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Genital human papilloma virus HPV Vaccines Research

11:55 EDT 14th August 2018 | BioPortfolio

MicroRNA-942 mediates hepatic stellate cell activation by regulating BAMBI expression in human liver fibrosis.

MicroRNA (miRNA)-mediated gene regulation contributes to liver pathophysiology, including hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and fibrosis progression. Here, we investigated the role of miR-942 in human liver fibrosis. The expression of miR-942, HSC activation markers, transforming growth factor-beta pseudoreceptor BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (BAMBI), as well as collagen deposition...

Croton golden mosaic virus: a new bipartite begomovirus isolated from Croton hirtus in Colombia.

A new begomovirus infecting Croton hirtus (Euphorbiaceae) from Colombia has been characterized. The complete DNA-A and DNA-B components were determined to be 2613 and 2551 nt in length, respectively, showing the typical genome organization of bipartite New World begomoviruses. DNA-A showed the highest nucleotide sequence identity (81.2%) to sida yellow mottle virus (JN411687), a begomovirus isola...

Adenosine signaling and adenosine deaminase regulation of immune responses: impact on the immunopathogenesis of HIV infection.

Infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), which has devastating effects on the host immune system. HIV entry into host cells and subsequent viral replication induce a proinflammatory response, hyperactivating immune cells and leading them to death, disfunction, and exhaustion. Adenosine is an immunomodulatory molecule that suppresses im...

Duration Since Never in HIV Care and Immediate Blood-Draw After HIV Diagnosis are Associated with Willingness to Link to Care Following Health Department Outreach, New York City.

Late presentation to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care is an important concern for clinical outcomes and HIV prevention. Significant proportions of HIV-diagnosed persons are not timely linked to care following HIV diagnosis. We implemented and evaluated an intervention to link to care persons never in HIV care (NIC). Disease intervention specialists (DIS) traced persons presumed to be NIC si...

Contribution of quantitative viral markers to document hepatitis B virus compartmentalization in cerebrospinal fluid during hepatitis B with neuropathies.

Extrahepatic manifestations linked to hepatitis B Virus (HBV) are usually indirect consequences of immune-mediated mechanisms triggered by the virus replication. Strong evidence of brain HBV replication is missing and direct involvement of HBV in nervous system symptoms has been rarely reported. We report two cases of neurological manifestations contemporary to HBV infection. In both cases, HBV-DN...

Influenza A virus inhibits influenza virus replication by inducing IL-37.

The influenza virus is one of the major pathogens that seriously affect human health. It can cause a strong immune response and trigger a series of complications. Interleukin 37 (IL-37) is a newly discovered cytokine that plays an important regulatory role in infection and immunity. To date, there have been few studies on the correlation between influenza virus infection and IL-37.

Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation in purification of an enveloped bacteriophage ϕ6.

Basic and applied virus research requires specimens that are purified to high homogeneity. Thus, there is much interest in the efficient production and purification of viruses and their subassemblies. Advances in the production steps have shifted the bottle neck of the process to the purification. Nonetheless, the development of purification techniques for different viruses is challenging due to t...

Role of Preexposure Prophylaxis in the Reproductive Health of Women at Risk for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

Women in the United States and especially women of color continue to acquire human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. During reproductive health visits, health care providers are ideally positioned to assess HIV risk and offer HIV prevention strategies, including preexposure prophylaxis (also known as "PrEP"), a once-daily fixed-dose combination of emtricitabine with tenofovir disoproxil fuma...

Disparities in Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Completion Rates Among Females in an Integrated Health Care System.

To estimate the rate of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine completion by race and ethnicity.

Prevalence of Maternal Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Ohio.

To quantify the rising prevalence of maternal hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Ohio during the peak of the opioid epidemic and to identify maternal characteristics and obstetric outcomes associated with maternal HCV infection.

Teratogen screening with human pluripotent stem cells.

Birth defects are a common occurrence in the United States and worldwide. Currently, evaluation of potential developmental toxicants (i.e., teratogens) relies heavily on animal-based models which do not always adequately mimic human development. In order to address this, researchers are developing in vitro human-based models which utilize human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) to assess the teratoge...

Targeting Intracellular Ion Homeostasis for the Control of Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of mortality in infants and young children. Despite the RSV disease burden, no vaccine is available and treatment remains non-specific. New drug candidates are needed to combat RSV. Towards this goal, we screened over 2000 compounds to identify approved drugs with novel anti-RSV activity. Cardiac glycosides, inhibitors of the membrane bound Na+/...

Serosurvey for Influenza Virus Subtypes H3N8 and H3N2 Antibodies in Free-Ranging Canids in Pennsylvania, USA.

Canine influenza virus (CIV) subtypes H3N8 and H3N2 are endemic among domestic dog (XXXX XXXXX) populations in the northeastern US. Infection of free-ranging carnivores with influenza virus has been sporadically reported. Generalist mesocarnivores that exploit anthropogenic, peri-urban habitats share a wide interface with domestic dogs that allows for the transmission of infectious disease. To inv...

