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Cholecystokinin (CCK) is one of the main neurohormone peptide systems in the brain, and a major anxiogenic mediator. The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a key midbrain structure for defensive behaviors, which could include anxiety, fear, or even panic. The CCK system has wide distribution in the PAG, where the dorsolateral region (DL) participates in active defensive behavior and the ventrolateral re...
To evaluate the effect of perioperative dexamethasone, presumed to reduce edema, on the success rate of nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) treatment by balloon dacryoplasty.
To compare the efficacy and safety of micropercutaneous nephrolithotomy (Microperc) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) in treating renal stones using published literature.
A 51-year-old woman was hospitalized with jaundice, pruritus and nausea. Four weeks before a common bile duct stone had been removed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with papillotomy. Blood tests showed isolated bilirubinaemia (15 mg/dl), while all liver enzymes were in the normal range. In a second ERCP we saw a wide opened major papilla with unimpaired bile flow and witho...
The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and United European Gastroenterology present a short list of key performance measures for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). We recommend that endoscopy services across Europe adopt the following seven key and one minor performance measures for EUS and ERCP, for measurement and evaluation in dail...
Drugs causing ureteral relaxation are used for medical expulsive therapy (MET) for stones. We investigated the ability of tadalafil to cause relaxation of potassium chloride (KCl)-induced contractions of isolated human ureteral tissue.
Nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) is believed to be a risk factor for microbial keratitis (MK). The primary objective of this study was to look at microbiological concordance between corneal scraping and lacrimal sac flora in patients with concurrent MK and NLDO. The secondary objective was to compare microbiological isolates from MK and NLDO, MK alone, NLDO alone, and healthy subjects.
The present study was conducted to determine the effects of adding flaxseed meal or oat hulls in pigs' diets on digestibility of dietary fiber (DF) and fatty acids (FA), and gastrointestinal flows of FA and bile acids (BA). Twelve Genesus [(Duroc♂ × Yorkshire-Landrace♀)] cannulated barrows (initial BW: 35.1 ± 0.44 kg) were individually housed and offered diets in a 2-period cross-over design...
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is characterised by pruritus and elevated serum bile acids. The pruritus can be severe, and pharmacological options achieve inconsistent symptomatic improvement. Raised bile acids are linearly associated with adverse fetal outcomes, with existing management of limited benefit. We hypothesised that therapeutic plasma exchange removes pruritogens and lowers tota...
The unique character of bile salts to self-assemble into hydrogels in the presence of halide salts was exploited in this work to facilitate the prediction of human intestinal absorption (%HIA) for a set of 25 compounds. This was achieved by firstly incorporating each compound separately within the process of gel formation to create a series of gel-drug membranes. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)...
Hydatid disease or echinococcosis, a systemic zoonosis is caused by Echinococcusgranulosus larvae. This is a common disease found all over the world, especially in the Mediterranean region. We report a 40 year old male with no known comorbids who came with complaints of fever with rigors and chills, right hypochondriac pain, and yellow discolouration of the sclera. A CT scan abdomen with endoscopi...
Intestinal absorption of bile acids is mediated by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT). Fecal bile acid dysmetabolism has been reported in dogs with chronic inflammatory enteropathy (CIE).
Vascular damage has been reported to contribute to atresia formation in several diseases including biliary atresia. This study focused on the extrahepatic biliary plexus in experimental biliary atresia.
The risk of developing hemorrhagic complications during or after emergency cholecystectomy in patients with antithrombic therapy (ATT) remains uncertain. In this study, we evaluate outcomes in patients with ATT undergoing emergency cholecystectomy and assess the relevance between ATT and perioperative complications including bleeding complications.
The repression of renal Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) had been shown to result from lack of bile acid production from cirrhotic liver. We hypothesized that silymarin and rosuvastatin (Rvs) could have a hepatorenal therapeutic effects in hepatic nephropathy through induction of FXR.
Gallstone ileus is a rare presentation of cholelithiasis accounting for around 4% of cases of small bowel obstruction under 65 years of age but rises to 25% in those more than 65 years of age. Most gall stones, if impact in the bowel, are seen to lodge at the ileocecal valve as this is the most narrow part of the bowel.
Cystic duct carcinoma is a rare disease, and only 33 cases reported worldwide have completely fulfilled the criteria first established by Farrar in 1951. Here we describe an extremely rare case of early cystic duct carcinoma that fulfilled the Farrar criteria, the papillary tumour protruding into the common bile duct, leading to obstructive jaundice.
The incidence of urolithiasis has shown a prominent increase in the last two to three decades and evidence-based data have clearly indicated the certain role of obesity and overweight in both children and adults. As a certain component of metabolic syndrome, 'obesity' has been found to have a significant impact on the urinary metabolic risk factors which may be important in stone formation. In thi...
To determine changes and trends in the annual incidence and epidemiological aspects of lower urinary tract stones in Japan.
Biliary system paragangliomas are rare neuroendocrine tumors of embryonic neural crest origin. The majority is asymptomatic and incidentally found due to gallbladder functional disorders. Herein, we present a non-functional, 2.25 mm focus in the cystic duct, which to our knowledge, is the first reported paraganglioma of the cystic duct.
Small hepatocytes have hepatocyte-like characteristics and high proliferation activity. Most small hepatocyte studies report on in vitro rat or human hepatocytes. Only a few studies of small hepatocytes after bile duct ligation have been reported, and none of these have focused on these cells in birds. In this study, small hepatocytes appearing in bile duct ligation chicken liver were examined usi...
Endoscopic ultrasonography guided pancreatic duct drainage (EUS-PD) has been reported as an alternative to surgery in cases where trans-papillary access to the main pancreatic duct (MPD) is not feasible. However, this technique has been reported as a challenging procedure in clinical practice. (1-5). A 64-year-old man presented with repeat pancreatitis caused by a post endoscopic sphincterotomy sc...
To explore whether the computed tomography texture analysis (CTTA) technique can help predict the curative effects of a single extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for proximal ureteral stones.