Gilotrif (afatinib) Research

09:46 EDT 19th August 2018 | BioPortfolio

Photosensitiser-gold nanoparticle conjugates for photodynamic therapy of cancer.

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been extensively studied within biomedicine due to their biocompatibility and low toxicity. In particular, AuNPs have been widely used to deliver photosensitiser agents for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. Here we review the state-of-the-art for the functionalisation of the gold nanoparticle surface with both photosensitisers and targeting ligands for the activ...

Chemopreventive effects of some popular phytochemicals on human colon cancer: a review.

Colon cancer is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Dietary phytochemicals have been drawing increasing attention for colon cancer prevention and treatment due to their chemical diversity, biological activity, easy availability, lack of toxic effects, and ability to modulate various signal transduction pathways and cell processes. The chemoprotective effects elicited by p...

Estimating Lung, Breast, and Effective Dose from Low-Dose Lung Cancer Screening CT Exams with Tube Current Modulation across a Range of Patient Sizes.

The purpose of this study was to estimate the radiation dose to the lung and breast as well as the effective dose from tube current modulated (TCM) lung cancer screening (LCS) scans across a range of patient sizes.

Multinational validation of the AJCC 8 edition pancreatic cancer staging system in a pancreas head cancer cohort.

The aim was to compare the 7 and 8 editions of the AJCC staging system for pancreas head cancer and to validate the 8 edition using three multinational tertiary center data.

Lysosome-Targeted Chemotherapeutics: Half-Sandwich Ruthenium(II) Complexes That Are Selectively Toxic to Cancer Cells.

Poor selectivity between cancer cells and normal cells is one of the major limitations of cancer chemotherapy. Lysosome-targeted ruthenium-based complexes target tumor cells selectively, only displaying rather weak cytotoxicity or inactivity toward normal cells. Confocal microscopy was employed for the first time to determine the cellular localization of the half-sandwich Ru complex.

Cell Penetration Profiling Using the Chloroalkane Penetration Assay.

Biotherapeutics are a promising class of molecules in drug discovery, but they are often limited to extracellular targets due to their poor cell penetration. High-throughput cell penetration assays are required for the optimization of biotherapeutics for enhanced cell penetration. We developed a HaloTag-based assay called the ChloroAlkane Penetration Assay (CAPA), which is quantitative, high-throu...

Regulation of protective autophagy in anoikis-resistant glioma stem cells by SDCBP/MDA-9/Syntenin.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a frequent and aggressive glial tumor, containing a small population of therapy-resistant cells, glioma stem cells (GSCs). Current dogma suggests that tumors regrow from GSCs, and these cells contribute to therapy resistance, poor prognosis, and recurrence; highlighting the importance of GSCs in glioma pathophysiology and therapeutic targeting. Macroautophagy/autop...

Inhibition of C-X-C Motif Chemokine 10 (CXCL10) Protects Mice from Cigarette Smoke-Induced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

BACKGROUND Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow. COPD can progress to persistent decline of pulmonary function. This study explored the effect of CXCL10 on COPD induced by cigarette smoke (CS) and its underlying mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS Wild-type (WT) mice were randomly assigned into...

Nurse-Delivered Symptom Assessment for Individuals With Advanced Lung Cancer.

To assess an intervention derived from self-regulation theory (SRT) to promote well-being for individuals with advanced lung cancer.

Feelings of Disenfranchisement and Support Needs Among Patients With Thyroid Cancer.

To offer a better understanding of the experiences, preferences, and needs of patients with thyroid cancer.

Colonic metastases from carcinoma of the lung, an unusual presentation. Case report and literature review.

The symptomatic metastasis of the colon from a pulmonary cancer is rare; however, the global incidence of pulmonary cancer is 12.9%. It is an infrequent site of metastasis, with a prevalence of less than 0.5% in patients with pulmonary cancer. One of the most common manifestation is intestinal obstruction. We present a case report of a patient with an acute lower intestinal bleeding from multiple ...

Molecular subtypes of colorectal cancer in pre-clinical models show differential response to targeted therapies: Treatment implications beyond KRAS mutations.

Molecular subtypes of colorectal tumors are associated with prognosis and prediction for treatment benefit from chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to determine the association of colorectal (CRC) molecular subtypes with response to targeted therapies in pre-clinical models and 2) to identify treatments for CRC stem-like subtype because these tumors are associated with a very ...

Gold Nanorod-Photothermal Therapy Alters Cell Junctions and Actin Network in Inhibiting Cancer Cell Collective Migration.

