Food Research

22:48 EDT 25th May 2018 | BioPortfolio

Ethnozoological study of traditional medicinal appreciation of animals and their products among the indigenous people of Metema Woreda, North-Western Ethiopia.

Using animals for different purposes goes back to the dawn of mankind. Animals served as a source of food, medicine, and clothing for humans and provided other services. This study was designed to undertake a cross-sectional ethnozoological field survey among the residents of Metema Woreda from November 2015 to May 2016.

Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli: comparison between Etest and a broth dilution method.

Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne gasteroenteritis worldwide. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Campylobacter spp. is not routinely performed by most clinical laboratories. However, the emergence of resistant isolates strengthens the importance of antimicrobial susceptibility testing and the critical need for epidemiologic surveillance. The aim of this study was to compare the...

Understanding the science of portion control and the art of downsizing.

Offering large portions of high-energy-dense (HED) foods increases overall intake in children and adults. This is known as the portion size effect (PSE). It is robust, reliable and enduring. Over time, the PSE may facilitate overeating and ultimately positive energy balance. Therefore, it is important to understand what drives the PSE and what might be done to counter the effects of an environment...

Introduction of New Theory for Hand Hygiene Surveillance: Healthcare Environment Theory.

The purpose of this article is to introduce a theoretical foundation, the healthcare environment theory (HET), tested in a quantitative, cross-sectional, overt observational study measuring the association of demographic variables with consistent hand hygiene compliance of the ICU nurse.

Effect of blueberry extract, carriers, and combinations on the growth rate of probiotic and pathogenic bacteria.

The blueberry is recognised as a source of phenolic compounds that have beneficial effects on human health; however, they possess low bioavailability and can be degraded by gastrointestinal conditions. Encapsulation has been widely used to mitigate these disadvantages; Gum Arabic (GA) and Corn Syrup Solids (CSS) are common carriers used in this technique. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ...

Current evidence in the stability of medicines in dose administration aids: implications for patient safety.

As the elderly population and polypharmacy are increasing, it is predicted that interventions to enhance medication adherence, as dose administration aids (DAA), will grow too. One of the limitations of repackaging medicines into DAA is to assure the stability of medicines, and, therefore, their quality, efficacy and safety. Area covered: This article collects and summarises data of all the stabil...

Nutritional characterisation of Zambian Moringa oleifera: acceptability and safety of short-term daily supplementation in a group of malnourished girls.

In Zambia, chronic malnutrition still is one of the most common problem among children. To fight against malnutrition, the easiest short-term solution could be to combine specific types of food with affordable local plants. A large variety of natural food resources grow in Zambia, such as Moringa oleifera (MO), whose leaves are known for their health benefits, but are not consumed much by local po...

Efficacy and safety of intravenous belimumab in Japanese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a subgroup analysis of a Phase 3 randomized placebo-controlled trial.

To assess the efficacy and safety of intravenous belimumab plus standard systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) therapy (SoC) in Japanese patients with SLE.

Sex differences in the anorexigenic effects of dexfenfluramine and amphetamine in baboons.

The anorexigenic effects of intramuscular d-amphetamine HCl (0.06-0.50 mg/kg) and dexfenfluramine HCl (0.25-2.0 mg/kg) were determined in experimentally naïve baboons. A group of 8 adult male baboons was tested prior to a group of 7 adult female baboons. A 120-min session occurred at 9:00 a.m. during which baboons could respond for food pellets. Drug was given 30 min prior to the 9:00 a.m. mornin...

Asian Americans and materialism: Exploring the phenomenon and its why and when.

Consumer values, including but not limited to materialism, have received much less attention than other topics within research on Asian Americans.

Synergistic Phytochemicals Fail to Protect Against Ovariectomy Induced Bone Loss in Rats.

Menopause induces a loss of bone as a result of estrogen deficiency. Despite pharmaceutical options for the treatment of osteopenia and osteoporosis, many aging women use dietary supplements with estrogenic activity to prevent bone loss and other menopausal-related symptoms. Such supplements are yet to be tested for efficacy against a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medication for meno...

Advancing Child Sexual Abuse Prevention in Schools: An Exploration of the Effectiveness of the Enough! Online Training Program for K-12 Teachers.

Child sexual abuse (CSA) in schools and educator misconduct represents a threat to the safety and well-being of our children. The Enough! Preventing Child Sexual Abuse in My School program is a 1-hour online training course developed to address the problem of sexual misconduct and CSA in K-12 education via the use of two avatars/teachers who are navigating CSA and misconduct in their schools. One ...

Increasing plant diversity with border crops reduces insecticide use and increases crop yield in urban agriculture.

