increased incidence of epigenetic diseases (ED). This study aimed to assess the incidence of epigenetic diseases with affected imprinting ge...

Epigenetic regulation of genes involved in the reverse cholesterol transport through interaction with miRNAs.

microRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small non-coding RNA molecules known to regulate target genes at the post-transcriptional level. miRNAs are implicated in the regulation of multiple pathophysiological processes including dyslipidemia, a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. Emerging evidence suggests that miRNAs act as a novel class of epigenetic regulators of high-density lipoproteins cholester...

The Epigenetic Factor KDM2B Regulates EMT and Small GTPases in Colon Tumor Cells.

The epigenetic factor KDM2B is a histone demethylase expressed in various tumors. Recently, we have shown that KDM2B regulates actin cytoskeleton organization, small Rho GTPases signaling, cell-cell adhesion and migration of prostate tumor cells. In the present study, we addressed its role in regulating EMT and small GTPases expression in colon tumor cells.

A Succinate Ether Derivative of Tocotrienol Enhances Dickkopf-1 Gene Expression through Epigenetic Alterations in Malignant Mesothelioma Cells.

Wnt signaling plays an essential role in tumor cell growth, including the development of malignant mesothelioma (MM). Epigenetic silencing of negative Wnt regulators leading to constitutive Wnt signaling has been observed in various cancers and warrants further attention. We have reported that a succinate ether derivative of α-tocotrienol (T3E) has potent cytotoxic effects in MM cells. Thus, in t...

Epigenetics of Subcellular Structure Functioning in the Origin of Risk or Resilience to Comorbidity of Neuropsychiatric and Cardiometabolic Disorders.

Mechanisms controlling mitochondrial function, protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and nuclear processes such as telomere length and DNA repair may be subject to epigenetic cues that relate the genomic expression and environmental exposures in early stages of life. They may also be involved in the comorbid appearance of cardiometabolic (CMD) and neuropsychiatric disorders (NPD) durin...

Investigating the Epigenetic Discrimination of Identical Twins Using Buccal Swabs, Saliva, and Cigarette Butts in the Forensic Setting.

Monozygotic (MZ) twins are typically indistinguishable via forensic DNA profiling. Recently, we demonstrated that epigenetic differentiation of MZ twins is feasible; however, proportions of twin differentially methylated CpG sites (tDMSs) identified in reference-type blood DNA were not replicated in trace-type blood DNA. Here we investigated buccal swabs as typical forensic reference material, and...

Atherosclerosis Is an Epigenetic Disease.

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory and lipid-depository disease that eventually leads to acute cardiovascular events. Emerging evidence supports that epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation, histone modification, and noncoding RNAs play an important role in plaque progression and vulnerability, highlighting the therapeutic potential of epigenetic drugs in cardiovascular therapeutics.

Age prediction of children and adolescents aged 6-17 years: an epigenome-wide analysis of DNA methylation.

The DNA methylation age, a good reflection of human aging process, has been used to predict chronological age of adults and newborns. However, the prediction model for children and adolescents was absent. In this study, we aimed to generate a prediction model of chronological age for children and adolescents aged 6-17 years by using age-specific DNA methylation patterns from 180 Chinese twin indiv...

Placenta DNA Methylation Adaptation to Maternal Glycemic Response in Pregnancy.

Maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy is associated with excess fetal growth and adverse perinatal and developmental outcomes. Placental epigenetic maladaptation may underlie these associations. We performed an epigenome-wide association study (>850,000 CpG sites) of term placentas and prenatal maternal glycemic response 2-hour post oral glucose challenge at 24-30 weeks of gestation among 448 mo...

A Genomic Imprinting Model of Termite Caste Determination: Not Genetic but Epigenetic Inheritance Influences Offspring Caste Fate.

