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Gastroenterology Research

02:15 EDT 21st October 2018 | BioPortfolio

The genotype for DPYD risk variants in colorectal cancer patients and the related toxicity management costs in clinical practice.

Lack of information on the clinical utility of preemptive DPYD screening prior to fluoropyrimidine treatment is a major barrier preventing its utilization in clinical practice. This study aimed to define the association between DPYD variants and fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity management costs. A cost analysis was conducted on the toxicities experienced by 550 colorectal cancer patients treated ...

Automated detection of cancer cells in effusion specimens by DNA karyometry.

The average sensitivity of conventional cytology for the identification of cancer cells in effusion specimens is only approximately 58%. DNA image cytometry (DNA-ICM), which exploits the DNA content of morphologically suspicious nuclei measured on digital images, has a sensitivity of up to 91% for the detection of cancer cells. However, when performed manually, to our knowledge to date, an expert ...

MARCKS (Myristoylated Alanine-Rich C Kinase Substrate) and Lung Disease.

MARCKS (Myristoylated Alanine Rich C Kinase Substrate) is a prominent Protein Kinase C (PKC) substrate expressed in all eukaryotic cells. It is known to bind to and cross-link actin filaments, to serve as a bridge between Ca++/Calmodulin (CaM) and PKC signaling, and to sequester the signaling molecule phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate PI(4,5)P2 (PIP2) in the plasma membrane (1-6). Since the mi...

Associations of Pre- and Postdiagnosis Diet Quality With Risk of Mortality Among Men and Women With Colorectal Cancer.

Dietary patterns, indicators of overall diet quality, are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence but less consistently with mortality among CRC survivors. We prospectively evaluated associations of diet quality pre- and postdiagnosis with risk of mortality among men and women with CRC.

Next-generation sequencing of prostate cancer: genomic and pathway alterations, potential actionability patterns, and relative rate of use of clinical-grade testing.

Despite being one of the most common cancers, treatment options for prostate cancer are limited. Novel approaches for advanced disease are needed. We evaluated the relative rate of use of clinical-grade next generation sequencing (NGS) in prostate cancer, as well as genomic alterations identified and their potential actionability. Of 4864 patients from multiple institutions for whom NGS was ordere...

Response to immunotherapy rechallenge after interval chemotherapy in a patient with head and neck cancer.

Patients with metastatic squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (SCCHN) have a poor prognosis, with most patients surviving less than a year. Immunotherapy (IO) is changing the natural history of the disease and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors are showing notable improvements in survival with a more favourable toxicity profile than chemotherapy. To our knowledge, there are no data ...

Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection is associated with treatment failure and prolonged illness in cancer patients.

Cancer patients are susceptible to recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) that is increasing globally, necessitating new approaches to prevent fatal consequences. We examined the clinical characteristics of cancer patients with recurrent CDI (RCDI).

The effect of NSAIDs exposure on breast cancer risk in female patients with autoimmune diseases.

Both breast cancer and autoimmune diseases (ADs) are predominant in women. NSAIDs are common medications for AD. Evidence on the association between NSAIDs use and breast cancer risk is controversial. We investigated the association between NSAIDs exposure and breast cancer risk in female patients with AD. AD patients older than 18 years of age were enrolled from Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insuran...

Anal cancer in high-income countries: Increasing burden of disease.

Previous studies have reported that anal cancer incidence has increased in individual countries; however, age-specific trends were not examined in detail. This study describes pooled and country-specific anal cancer incidence trends by sex, age (all ages,

Histoplasma capsulatum antigen detection tests as an essential diagnostic tool for patients with advanced HIV disease in low and middle income countries: A systematic review of diagnostic accuracy studies.

Disseminated histoplasmosis, a disease that often resembles and is mistaken for tuberculosis, is a major cause of death in patients with advanced HIV disease. Histoplasma antigen detection tests are an important addition to the diagnostic arsenal for patients with advanced HIV disease and should be considered for inclusion on the World Health Organization Essential Diagnostics List.

Dose to organs in the supraclavicular region when covering the Internal Mammary Nodes (IMNs) in breast cancer patients: A comparison of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) versus 3D and VMAT.

During breast/chest wall and regional nodal irradiation (RNI), standard 3D conformal techniques can fail to meet the dosimetric constraints for the heart and ipsilateral lung. VMAT can improve the dosimetric sparing of the heart and lungs. However the unnecessary increase in dose to the organs in the supraclavicular region as a result of using VMAT can be avoided. In this work we investigate poten...

Isoliquiritigenin-mediated p62/SQSTM1 induction regulates apoptotic potential through attenuation of caspase-8 activation in colorectal cancer cells.

Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) is a natural flavonoid that exhibits anticancer properties in various carcinoma cell types. However, the precise mechanism responsible for its anticancer activity has not been elucidated fully. In the present study, we examined ISL-mediated apoptotic mechanisms in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. ISL induced apoptosis in human HCT-116 cells and caused marked induction of p62/...

Outcome of endoscopic mucosal resection in Barrett's esophagus determined by systematic quantification of epithelial glands using volumetric laser endomicroscopy.

