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Epilepsy Research

11:25 EDT 15th August 2018 | BioPortfolio

The Barnes Maze Task Reveals Specific Impairment of Spatial Learning Strategy in the Intrahippocampal Kainic Acid Model for Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is an acquired form of focal epilepsy, in which patients not only suffer from unprovoked, devastating seizures, but also from severe comorbidities, such as cognitive dysfunction. Correspondingly, several animal models of TLE exhibit memory dysfunction, especially spatial memory. The Morris water maze test is the most commonly used test for assessing spatial learning an...

Deep learning applied to whole-brain connectome to determine seizure control after epilepsy surgery.

We evaluated whether deep learning applied to whole-brain presurgical structural connectomes could be used to predict postoperative seizure outcome more accurately than inference from clinical variables in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE).

A 6-month prospective randomized controlled trial of remotely delivered group format epilepsy self-management versus waitlist control for high-risk people with epilepsy.

Despite advances in care, many people with epilepsy have negative health events (NHEs) such as accidents, emergency department visits, and poor quality of life. "Self-management for people with epilepsy and a history of negative health events" (SMART) is a novel group format epilepsy self-management intervention. A community participatory approach informed the refinement of SMART, which was then t...

Return of individual results in epilepsy genomic research: A view from the field.

Genomic findings are emerging rapidly in 2 large, closely related epilepsy research consortia: the Epilepsy Phenome/Genome Project and Epi4K. Disclosure of individual results to participants in genomic research is increasingly viewed as an ethical obligation, but strategies for return of results were not included in the design of these consortia, raising complexities in establishing criteria for w...

Do Anti-Epileptic Drug modifications after first trimester of pregnancy influence fetal malformation or cognitive outcome?

The management of Women With Epilepsy (WWE) in pregnancy is a challenge that demands balancing the risks of Major Congenital Malformation (MCM) on one hand with adequate seizure control on the other. While most studies have analysed the risks of Anti-Epileptic Drugs (AED) exposure in the first trimester, AED changes during the second and third trimester and their effects on fetal outcome has not b...

Brainstem network disruption: A pathway to sudden unexplained death in epilepsy?

Observations in witnessed Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) suggest that a fatal breakdown of the central autonomic control could play a major role in SUDEP. A previous MR study found volume losses in the mesencephalon in focal epilepsy that were more severe and extended into the lower brainstem in two patients who later died of SUDEP. The aims of this study were to demonstrate an associ...

Distinguishing neurocysticercosis epilepsy from epilepsy of unknown etiology using a minimal serum mass profiling platform.

Neurocysticercosis is associated with epilepsy in pig-raising communities with poor sanitation. Current internationally recognized diagnostic guidelines for neurocysticercosis rely on brain imaging, a technology that is frequently not available or not accessible in areas endemic for neurocysticercosis. Minimally invasive and low-cost aids for diagnosing neurocysticercosis epilepsy could improve tr...

Lithium affects rat hippocampal electrophysiology and epileptic seizures in a dose dependent manner.

Lithium, a classic mood stabilizer, prevents apoptosis-dependent cellular death and has garnered considerable interest as a neuroprotective agent that is efficacious in the treatment of many neurological diseases. However, the effects of lithium in epilepsy remain controversial. We found that different doses of lithium affect epileptic seizure activity and bidirectionally modulate the susceptibili...

"I wonder if I did not mess up….": Shame and resistance among women with epilepsy in Cape Town, South Africa.

Literature shows that there has been more attention paid to epilepsy stigma, with less focus on issues of shame and resistance. This article provides an in-depth understanding of processes of shame and resistance strategies which emerged from the analysis of individual stories of four adult Xhosa -speaking women with epilepsy in an urban Black township in Cape Town, South Africa.

Randomized controlled trials of antiepileptic drugs for the treatment of post-stroke seizures: A systematic review with network meta-analysis.

To determine the best available evidence on the efficacy and tolerability of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) used to treat poststroke seizures and epilepsy.

Effects of low and high doses of acetylsalicylic acid on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity.

The most common headache associated with epilepsy occurs after seizure activity and is called a postictal headache. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of low and high doses acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) on a penicillin-induced experimental epilepsy model.

Perampanel chronic treatment does not induce tolerance and decreases tolerance to clobazam in genetically epilepsy prone rats.

Tolerance to some therapeutic effects of antiepileptic drugs may account for the development of pharmacoresistance in patients with epilepsy. In the present study, following oral acute pretreatment with the new antiepileptic drug perampanel (0.1, 0.3, 1 or 3 mg/kg), we observed that the drug significantly and dose-dependently attenuated the seizure phases (clonus and tonus) of audiogenic seizure...

