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Epilepsy Research

11:48 EDT 17th October 2018 | BioPortfolio

Imaging biomarkers of epileptogenecity after traumatic brain injury - Preclinical frontiers.

Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a major neurodegenerative disease accounting for 20% of symptomatic epilepsy cases. A long latent phase offers a potential window for prophylactic treatment strategies to prevent epilepsy onset, provided that the patients at risk can be identified. Some promising imaging biomarker candidates for posttraumatic epileptogenesis have been identified, but more are requir...

Exploring the needs and challenges of parents and their children in childhood epilepsy care: A qualitative study.

Because of the nature of epilepsy, and the unpredictability of seizure recurrence, epilepsy requires long-term treatment with medications. As a consequence, epilepsy has a negative pervasive impact in children with epilepsy (CWE), and their parents. Hence, our aim was to explore the needs and challenges of parents and their CWE. In-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with 15 families (12 mother...

Potential Role of miRNAs as Theranostic Biomarkers of Epilepsy.

Epilepsy includes a group of disorders of the brain characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. Although familial epilepsy has a genetic component and heritability, the etiology of the majority of non-familial epilepsies has no known associated genetic mutations. In epilepsy, recent epigenetic profiles have highlighted a possible role of microRNAs in its pathophysio...

Positive modulation of mGluR5 attenuates seizures and reduces TNF-α macrophages and microglia in the brain in a murine model of virus-induced temporal lobe epilepsy.

Viral encephalitis markedly increases the risk for the development of epilepsy. The Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-induced model of seizures/epilepsy is a murine model of both viral-induced seizures/epilepsy and human Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. The inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α have been shown to play a role in seizure development in the...

Alzheimer's disease and late-onset epilepsy of unknown origin: two faces of beta amyloid pathology.

Although amyloid pathology plays a role in epilepsy, little is known about the relationship between beta amyloid and progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD) among patients with late-onset epilepsy of unknown origin (LOEU). This multicenter, observational, prospective study enrolled 40 consecutive nondemented adults diagnosed with LOEU, together with 43 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. All pa...

Theory of Mind impairment in focal versus generalized epilepsy.

Theory of Mind (ToM) is a critical component of social cognition, and thus, its impairment may adversely affect social functioning and quality of life. Recent evidence has suggested that it is impaired in epilepsy. What is not clear, however, is whether it is related to particular types of epilepsy or other factors. We undertook the present study to explore ToM in patients with focal versus those ...

Automated seizure prediction.

In the past two decades, significant advances have been made on automated electroencephalogram (EEG)-based diagnosis of epilepsy and seizure detection. A number of innovative algorithms have been introduced that can aid in epilepsy diagnosis with a high degree of accuracy. In recent years, the frontiers of computational epilepsy research have moved to seizure prediction, a more challenging problem...

A novel homozygous mutation in SZT2 gene in Saudi family with developmental delay, macrocephaly and epilepsy.

Epileptic encephalopathies are genetically heterogeneous disorders which leads to epilepsy and cause neurological disorders. Seizure threshold 2 (SZT2) gene located on chromosome 1p34.2 encodes protein mainly expressed predominantly in the parietal and frontal cortex and dorsal root ganglia in the brain. Previous studies in mice showed that mutation in this gene can confers low seizure threshold, ...

The anticonvulsant lamotrigine enhances I in layer 2/3 neocortical pyramidal neurons of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy.

Alterations of the hyperpolarization activated nonselective cation current (I) are associated with epileptogenesis. Accordingly, the second-generation antiepileptic drug lamotrigine (LTG) enhances I in rodent hippocampus. We directly evaluated here whether LTG fails to enhance I in neocortical slices from patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. With somatic current clamp recordings we observed t...

Cognitive characteristics of mitochondrial diseases in children.

This retrospective descriptive study was undertaken to further define the intelligence profiles of children with mitochondrial disorders, in the context of seizures and age of symptom onset.

Epilepsy and associated mortality in patients with multiple sclerosis.

We aimed to determine the prevalence of epilepsy in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) at diagnosis and the risk of developing epilepsy after the diagnosis of MS, and the relative risk of mortality associated with epilepsy.