Urban agriculture is making an increasing contribution to food security in large cities around the world. The potential contribution of biodiversity to ecological intensification in urban agricultural systems has not been investigated. We present monitoring data collected from rice fields in 34 community farms in mega-urban Shanghai, China, from 2001 to 2015, and show that the presence of a border...

Interpretation Time Using a Concurrent-Read Computer-Aided Detection System for Automated Breast Ultrasound in Breast Cancer Screening of Women With Dense Breast Tissue.

The purpose of this study was to compare diagnostic accuracy and interpretation time of screening automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) for women with dense breast tissue without and with use of a recently U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved computer-aided detection (CAD) system for concurrent read.

Metrics to Evaluate Quality of Glycemic Control: Comparison of Time in Target, Hypoglycemic, and Hyperglycemic Ranges with "Risk Indices".

We sought to cross validate several metrics for quality of glycemic control, hypoglycemia, and hyperglycemia.

Safety and Efficacy of Outpatient Parotidectomy.

Given the increasing costs of medical care, there has been a shift to outpatient elective surgeries in certain patient populations among all surgical specialties. The goal of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of outpatient parotidectomy with traditional inpatient parotidectomy.

Beef quality labels: A combination of sensory acceptance test, stated willingness to pay, and choice-based conjoint analysis.

Consumer perspectives of beef quality are complex, leading to a market that is increasingly differentiating. Thus, ongoing monitoring and assessment of changes in consumer perspectives is essential to identify changing market conditions. Often only credence and search characteristics are evaluated in consumer studies; therefore the object of the present study is to examine consumer preferences and...

Four novel antibacterial sesquiterpene-α-amino acid quaternary ammonium hybrids from the mycelium of mushroom Stereum hirsutum.

The mushroom Stereum hirsutum is parasitized by Tremella aurantia to form a heterogeneous basidiocarp Jin'er, which has been used as food and folk medicine in Chinese society. In present work, the S. hirsutum was fermented in YMG broth, and four novel mixed terpenes, stereumamides A-D (1-4), which are sesquiterpenes combined with α-amino acids to form quaternary ammonium hybrids, were isolated fr...

Development of photo-modified starch/kefiran/TiO bio-nanocomposite as an environmentally-friendly food packaging material.

This paper reports on an experiment in which starch/kefiran/TiO (SKT)-based bio-nanocomposite films were developed and modified by photo-chemical reaction. In so doing, film-forming solutions were exposed to ultraviolet A (UV-A) for different times (1, 6, and 12 h). The obtained results indicated that increasing UV-A exposure time brought about an increase (≈14.9%) in the tensile strength of b...

Impact of active surveillance and infection control measures on carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacterial colonization and infections in intensive care.

Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CRGNB) infections constitute a global threat for critically ill patients and the outcome of their hospitalization. Early identification of CRGNB through rectal surveillance cultures and routine infection control measures including contact precautions, use of appropriate disinfectants, staff education on cleaning, and hand hygiene may reduce the dissemin...

Portuguese children dietary exposure to multiple mycotoxins - An overview of risk assessment under MYCOMIX project.

Mycotoxins are secondary fungi metabolites that induce acute and chronic toxic effects in humans and animals. Simultaneous contamination of cereal-based products by multiple mycotoxins has been increasingly reported, including in food products usually consumed by children. Although some previous authors assessed the health risk of children exposed to multiple mycotoxins, scarce data are available ...

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Safety of Voriconazole Therapy in Patients with Child-Pugh Class B and C Cirrhosis: A Multicenter Study.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic profile and safety of voriconazole treatment in patients with Child-Pugh class B and C cirrhosis.

Microplastics in mussels sampled from coastal waters and supermarkets in the United Kingdom.

Global contamination of the marine environment by plastic has led to the discovery of microplastics in a range of marine species, including those for human consumption. In this study, the presence of microplastics and other anthropogenic debris in seawater and mussels (Mytilus edulis) from coastal waters of the U.K., as well as supermarket sources, was investigated. These were detected in all samp...

Water footprint characteristic of less developed water-rich regions: Case of Yunnan, China.

Rapid industrialization and urbanization pose pressure on water resources in China. Virtual water trade proves to be an increasingly useful tool in water stress alleviation for water-scarce regions, while bringing opportunities and challenges for less developed water-rich regions. In this study, Yunnan, a typical province in southwest China, was selected as the case study area to explore its poten...

Assessment of Cu sub-lethal toxicity (LC) in the cold-water gorgonian Dentomuricea meteor under a deep-sea mining activity scenario.

Previous aquaria-based experiments have shown dissolution and leaching of metals, especially copper (Cu), from the simulated sediment plumes generated during mining activities resulting in a pronounced increase of Cu contamination in the surrounding seawater. Metals are bioavailable to corals with food, through ingestion (particulate phase) and through tissue-facilitated transport (passive diffusi...

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