Gallbladder Disease Research

20:22 EST 22nd January 2019 | BioPortfolio

Identification of PKD1L1 Gene Variants in Children with the Biliary Atresia Splenic Malformation Syndrome.

Biliary atresia (BA) is the most common cause of end-stage liver disease in children and the primary indication for pediatric liver transplantation, yet underlying etiologies remain unknown. Approximately 10% of infants affected by BA exhibit various laterality defects (heterotaxy) including splenic abnormalities and complex cardiac malformations - a distinctive subgroup commonly referred to as th...

Bile acids increase steroidogenesis in cholemic mice and induce cortisol secretion in adrenocortical H295R cells via S1PR2, ERK and SF-1.

Bile acids are now accepted as central signaling molecules for the regulation of glucose, amino acid, and lipid metabolism. Adrenal gland cortex cells express the bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR), the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor (TGR5), and the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2). We aimed to determine the effects of cholestasis and more specifically of bile acids on ...

Deficiency of both farnesoid X receptor and Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 exacerbated liver fibrosis in mice.

Activation of the nuclear bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) protects against hepatic inflammation and injury, while Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5) promotes adipose tissue browning and energy metabolism. Here, we examined the physiological and metabolic effects of the deficiency of these two bile acid receptors on hepatic metabolism and injury in mice. Fxr/Tgr5 double knocko...

Gallbladder carcinoma. Surgical management of gallblad-der carcinoma. An analysis of 37 cases.

Gallbladder carcinoma is a rare yet very aggressive cancer. In this study we evaluate the presentation, staging, procedures, complications and survival of patients with gallbladder carcinoma.

Modulation of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor by FTY720 contributes in improvement of hepatic encephalopathy induced by bile duct ligation.

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder, which is associated with memory loss and behavioral abnormalities. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that led to hippocampal dysfunction in bile duct ligation (BDL)-induced HE and neuroprotective mechanisms of FTY720 administration were evaluated using whole-cell patch clamp, field-potential recording, western blot, stereology...

Simultaneous treatment of ureteropelvic junction obstruction complicated by renal calculi with robotic laparoscopic surgery and flexible cystoscope.

To present our experience of combining transperitoneal robot-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty (RALP) and concomitant flexible cystoscope lithotomy for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) complicated by renal caliceal stones in the same session.

The nonsteroidal FXR agonist cilofexor (GS-9674) improves markers of cholestasis and liver injury in patients with PSC.

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) represents a major unmet medical need. In a Phase 2 double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we tested the safety and efficacy of cilofexor (formerly GS-9674), a nonsteroidal farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist in non-cirrhotic patients with large duct PSC. Patients were randomized to receive cilofexor 100 mg (n=22), 30 mg (n=20), or placebo (n=10) orally once da...

A Successful Case of Cholangioscope-assisted Extraction of a radiolucent intrahepatic bile duct stent.

We report a case of a 63-year-old man with a history of pancreatic cancer who underwent pylorus-pancreaticoduodenectomy and Child's reconstruction in eight years before, and a radiolucent stent (Atom Medical, Tokyo, Japan) was placed in the choledochojejunostomy then. Following surgery, the patient presented with recurrent cholangitis. Though the mild dilation of bile duct of the anterior lobe, th...

Impact of Tumor Location on Postoperative Outcome of Intraductal Papillary Neoplasm of the Bile Duct.

The concept of intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) has been proposed to be the biliary equivalent of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas. While the classification of IPMNs is based on their location of duct involvement, such classification has not been fully evaluated for IPNBs. The aim of this study is to investigate the value of IPNB classification b...

Site-specific expression of IQGAP1 in human nephrons.

IQGAP1 is a multifunctional, 190-kDa scaffolding protein that plays an important role in the regulation of cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, polarization and cytoskeletal remodeling. IQGAP1 is ubiquitously expressed in human organs and is highly expressed in the kidney. Currently, the site-specific expression of IQGAP1 in the human nephrons is unclear. We performed Western ...

Identification of new urinary risk markers for urinary stones using a logistic model and multinomial logit model.

Risk assessment for urinary stones has been mainly based on urinary biochemistry. We attempted to identify the risk factors for urinary stones by statistically analyzing urinary biochemical and inflammation-related factors.

Duodenal-jejunal lining increases postprandial unconjugated bile acid responses and disrupts the bile acid-FXR-FGF19 axis in humans.

