Gastroenterology Research

16:38 EDT 19th March 2018 | BioPortfolio

Senescence and cancer: double-dealing.

When ageing, cells profoundly reprogram to enter a state called senescence. Although the link between senescence and cancer is well established, the nature of this link remains unclear and debated. We will describe in this article the properties of senescent cells and make clear on how they could promote or oppose to cancer initiation and progression. We will also consider senescence as a response...

Three-Year Results of a Medicare Advantage Cancer Management Program.

Reform of cancer care delivery seeks to control costs while improving quality. Texas Oncology collaborated with Aetna to conduct a payer-sponsored program that used evidence-based treatment pathways, a disease management call center, and an introduction to advance care planning to improve patient care and reduce total costs.

Predicting mucositis risk associated with cytotoxic cancer treatment regimens: rationale, complexity, and challenges.

The goals of this review are to describe the complexity of factors influencing the risk of cancer regimen-related mucosal injury (CRRMI), to evaluate the contribution of the innate immune response to CRRMI risk, to compare the concordance of genome analytics in describing mechanism and risk, and to determine if common biological pathways are noted when CRRMI is compared to a disease with a similar...

Stereotactic Radiotherapy and Particle Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer.

Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease with poor survival outcomes. Recent studies have shown that the addition of radiotherapy to chemotherapy in the setting of locally advanced pancreatic cancer did not improve overall survival outcome. These studies commonly utilize conventional radiotherapy treatment fractionation and technique (typically 3-D conformal radiotherapy or intensity modulated r...

The Role of Ultrasound in Screening Dense Breasts-A Review of the Literature and Practical Solutions for Implementation.

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women. Estimates indicate a nearly 40% breast cancer mortality reduction when screening women annually starting at age 40. Although mammography is well known to be a powerful screening tool in the detection of early breast cancer, it is imperfect, particularly for women with dense breasts. In women with dense breast tissue, the sensitivi...

How Can a Suicide Screening and Prevention Procedure Be Implemented in a Cancer Center?

Suicide in patients with cancer is most common in the first months after a diagnosis. With an overall risk that is already twice that of the general population, the risk increases to as much as 13 times the average suicide risk in those newly diagnosed with cancer.

Disease Comanagement: A Case Study of HIV/AIDS and Cancer Care in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Cancer care is increasingly complicated worldwide by its management with concurrent acute and chronic illness states. In low- and middle-income countries, including those in sub-Saharan Africa, this results in lower overall survival rates and a higher burden of cancer deaths. A case study is presented to highlight the challenges patients with cancer in Zambia-many of whom are also positive for HIV...

Liposomal Irinotecan: Nursing Considerations in an Outpatient Cancer Center.

Recent approaches in treating pancreatic adenocarcinoma, an aggressive disease with limited survival, include the use of liposomal irinotecan as an option when first-line therapy has failed. Liposomal irinotecan has been approved in combination with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin for patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer. Liposomal irinotecan is a newer therapy requiring oncology nurses to obt...

Hereditary Polyposis Syndromes: Opportunities for Early Detection in Individuals and Families.

People with multiple polyps may have a germline mutation that places them at higher risk for developing colorectal, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. Genetic testing can often identify the specific polyposis syndrome and provide insight into appropriate recommendations for cancer prevention and early detection. Individuals with hereditary polyposis syndromes often begin developing polyps in the...

Medullary Thyroid Cancer: Overview and Case Study of a Rare Cancer.

Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a rare cancer that has historically been managed by endocrinologists. In 2011, the first of several multi- targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors was approved as treatment for MTC. These drugs have changed the management of MTC to teams that include oncologists and oncology nurses.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Clinical Implications for Patients With Lung Cancer.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the most common smoking-related illness. COPD often is underemphasized as a comorbidity except when considering issues surrounding surgical treatment options.

Pregnancy and Cancer Treatment: Developing a Standardized Testing Policy and Procedure.

Systematic gaps for pregnancy screening and testing of patients with cancer persist. Absent or inconsistent guidelines and policies are barriers to standardized practice. Awareness among oncology nurses is needed to promote safe cancer care, prevent patient harm, and uphold patient-centered care.

Temporal changes in the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and the neurological progression in cryptogenic stroke with active cancer.

