Gilotrif (afatinib) Research

21:53 EDT 19th October 2018 | BioPortfolio

Characterizing the three-dimensional organization of telomeres in papillary thyroid carcinoma cells.

The relationship between the three-dimensional (3D) nuclear telomere architecture and specific genetic alterations in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), in particular in cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs), has not yet been investigated. We isolated thyrospheres containing CSLCs from B-CPAP, K1, and TPC-1 PTC-derived cell lines, representative of tumors with different genetic backgrounds within the new...

Local cancer recurrence: The realities, challenges, and opportunities for new therapies.

Locoregional recurrence negatively impacts both long-term survival and quality of life for several malignancies. For appropriate-risk patients with an isolated, resectable, local recurrence, surgery represents the only potentially curative therapy. However, oncologic outcomes remain inferior for patients with locally recurrent disease even after macroscopically complete resection. Unfortunately, t...

Polarity protein Canoe mediates overproliferation via modulation of JNK, Ras-MAPK and Hippo signalling.

Over the past decade an intriguing connection between cell polarity and tumorigenesis has emerged. Multiple core components of the junction complexes that help to form and maintain cell polarity display both pro- and anti-tumorigenic functions in a context-dependent manner, with the underlying mechanisms poorly understood.

Hyperprogressive disease in patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated with nivolumab: A case series.

Nivolumab is an anti-PD-1 blocking monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, some patients on immunotherapy may experience rapid progression and worsening clinical status, known as hyperprogressive disease. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of patients with NSCLC administered nivolumab therapy at Toneyama National Hospital, Japan,...

Small-spot intensity-modulated proton therapy and volumetric-modulated arc therapies for patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: A dosimetric comparative study.

To compare dosimetric performance of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and small-spot intensity-modulated proton therapy for stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Concise Reviews: Cancer Stem Cell Targeted Therapies: Toward Clinical Success.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cells within tumors that possess the stem cell characteristics of self-renewal, quiescence, differentiation, and the ability to recapitulate the parental tumor when transplanted into a host. CSCs are correlated with poor clinical outcome due to their contribution to chemotherapy resistance and metastasis. Multiple cell surface and enzymatic markers h...

Inhibition of PLA2G4A Reduces the Expression of Lung Cancer-Related Cytokines.

Phospholipase A2-IVA (PLA2G4A) is the most abundant subtype of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and is an important enzyme in tumor development. Our study aimed to explore the role of PLA2G4A in the regulation of lung cancer. The contents of cell-related cytokines (microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 [mPGES], PGE2, and prostacyclin [PGI2]) in A549 cells were analyzed by ELISA kits. Cell coun...

Cancer rehabilitation: current trends and practices within an Austrian University Hospital Center†.

Cancer rehabilitation has the goal to improve functional status, quality of life, participation, and can improve quality of patient-centered programs and health care efficiencies. In Austria, inpatient cancer rehabilitation is well established but outpatient rehabilitation has not yet established well.

Let-7 microRNA as a potential therapeutic target with implications for immunotherapy.

MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of small non-coding RNA that play a major role in various cellular processes by negatively regulating gene expression. In the past decade, miRNA dysregulation has been reported to be closely linked to inflammatory diseases. The immune response modulates cancer initiation and progression; miRNAs including let-7 family members have been shown to act as key regulators of...

Binding of Pneumocystis carinii to the lung epithelial cell receptor HSPA5 (GRP78).

The importance of lung macrophages in Pneumocystis-host interaction is well known, but little is known about the initial binding/colonization of the airway epithelium. Our prior studies have documented cell-signalling events that occur following binding of the organisms to lung epithelial cells; however, the receptors that mediate Pneumocystis attachment to lung surfaces have not yet been fully de...

Validation of classic and expanded criteria for endoscopic submucosal dissection of early gastric cancer: 7 years of experience in a Western tertiary cancer center.

Our aim was to evaluate the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society criteria for endoscopic submucosal resection of early gastric cancer (EGC) based on the experience in a Brazilian cancer center.

RSPO3 promotes the aggressiveness of bladder cancer via Wnt/β-catenin and Hedgehog signaling pathways.

R-Spondin 3 (RSPO3) is a secreted protein that associates directly with Wnt/β-catenin signaling. However, its functional contribution and prognostic value in human bladder cancer remain unclear. Here, we showed that RSPO3 is upregulated in bladder cancer tissues and cells, and high expression of RSPO3 correlates with advanced clinicopathological features, poor prognosis and disease progression in...