Most cancer-related deaths come from metastasis. It was recently discovered that nanoparticles could inhibit cancer cell migration. While most researchers focus on single-cell migration, the effect of nanoparticle treatment on collective cell migration has not been explored. Collective migration occurs commonly in many types of cancer metastasis, where a group of cancer cells move together, which ...

Next-generation sequencing reveals mutational accordance between cell-free DNA from plasma, malignant pleural effusion and ascites and directs targeted therapy in a gastric cancer patient.

Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has been a research hotspot in molecular tumor profiling. In advanced gastric cancer patients, malignant pleural effusion (MPE) and ascites provide a wealth of tumor cells that can be investigated. Here we conducted next-generation sequencing (NGS) on matched cfDNA from plasma, MPE and ascites from a stage-IV gastric cancer patient to identify potential therapeutic targets. I...

Liquid biopsies for management of pancreatic cancer.

Pancreatic cancer is one of the main causes of cancer related deaths worldwide. It is asymptomatic at an early stage, and most diagnosis occurs when the disease is already at a late stage, by which time the tumor is nonresectable. In order to increase the overall survival of patients with pancreatic cancer, as well as to decrease the cancer burden, it is necessary to perform early diagnosis, progn...

Functional characterization of alternatively spliced GSN in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

We have recently performed the characterization of alternative splicing events (ASEs) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, which allows dysregulation of protein expression common for cancer cells. Such analysis demonstrated a high ASE prevalence among tumor samples, including tumor-specific alternative splicing in the GSN gene. In vitro studies confirmed that overall expression of either ASE-...

Chrysin attenuates carrageenan-induced pleurisy and lung injury via activation of SIRT1/NRF2 pathway in rats.

Chrysin, a natural polyphenol plentifully contained in honey, propolis, vegetables and fruits, it has been reported to exert a variety of pharmacological activities. In the present study, we mainly investigated the protective effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of chrysin on carrageenan-induced lung injury in rats. The results showed that chrysin inhibited the neutrophils infiltration, att...

Fighting Kinase Drug Resistance with Caspase Activators.

Kinase inhibitors are effective cancer therapies. Unfortunately, drug resistance emerges in response to kinase inhibition leading to loss of drug efficacy. In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Peh et al. (2018) demonstrate that caspase activators effectively delay onset of resistance to kinase inhibitors and are excellent co-therapeutics for a number of tumor types.

Dysregulating ClpP: From Antibiotics to Anticancer?

In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Wong et al. (2018) identify several dysregulators of a key mitochondrial protease: casein lytic protease P (ClpP). These dysregulators were found to trigger programmed cell death and may offer fresh avenues for the development of novel cancer therapeutics.

Metformin Promotes Antitumor Immunity via Endoplasmic-Reticulum-Associated Degradation of PD-L1.

Metformin has been reported to possess antitumor activity and maintain high cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immune surveillance. However, the functions and detailed mechanisms of metformin's role in cancer immunity are not fully understood. Here, we show that metformin increases CTL activity by reducing the stability and membrane localization of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1). Furthermore, we disc...

Comparing the Hadlock fetal growth standard to the NICHD racial/ethnic standard for the prediction of neonatal morbidity and small for gestational age.

The fetal growth standard in widest use was published by Hadlock more than 25 years ago and was derived from a small, homogeneous cohort. In 2015, The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Fetal Growth Study published updated standards that are specific to race/ethnicity. These do not allow for precise estimated fetal weight (EFW) percentile calcul...

BRMS1L suppresses ovarian cancer metastasis via inhibition of the β-catenin-wnt pathway.

A low level of breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1-like (BRMS1L) has been implicated in tumour metastasis involving breast cancer and other cancers. It remains unclear whether BRMS1L is involved in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) metastasis and what the molecular mechanism of BRMS1L is in suppressing EOC metastasis. In this study, we examined the mRNA expression and protein level of BRMS1L by sc...

Lung Cancer Screening Feasibility Beyond High Specialized Centers.

Perioperative Outcomes for Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Differences between Men and Women.

Previous studies have highlighted important biologic and survival-related differences among men and women with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, differences in perioperative or short term outcomes have not been as well characterized. In this study, we investigated differences in the perioperative period and postoperative emergency room visits among men and women after lobectomy for stag...

Primary peritoneal Epithelioid mesothelioma of clear cell type with a novel VHL gene mutation: a case report.

Clear cell variant of epithelioid mesothelioma is an extremely rare tumor with only isolated cases reported so far in the peritoneum. Here, we report a case of peritoneal epithelioid mesothelioma, clear cell variant, in a 63-year-old female patient with a novel VHL gene mutation and an unusual indolent clinical course. The patient, who has no clinical history of asbestos exposure, presented with a...

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