High sustained virologic response rate using generic directly acting antivirals in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus Egyptian patients: single-center experience.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health problem in Egypt, with a high prevalence of genotype 4.

Alkyl-imino sugars inhibit the pro-oncogenic ion channel function of human papillomavirus (HPV) E5.

Despite the availability of prophylactic vaccines the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) associated malignancy remains high and there is a need to develop additional therapeutic strategies to complement vaccination. We have previously shown that the poorly characterised E5 oncoprotein forms a virus-coded ion channel or viroporin that was sensitive to the amantadine derivative rimantadine. We now...

Expression and regulation of the BKRF2, BKRF3 and BKRF4 genes of Epstein-Barr virus.

The BKRF2, BKRF3 and BKRF4 genes of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are located close together in the viral genome, which encode glycoprotein L, uracil-DNA glycosylase and a tegument protein, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that the BKRF2 gene behaves as a true-late lytic gene, whereas the BKRF3 and BKRF4 genes belong to the early lytic gene family. Our results further reveal that both BKRF3 and BKRF4...

Identification of adenovirus neutralizing antigens using capsid chimeric viruses.

Human adenoviruses (HAdV) 3 and 7 can cause acute respiratory disease epidemics and outbreaks. Identification of neutralizing epitopes is vital for surveillance and vaccine development. In this study, we generated the recombinant capsid-chimeric human adenoviruses rAd3E-Fk7, containing the Ad3E backbone and the HAdV-7 fiber knob, and rAd3E-H7Fk7, which contain an Ad3E backbone but HAdV-7 hexon and...

Rapid evolutionary dynamics of pepper mild mottle virus.

Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) is one of the most destructive pathogens of pepper crops and has major impacts on global crop yields. Some aspects of the molecular biology of PMMoV have been studied intensively, but estimates of its evolutionary rate have shown considerable variation. We investigated the phylodynamics of PMMoV by analysing 171 nucleotide sequences of the coat protein gene, sample...

Beyond structures of highly symmetric purified viral capsids by cryo-EM.

Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is widely used to determine high-resolution structures of symmetric virus capsids. The method holds promise for extending studies beyond purified capsids and their symmetric protein shells. The non-symmetric genome component has been addressed in dsRNA cypoviruses and ssRNA bacteriophages Qβ and MS2. The structure of human herpes simplex virus ...

Establishment of a human iPSC line, IISHDOi004-A, from a patient with Usher syndrome associated with the mutation c.2276G>T; p.Cys759Phe in the USH2A gene.

A human iPSC line, IISHDOi004-A, from fibroblasts obtained from a patient with Usher syndrome, harboring a homozygous mutation in the USH2A gene (c.2276G>T; p.Cys759Phe) has been generated. Reprogramming factors Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc were delivered using Sendai virus.

Integration of Cell-Penetrating Peptides with Rod-like Bionanoparticles: Virus-Inspired Gene Silencing Technology.

Inspired by the high gene transfer efficiency of viral vectors and to avoid side effects, we present here a 1D rod-like gene silencing vector based on a plant virus. By decorating the transacting activator of transduction (TAT) peptide on the exterior surface, the TAT-modified tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) achieves a tunable isoelectric point (from ~3.5 to ~9.6), depending on the TAT dose. In additio...

Update: Interim Guidance for Preconception Counseling and Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus for Men with Possible Zika Virus Exposure - United States, August 2018.

Zika virus infection can occur as a result of mosquitoborne or sexual transmission of the virus. Infection during pregnancy is a cause of fetal brain abnormalities and other serious birth defects (1,2). CDC has updated the interim guidance for men with possible Zika virus exposure who 1) are planning to conceive with their partner, or 2) want to prevent sexual transmission of Zika virus at any tim...

Vital Signs: Zika-Associated Birth Defects and Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities Possibly Associated with Congenital Zika Virus Infection - U.S. Territories and Freely Associated States, 2018.

Zika virus infection during pregnancy causes serious birth defects and might be associated with neurodevelopmental abnormalities in children. Early identification of and intervention for neurodevelopmental problems can improve cognitive, social, and behavioral functioning.

Blockade of dengue virus entry into myeloid cells by endocytic inhibitors in the presence or absence of antibodies.

Dengue is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral human disease in tropical and subtropical regions, caused by four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes. In spite of the increasing global incidence, no specific antiviral therapy is available. Cells of the mononuclear phagocyte lineage are the main targets either for direct antibody (Ab)-independent or Ab-mediated human DENV infection, usually associated...

Virus infection reduces shoot proliferation of in vitro stock cultures and ability of cryopreserved shoot tips to regenerate into normal shoots in 'Gala' apple (Malus × domestica).

Plant cryopreservation has provide secure back-ups of germplasm collections of vegetatively propagated crops. Often, recovery levels vary among laboratories when the same cryogenic procedures are used for the same genotypes. The present study investigated the effects of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) on shoot proliferation of in vitro stock cultures and recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips of 'G...

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