Therapeutic Use of medicinal cannabis in difficult to manage epilepsy.

Relationship Between Aggravation of Seizures and Methylphenidate Treatment in Subjects with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Epilepsy.

We aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of methylphenidate (MPH), and especially its influence on seizures, in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and epilepsy through a retrospective chart review of subjects treated with MPH in a clinical setting. We also evaluated factors that could affect seizure aggravation during MPH treatment.

Magnesium and calcium reduce severity of spatial memory impairments in kainate mouse model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

Calcium and magnesium are divalent multipotent ions playing a major role in metabolism, excitability and neuroglial plasticity. Because of these multiple properties, their deficits induce complex brain processes leading to acute or even lasting disorders in excitability and neural networks. These ions are usually prescribed in clinical contexts of neuronal hyperexcitability such as preeclampsia an...

Influence of Dose and Antiepileptic Comedication on Lacosamide Serum Concentrations in Epilepsy Patients of Different Ages.

Lacosamide (LCM) is a new antiepileptic drug (AED). The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of LCM dose, body weight, height, gender, age, and concomitant AEDs on LCM trough serum concentrations (at a steady state) in patients with epilepsy.

In vitro and in vivo experimental models employed in the discovery and development of antiepileptic drugs for pharmacoresistant epilepsy.

Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic, recurrent and progressive neurological diseases. In spite of the large number of antiepileptic drugs currently available for the suppression of seizures, about one-third of patients develop drug-resistant epilepsy, even when they are administered the most appropriate treatment available. Thus, nonclinical models can be valuable tools for the elucidation ...

Burden of disease of people with epilepsy during an optimized diagnostic trajectory: costs and quality of life.

Diagnosing epilepsy can be lengthy and stressful, potentially leading to increased use of healthcare resources and a reduction in quality of life.

The novel, catalytic mTORC1/2 inhibitor PQR620 and the PI3K/mTORC1/2 inhibitor PQR530 effectively cross the blood-brain barrier and increase seizure threshold in a mouse model of chronic epilepsy.

The mTOR signaling pathway has emerged as a possible therapeutic target for epilepsy. Clinical trials have shown that mTOR inhibitors such as everolimus reduce seizures in tuberous sclerosis complex patients with intractable epilepsy. Furthermore, accumulating preclinical data suggest that mTOR inhibitors may have anti-seizure or anti-epileptogenic actions in other types of epilepsy. However, the ...

Meta-analysis of perinatal factors associated with epilepsy in tropical countries.

Most people with epilepsy live in tropical countries. Perinatal factors seem to play a significant role in the occurrence of epilepsy. Available data provide different and sometimes contradictory conclusions on the role and the burden of these factors. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of these perinatal factors on the development of epilepsy in tropical countries. The main databases...

Anti-epileptic drugs improved serial 7s scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination in elderly with cognitive impairment and epileptiform discharge on electroencephalography.

As the population ages, epilepsy among elderly people is increasing. Epileptic seizures in the elderly are mostly complex partial seizures without convulsions, so more caution is needed in the diagnosis of epilepsy. If epileptic seizures in the context of memory impairment are overlooked, epilepsy may be misdiagnosed as dementia. However, in older patients with epilepsy, there is a possibility tha...

Dense array EEG estimated the epileptic focus in a patient with epilepsy secondary to tuberous sclerosis complex.

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a leading cause of epilepsy, with seizures affecting almost 80-90% of children. We used the concordance between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dense array electroencephalography (dEEG) findings to detect epileptic focus in a patient with TSC.

Depressive, inflammatory, and metabolic factors associated with cognitive impairment in patients with epilepsy.

The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive function and depressive traits most frequently associated with the clinical assessment of patients with epilepsy and if these clinical parameters are linked to glycolipid levels and inflammatory and apoptotic markers.

Clinical advances in photosensitive epilepsy.

Photosensitive epilepsy is the most common subset of reflex epilepsy in humans. It is characterized by an abnormal electroencephalogram trait known as photoparoxysmal response (PPR) corresponding to ictal symptomology in response to intermittent photic stimulation. Increased exposure to photic stimulation through technological and societal advance has had a significant impact on the incidence and ...

Spontaneous fetal loss in women with epilepsy: prospective data from pregnancy registry in India.

To ascertain the risk of spontaneous fetal loss (SPFL) in women with epilepsy (WWE) on antiepileptic drugs (AED), and explore the association between specific AED usage and risk of SPFL.

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