Dysplastic Barrett's esophagus (BE) lesions ≤2 cm in size can be targeted for en-bloc endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). White-light endoscopy can underestimate the size of a lesion, limiting complete resection. Volumetric laser endomicroscopy (VLE) provides high-resolution cross-sectional imaging of BE. Epithelial glands are a VLE feature associated with BE dysplasia. We study the association ...

Association between bivariate expression of key oncogenes and metabolic phenotypes of patients with prostate cancer.

AKT and MYC are two of the most prevalent oncogenes associated with prostate cancer. The precise effects of overexpression of these two key oncogenes on the regulation of metabolic pathways in prostate cancer are under active investigation; however, few studies have investigated their bivariate oncogene-pair expressions in metabolic prostate cancer phenotypes. This is primarily due to the lack of ...

Mesenchymal stem cells: Cancer promoting effects or tumor suppression - A current overview.

The multimodal treatment of cancer deals with cancer cells as well as with the cancer surrounding stroma. This stroma contains non-malignant cells like fibroblasts, immune cells as well as mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). MSC have the ability to migrate towards cancer tissue. In the current literature the impact of MSC on cancer cells is discussed divergently. The majority of the current publications...

Single nucleotide polymorphisms and sporadic colorectal cancer susceptibility: a field synopsis and meta-analysis.

Although mounting non-hereditary colorectal cancer (NHCRC) associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been observed, no field synopsis and meta-analysis has been conducted through systematically assessing cumulative evidence, during the past 5 years.

Survival after radiation therapy for high-grade glioma.

High-grade gliomas (HGGs) are a heterogeneous disease group, with variable prognosis, inevitably causing deterioration of the quality of life. The estimated 2-year overall survival is 20%, despite the best trimodality treatment consisting of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy.

Antidiabetic Biguanides Radiosensitize Hypoxic Colorectal Cancer Cells Through a Decrease in Oxygen Consumption.

The anti-diabetic biguanide drugs metformin and phenformin exhibit antitumor activity in various models. However, their radiomodulatory effect under hypoxic conditions, particularly for phenformin, is largely unknown. This study therefore examines whether metformin and phenformin as mitochondrial complex I blockades could overcome hypoxic radioresistance through inhibition of oxygen consumption. ...

A Clinical-Genetic Score to Identify Surgically Resected Colorectal Cancer Patients Benefiting From an Adjuvant Fluoropyrimidine-Based Therapy.

There are clinical challenges related to adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancer (CRC) and novel molecular markers are needed for better risk stratification of patients. Our aim was to integrate our previously reported clinical-genetic prognostic score with new immunogenetic markers of 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) to evaluate the recurrence risk stratification before fluoropyrimidine (FL)-ba...

Intravenous Thrombolysis in Ischemic Stroke Patients With Active Cancer.

It has been difficult to state specific guidelines for IV-tPA use in cancer patients. Many of the randomized tPA-trials included too few patients with cancer or excluded patients with cancer entirely. In this report, we aimed to study the use of IV-tPA in patients with active cancer and acute ischemic stroke. We also investigated if the cancer patients who received IV-tPA experienced adverse event...

Association Analysis of Somatic Copy Number Alteration Burden With Breast Cancer Survival.

The increasing prevalence of diagnosed breast cancer cases emphasizes the urgent demand for developing new prognostic breast cancer biomarkers. Copy number alteration (CNA) burden measured as the percentage of the genome affected by CNAs has emerged as a potential candidate to this aim. Using somatic CNA data obtained from METABRIC (Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium), we...

Association Analysis of a Microsatellite Repeat in the Gene With Prostate Cancer Risk, Aggressiveness and Survival.

With an estimated 1.1 million men worldwide diagnosed with prostate cancer yearly, effective and more specific biomarkers for early diagnosis could lead to better patient outcome. As such, novel genetic markers are sought for this purpose. The tribbles homologue 1 gene () has recently shown to have a role in prostate tumorigenesis and data-mining of prostate cancer expression data confirmed clinic...

The microbiome of Crohn's disease aphthous ulcers.

Reduced intestinal microbial diversity and bacterial imbalance (dysbiosis) are seen in studies of Crohn's disease. As it is difficult to obtain biopsy samples before disease presentation, the earliest mucosal lesions in Crohn's disease, aphthous ulcers, present the best chance at assessing microbial communities at the onset of disease or a new flare. The aim of our study was to compare the microbi...

Expression Rate and Gene Methylation in the Blood of People Suffering from Gastric Cancer.

Gastric cancer is one of the most important health issues in the world. Considering the lack of plenty of pre-awarenesses, the survival of gastric cancer is still quite disappointing. Methylation of gene promoter is observed in most cancer cells of a human. A study has shown that PAX5 is a new tumoral suppressor in gastric cancer and methylation of the promoter is associated with the survival ra...

Emotional Processing In Patients with Ischemic Heart Diseases.

Cardiovascular disease is the most prevalent public health problem on a worldwide scale, and ischemic heart disease accounts for approximately one-half of these events in high-income countries. One of the most important risk factors for this disease is mental and psychological especially stressful experiences.

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