Eusocial insects exhibit the most striking example of phenotypic plasticity. There has been a long controversy over the factors determining caste development of individuals in social insects. Here we demonstrate that parental phenotypes influence the social status of offspring not through genetic inheritance but through genomic imprinting in termites. Our extensive field survey and genetic analysi...

Epigenetic fleas bite the genome in bone health, muscle strength, the gut, heart health and during ketogenesis.

Perinatally acquired HIV infection accelerates epigenetic aging in South African adolescents.

Recent studies demonstrate that infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV) is associated with accelerated aging effects in adults according to a highly accurate epigenetic biomarker of aging known as epigenetic clock. However, it not yet known whether epigenetic age acceleration occurs as early as adolescence in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) youth.

SMYD3 controls a Wnt-responsive epigenetic switch for ASCL2 activation and cancer stem cell maintenance.

Tumor growth is fueled by subset of cells with stem cell properties (Cancer stem cells, CSCs). While persistent activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling confers CSC properties, it remains unclear how epigenetic modifications regulate Wnt target genes to dictate their self-renewal. Here, we report a novel Wnt-responsive epigenetic switch for CSC maintenance through activating the stem cell transcript...

Human Adrenal Cortex: Epigenetics and Postnatal Functional Zonation.

The human adrenal cortex, involved in adaptive responses to stress, fluid homeostasis, and secondary sexual characteristics, arises from a tightly regulated development of a zone and cell type-specific secretory pattern. However, the molecular mechanisms governing adrenal zonation, particularly postnatal zona reticularis development, which produce adrenal androgens in a lifetime-specific manner, r...

The Effects of Trauma, with or without PTSD, on the Transgenerational DNA Methylation Alterations in Human Offsprings.

Exposure to psychological trauma is a strong risk factor for several debilitating disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Besides the impact on mental well-being and behavior in the exposed individuals, it has been suggested that psychological trauma can affect the biology of the individuals, and even have biological and behavioral consequences on the offspring of...

Epigenetics of male infertility: An update.

Epigenetic factors play an important role in male infertility though about 60%-65% of the disease is idiopathic and its underlying causes are not yet clear. Many studies have indicated that epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, chromatin remodeling, and non-coding RNAs, may be involved in idiopathic male infertility. Abnormal methylation is associated w...

Adipose tissue inflammation and expression and methylation in colorectal cancer.

Lack of vitamin D (VD) has been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC). VD has anti-inflammatory effects and regulates several cellular pathways by means of its receptor, including epigenetic modifications. Adipose tissue dysfunction has been related to low-grade inflammation, which is related to diseases like cancer. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyv...

Epigenetic upregulation of CXCL12 expression contributes to the acquisition and maintenance of morphine-induced conditioned place preference.

Addiction and rewarding effect is a primary side effect of morphine, which is commonly used to relieve the acute or chronic pain. Several lines of evidence have suggested that inflammation response in the VTA contributes to morphine-induced reward (conditioned place preference, CPP), while the mechanism are poorly understood. The present study showed that repeated morphine conditioning persistentl...

Combination immuno-oncology therapy with immune checkpoint blockers targeting PD-L1, PD-1 or CTLA4 and epigenetic drugs targeting MYC and immune evasion for precision medicine.

Plasma cell differentiation is controlled by multiple cell division-coupled epigenetic programs.

The genomic loci associated with B cell differentiation that are subject to transcriptional and epigenetic regulation in vivo are not well defined, leaving a gap in our understanding of the development of humoral immune responses. Here, using an in vivo T cell independent B cell differentiation model, we define a cellular division-dependent cis-regulatory element road map using ATAC-seq. Chromatin...

Trained immunity as a novel therapeutic strategy.

Recent studies have shown that upon certain vaccinations or infections human innate immune cells can undergo extensive metabolic and epigenetic reprogramming, which results in enhanced immune responses upon heterologous re-infection, a process termed trained immunity. Trained immunity has also been shown to be inappropriately activated in inflammatory diseases. This provides the potential for iden...

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