Placement of the duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL) leads to rapid weight loss and restoration of insulin sensitivity in a similar fashion to bariatric surgery. Increased systemic bile acid levels are candidate effectors for these effects through postprandial activation of their receptors TGR5 and FXR. We aimed to quantify postprandial bile acid, GLP-1 and FGF19 responses and assess their tempor...

Role of Bile in Infectious Disease: the Gall of 7α-Dehydroxylating Gut Bacteria.

Local antibiotics and quorum sensors produced by gut bacteria regulate microbiota community structure and guard against pathogens. In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Kang et al. (2019) guide us through a reciprocal host-antimicrobial interplay that redefines our understanding of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile pathogenesis.

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided hepaticogastrostomy using a novel covered metallic stent with a fine-diameter delivery system.

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided hepaticogastrostomy (EUS-HGS) is a useful bile drainage method for the treatment of malignant biliary obstruction . However, its complication rate is high, and therefore various improvements in both devices and techniques have been made to improve its safety . One of the most frequent complications include bile peritonitis due to intraperitoneal bile leakage while exch...

Uncovering a Novel Stone in 27 Patients: Calcium Tartrate Tetrahydrate.

To further analyze calcium tartrate tetrahydrate stones after a recent case report described this novel stone. Prior to this, there was only one previously reported occurrence of this stone in a human. This unusual stone composition is not tested for routinely. True prevalence and possible causes of this stone are unknown.

Long-Term Impact of Iatrogenic Bile Duct Injury.

Bile duct injury (BDI) is a devastating complication following cholecystectomy. After initial management of BDI, patients stay at risk for late complications including anastomotic strictures, recurrent cholangitis, and secondary biliary cirrhosis.

Endoscopic treatment of chronic pancreatitis: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Guideline - Updated August 2018.

ESGE suggests endoscopic therapy and/or extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) as the first-line therapy for painful uncomplicated chronic pancreatitis (CP) with an obstructed main pancreatic duct (MPD) in the head/body of the pancreas. The clinical response should be evaluated at 6 - 8 weeks; if it appears unsatisfactory, the patient's case should be discussed again in a multidisciplinar...

2015 UK software audit of hepatobiliary scintigraphy.

This audit investigated hepatobiliary function imaging in UK hospitals, reviewing protocol differences in acquisition and processing parameters and the effect on calculated gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF).

Post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis in patients with asymptomatic common bile duct stones.

For asymptomatic common bile duct (CBD) stones, removal by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is recommended in available guidelines. However, few studies have reported the risk of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP), which is the most common and serious ERCP-related complication for asymptomatic CBD stones. We performed a propensity-score-matching analysis to examine the risk of PEP i...

Biliary tract cancer incidence and trends in the United States by demographic group, 1999-2013.

Biliary tract cancers (BTCs) are rare but deadly cancers (gallbladder cancer [GBC], intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma [ICC], extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma [ECC], and ampulla of Vater cancer [AVC]). A recent US study reported increasing GBC incidence among people younger than 45 years and blacks; however, it did not examine trends for other biliary tract sites.

Meckel's enterolith : a rare cause of mechanical small bowel subobstruction.

Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital gastrointestinal malformation and may present with bleeding, obstruction and diverticulitis. Symptomatic Meckel's diverticulum is associated with age 2 cm and ectopic mucosa. Formation of enteroliths is a rare complication of Meckel's diverticulum and the majority of stones will remain in the diverticulum. Factors promoting enterolith formation ...

Remarkable dilation of the common bile duct in an elderly patient.

Th17 cell frequency is associated with low bone mass in primary sclerosing cholangitis.

Osteoporotic fractures are a major cause of morbidity and reduced quality of life in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), a progressive bile duct disease of unknown origin. Although it is generally assumed that this pathology is a consequence of impaired calcium homeostasis and malabsorption, the cellular and molecular causes of PSC-associated osteoporosis are unknown.

Spindle and giant cell type undifferentiated carcinoma of the distal bile duct: a case report.

Undifferentiated carcinoma of the biliary tract is rare and more frequently occurs in the gall bladder than in the extrahepatic bile ducts. We report on an extremely rare case of a spindle and giant cell type undifferentiated carcinoma of the distal bile duct. In the presented tumor, atypical glands and single-cell clusters arising from the bile duct epithelium gradually transitioned into a predom...

External Validation of Different Scoring Systems for Suspected Choledocholithiasis.

The diagnosis of choledocholithiasis is challenging. Previously published scoring systems designed to calculate the risk of choledocholithiasis were evaluated to appraise the diagnostic performance.

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