Effects of Carbamazepine on the P-gp and CYP3A Expression Correlated with PXR or NF-κB Activity in the bEnd.3 Cells.

Drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) is present in 20-30% of all patients who develop epilepsy. Growing evidences demonstrated that glutamate released during seizures to increase the brain P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is known to influence the P-gp and cytochrome P450 (CYP) expression. However, the exact molecular mechanism is still unknown. We investigated that the effects of NF...

Subjective and physiological response to emotions in temporal lobe epilepsy and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures.

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are conditions frequently associated with dysfunction in emotional regulation leading to increased risk of affective disorders. This study investigates emotional processing with an objective measure of emotional reactivity in patients with TLE and patients with PNES.

Seizure pathways: A model-based investigation.

We present the results of a model inversion algorithm for electrocorticography (ECoG) data recorded during epileptic seizures. The states and parameters of neural mass models were tracked during a total of over 3000 seizures from twelve patients with focal epilepsy. These models provide an estimate of the effective connectivity within intracortical circuits over the time course of seizures. Observ...

Effects of Metformin on Apoptosis and Alpha Synuclein in Rat Model of Pentylenetetrazole-induced Epilepsy.

To examine the possible neuroprotective and antiepileptic effects of metformin in a rat model of PTZ-induced epilepsy and its possible underlying mechanisms.

CD34 expression in low-grade epilepsy-associated tumors: relationships with clinicopathological features.

To analyze the relationships between CD34 expression and several demographic, clinical and pathological features, in patients with histopathological evidence of low-grade epilepsy-associated tumors (LEATs) who underwent epilepsy surgery.

Long-term seizure outcomes in patients with drug resistant epilepsy.

Despite the availability of a broad range of treatments for epilepsy, a significant proportion of patients have ongoing seizures. This study aims to characterize the drug resistant population and to report long-term outcomes of patients undergoing different types of pharmacological and surgical treatment.

Efficacy of levetiracetam for reducing rolandic discharges in comparison with carbamazepine and valproate sodium in rolandic epilepsy.

The main purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of levetiracetam (LEV) with the older antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for preventing atypical evolution in children with Rolandic epilepsy (RE). Accordingly, the present study compared the efficacy of older AEDs (carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproate sodium (VPA)) with LEV in reducing rolandic discharges (RDs) on interictal electroencephalogram (EE...

A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter trial comparing the efficacy and safety of extended- and immediate-release levetiracetam in people with partial epilepsy.

The aim of this trial was to compare the efficacy and safety of two formulations of levetiracetam in people with partial epilepsy over a 12-week treatment period.

MINDSET: Clinical feasibility of utilizing the revised epilepsy self-management tool for Spanish speaking patients.

This paper describes the expanded English/Spanish version of the Management Information and Decision Support Epilepsy Tool (MINDSET) as well as the methods and findings from a feasibility study conducted from July 2016 through February 2017 with 43 Spanish and English-speaking Hispanic people living with epilepsy (PWE) in Arizona (n = 23) and Texas (n = 20) over two consecutive regular cli...

An Analysis of the Association between Epilepsy-Related Genes and Vertigo in the Polish Population.

Considering the possibility of a common genetic background of vertigo and epilepsy, we genotyped an affected group of individuals with vertigo and an unaffected group, by studying 26 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 14 genes which were previously reported to be of particular importance for epilepsy. Significant differences were found between the patients and the control group (χ2 = 38.3,...

Celebrating 20 years of support to people with epilepsy in Canada.

Incidence of dementia in patients with adult-onset epilepsy of unknown causes.

A new case of SMA phenotype without epilepsy due to biallelic variants in ASAH1.

Ictal Source Locations and Cortico-Thalamic Connectivity in Childhood Absence Epilepsy: Associations with Treatment Response.

Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), the most common pediatric epilepsy syndrome, is usually treated with valproic acid (VPA) and lamotrigine (LTG) in China. This study aimed to investigate the ictal source locations and functional connectivity (FC) networks between the cortices and thalamus that are related to treatment response. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data from 25 patients with CAE were recor...

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