Thyroid Ultrasound and the Increase in Diagnosis of Low-risk Thyroid Cancer.

Thyroid cancer incidence increased with the greatest change in adults aged ≥ 65.

CancerSEA: a cancer single-cell state atlas.

High functional heterogeneity of cancer cells poses a major challenge for cancer research. Single-cell sequencing technology provides an unprecedented opportunity to decipher diverse functional states of cancer cells at single-cell resolution, and cancer scRNA-seq datasets have been largely accumulated. This emphasizes the urgent need to build a dedicated resource to decode the functional states o...

Sociodemographic characteristics associated with thyroid cancer risk in Canada.

Thyroid cancer incidence in Canada has increased rapidly over the past 25 years. This study examines thyroid cancer incidence and relative risk according to individual-level sociodemographic characteristics in two population-based cohorts.

The prognostic and predictive impact of inflammatory biomarkers in patients who have advanced-stage cancer treated with immunotherapy.

Optimal prognostic and predictive biomarkers for patients with advanced-stage cancer patients who received immunotherapy (IO) are lacking. Inflammatory markers, such as the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), the monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), and the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), are readily available. The authors investigated the association between these markers and clinical outcom...

Return to work after breast cancer diagnosis: An observational prospective study in brazil.

In North America and Europe, return-to-work (RTW) rates vary among breast cancer (BC) survivors, from 24% to 66% and from 53% to 82% at 6 and 36 months after diagnosis, respectively. To date, there is a lack of data on RTW rates after BC diagnosis in Latin America. Therefore, the primary objectives of this study were to define RTW rates at 12 and 24 months after BC diagnosis and to identify the fa...

Frailty in geriatric head and neck cancer: A contemporary review.

To provide a summary of the current frailty literature relating to head and neck cancer.

Intensity-modulated radiotherapy improves survival and reduces treatment time in squamous cell carcinoma of the anus: a National Cancer Data Base study.

Chemoradiation with 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin remains the standard of care for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anal canal. A prolonged treatment time is associated with inferior disease-specific outcomes. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trial 0529 demonstrated decreased toxicity and fewer treatment breaks with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), but this has not been assessed in a ra...

MUC21 is a novel, negative immunohistochemical marker for epithelioid mesothelioma for its differentiation from lung adenocarcinoma.

The process of differential diagnosis between epithelioid mesothelioma and lung adenocarcinoma has been progressing; however, there are no absolute immunohistochemical markers to definitively diagnose epithelioid mesothelioma. The aim of this study was to search for a novel negative marker of epithelioid mesothelioma.

The role of the lung microbiota and the gut-lung axis in respiratory infectious diseases.

Unprovoked venous thromboembolism : should we look for occult cancer ?

Idiopathic venous thromboembolic disease may be the first manifestation of a cancer yet undiagnosed. Early detection of neoplasia may allow a timely management and a reduction of mortality. However, the nature and extent of screening for hidden cancer is still debated. The purpose of this article is to review the usefulness of occult cancer screening in patients with idiopathic venous thromboembol...

Cross-platform mechanical characterization of lung tissue.

Published data on the mechanical strength and elasticity of lung tissue is widely variable, primarily due to differences in how testing was conducted across individual studies. This makes it extremely difficult to find a benchmark modulus of lung tissue when designing synthetic extracellular matrices (ECMs). To address this issue, we tested tissues from various areas of the lung using multiple cha...

Introducing an expanded CAG tract into the huntingtin gene causes a wide spectrum of ultrastructural defects in cultured human cells.

Modeling of neurodegenerative diseases in vitro holds great promise for biomedical research. Human cell lines harboring a mutations in disease-causing genes are thought to recapitulate early stages of the development an inherited disease. Modern genome-editing tools allow researchers to create isogenic cell clones with an identical genetic background providing an adequate "healthy" control for bio...

Suppression of 18F-FDG signal in the bladder on small animal PET-CT.

Retention of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose 18F-FDG in the bladder causes more problems in small animal research than in human research owing to the smaller size of the subject. Catheterization has been proposed to reduce bladder spillover both in human studies and in small animal research. Noninvasive alternatives such as hydration plus furosemide also seem to be a promising pre-imaging strategy...

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