Ischemic stroke patients with active cancer frequently experience early neurological deterioration (END); however, the predictors of END are not well studied. The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has recently been described as a predictor of poor outcomes in cancer and stroke. However, its role in cancer-related stroke has not been addressed.

Recurrent, low-frequency coding variants contributing to colorectal cancer in the Swedish population.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified dozens of common genetic variants associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the majority of CRC heritability remains unclear. In order to discover low-frequency, high-risk CRC susceptibility variants in Swedish population, we genotyped 1 515 CRC patients enriched for familial cases, and 12 108 controls. Case/control association...

Prevalence of Synchronous Oligopolyposis in Incident Colorectal Cancer: A Population-Based Study.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading causes of cancer death among men and women. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oligopolyposis (≥20 synchronous colorectal adenomas) and its associated clinicopathological characteristics in Hispanics with incident CRC.

Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Integration Analysis by Real-time PCR Assay in Associated Cancers.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common viral infection worldwide associated with a variety of cancers. The integration of the HPV genome in these patients causes chromosomal instability and triggers carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the HPV-16 genome physical status in four major cancers related to HPV infection. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks from our previous proj...

Quality assessment of clinical practice guidelines on treatments for oral cancer.

The applicability of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) on treatments for oral cancer remains unknown since there are no systematic assessments of their quality. Thus, the objective of this study is to identify and assess the quality of them.

NutriCatt protocol in the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) program for colorectal surgery: The nutritional support improves clinical and cost-effectiveness outcomes.

Postoperative complications and length of hospital stay (LOS) are major issues and affect hospital costs. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols are effective in reducing morbidity and LOS after major surgery. We propose a nutritional protocol within ERAS programs in colorectal surgery, starting from preadmission.

A randomised study of tailored toxicity-based dosage of fluorouracil-epirubicin-cyclophosphamide chemotherapy for early breast cancer (SBG 2000-1).

Retrospective studies have demonstrated a worse outcome in breast cancer patients not developing leukopenia during adjuvant chemotherapy. The SBG 2000-1 is the first randomised trial designed to compare individually dosed chemotherapy without G-CSF support based on grade of toxicity to standard-dosed chemotherapy based on body surface area (BSA).

Using pseudo-observations for estimation in relative survival.

A common goal in the analysis of the long-term survival related to a specific disease is to estimate a measure that is comparable between populations with different general population mortality. When cause of death is unavailable or unreliable, as for example in cancer registry studies, relative survival methodology is used-in addition to the mortality data of the patients, we use the data on the ...

DNA Methylome and Transcriptome Alterations and Cancer Prevention by Curcumin in Colitis-accelerated Colon Cancer in Mice.

Inflammation is highly associated with colon carcinogenesis. Epigenetic mechanisms could play an important role in the initiation and progression of colon cancer. Curcumin, a dietary phytochemical, shows promising effects in suppressing colitis-associated colon cancer in AOM-DSS mice. However, the potential epigenetic mechanisms of curcumin in colon cancer remain unknown. In this study, the anti-c...

Reduced Risk of Prostate Cancer With 5α-Reductase Inhibitors.

Lung Cancer Health Disparities.

Compared with all other racial and ethnic groups in the U.S., African Americans are disproportionally affected by lung cancer, both in terms of incidence and survival. It is likely that smoking, as the main etiological factor associated with lung cancer, contributes to these disparities, but the precise mechanism is still unclear. This paper seeks to explore the history of lung cancer disparities ...

Prospective evaluation of body size and breast cancer risk among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

Although evidence suggests that larger body size in early life confers lifelong protection from developing breast cancer, few studies have investigated the relationship between body size and breast cancer risk among BRCA mutation carriers. Therefore, we conducted a prospective evaluation of body size and the risk of breast cancer among BRCA mutation carriers.

A new method for the high-precision assessment of tumor changes in response to treatment.

Imaging demonstrates that preclinical and human tumors are heterogeneous, i.e. a single tumor can exhibit multiple regions that behave differently during both normal development and also in response to treatment. The large variations observed in control group tumors can obscure detection of significant therapeutic effects due to the ambiguity in attributing causes of change. This can hinder develo...

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