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GMO Crops Research

20:58 EDT 18th September 2018 | BioPortfolio

Realistic Procedural Plant Modeling from Multiple View Images.

In this paper, we describe a novel procedural modeling technique for generating realistic plant models from multi-view photographs. The realism is enhanced via visual and spatial information acquired from images. In contrast to previous approaches that heavily rely on user interaction to segment plants or recover branches in images, our method automatically estimates an accurate depth map of each ...

Nutrients, but not genetic diversity, affect Gracilaria chilensis (Rhodophyta) farming productivity and physiological responses.

In terrestrial plants, it is well known that genetic diversity can affect responses to abiotic and biotic stress and have important consequences on farming. However, very little is known about the interactive effects of genetic and environmental factors on seaweed crops. We conducted a field experiment on Gracilaria chilensis to determine the effect of heterozygosity and nutrient addition on two s...

Pest suppression in cultivar mixtures is influenced by neighbor-specific plant-plant communication.

Increased plant genotypic diversity in crop fields can promote ecosystem services including pest control, but understanding of mechanisms behind herbivore population responses to cultivar mixtures is limited. We studied aphid settling on barley plants exposed to volatiles from different cultivars, aphid population development in monocultures and two-cultivar mixtures, and differences in volatile c...

Attractive but toxic: Emerging roles of glycosidically bound volatiles and glycosyltransferases involved in their formation.

Plants emit an overabundance of volatile compounds, which serve their producers both as appreciated attractants to lure beneficial animals and repellent toxins to deter pests in a species-specific and concentration-dependent manner. Plants have evolved solutions to cope with the challenge to provide sufficient volatiles without poisoning themselves. Uridine-diphosphate sugar dependent glycosyltran...

Integrating bioavailability and soil aging in the derivation of DDT criteria for agricultural soils using crop species sensitivity distributions.

Although the agricultural use of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been banned for decades in many countries around the world, the detection of DDT and its metabolites in soils is very common due to their persistence. DDTs (sum of DDT and its metabolites) in farmland soils can be absorbed by crops at different levels and accumulate in the edible parts of agricultural products, posing threa...

Vector-transmission of plant viruses and constraints imposed by virus-vector interactions.

Because plants are sessile and their cells protected by a cell wall, the contact transmission of plant viruses is very rare. Almost all plant viruses are transmitted by vectors, which can be insects, nematodes, mites or fungi. Although very efficient, this mode of transmission is not trivial and imposes numerous constraints on viruses. In this review we show that these constraints apply at all sta...

New cues for body axis formation in plant embryos.

Plant embryogenesis initiates with the fusion of sperm and egg cell, and completes the generation of the basic outline of the future plant. Here, we summarize the recent findings about the signaling cascade triggering the zygotic transcription, and the intracellular events and regulatory factors involved in the formation of the two major body axes. We highlight the lack of systematic de novo trans...

Plant mRNA decay: extended roles and potential determinants.

The decay of mRNA in plants is tightly controlled and shapes the transcriptome. The roles of this process are to digest RNA as well as to suppress exogenous and endogenous gene silencing by preventing siRNA generation. Recent evidence suggests that mRNA decay also regulates the accumulation of the putative 3' fragment-derived long non-coding RNAs (3'lncRNAs). The generation of siRNA or 3'lncRNA fr...

Potential landscape-scale pollinator networks across Great Britain: structure, stability and influence of agricultural land cover.

Understanding spatial variation in the structure and stability of plant-pollinator networks, and their relationship with anthropogenic drivers, is key for maintaining pollination services and mitigating declines. Constructing sufficient networks to examine patterns over large spatial scales remains challenging. Using biological records (citizen science), we constructed potential plant-pollinator n...

Development of a whole plant bioassay to test effects of potentized calcium carbonate in pillule formulation.

From a pharmaceutical point of view, we see a need to develop stable preclinical test systems to identify and investigate effects of potentized remedies as used in Anthroposophic Medicine and Homeopathy. We evaluated a plant bioassay regarding its capacity to distinguish homeopathic remedies from placebo, applied as sucrose pillules.

Chronic musculoskeletal pain and function improve with a plant-based diet.

Chronic musculoskeletal pain, often debilitating, affects all genders, ethnicities, and age groups. Research suggests consumption of a plant-based diet may improve the status of persons with chronic pain. A diet rich in fruits, vegetables and whole grains has been shown to reduce chronic pain and disability associated with musculoskeletal conditions.

Information Processing and Distributed Computation in Plant Organs.

The molecular networks plant cells evolved to tune their development in response to the environment are becoming increasingly well understood. Much less is known about how these programs function in the multicellular context of organs and the impact this spatial embedding has on emergent decision-making. Here I address these questions and investigate whether the computational control principles id...

Agricultural adjuvants may impair leaf transpiration and photosynthetic activity.

Adjuvants such as surfactants are commonly incorporated into agrochemical formulations to enhance the biological efficiency of foliar sprays by improving the wetting behavior of the spray and/or the penetration of the active ingredients into the leaf tissues. Penetration accelerating adjuvants are known to increase the cuticular permeability and may alter the cuticular barrier to water loss. Howev...

Elevated CO2 (free-air CO2 enrichment) increases grain yield of aluminium-resistant but not aluminium-sensitive wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in an acid soil.

Soil acidity currently limits root growth and crop production in many regions, and climate change is leading to uncertainties regarding future food supply. However, it is unknown how elevated CO2 (eCO2) affects the performance of wheat crops in acid soils under field conditions. We investigated the effects of eCO2 on plant growth and yield of three pairs of near-isogenic hexaploid wheat lines diff...

SMAD7 in keratinocytes promotes skin carcinogenesis by activating ATM-dependent DNA repair and an EGFR-mediated cell proliferation pathway.

SMAD7 is a general inhibitor of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling that acts through interaction and degradation of TGF-β receptors. SMAD7 has been demonstrated to be transcriptionally upregulated in chemical-induced skin tumors and TGF-β-treated normal keratinocytes. To evaluate the function of SMAD7 in skin carcinogenesis in vivo, Smad7 transgenic mice that specifically express e...

Cesium Inhibits Plant Growth Primarily through Reduction of Potassium Influx and Accumulation in Arabidopsis.

Cesium (Cs+) is known to compete with the macronutrient potassium (K+) inside and outside of plants and inhibit plant growth at high concentrations. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms of how Cs+ exerts its deleterious effects on K+ accumulation in plants are not fully elucidated. Here, we show that mutation in a member of the major K+ channel AKT1-KC1 complex renders Arabidopsis thaliana h...

Accelerating Soybean Breeding in a CO2-Supplemented Growth Chamber.

Soybean (Glycine max) is the most important dicot crop worldwide, and is increasingly used as a model legume due to the wide availability of genomic soybean resources; however, the slow generation times of soybean plants are currently a major hindrance to research. Here, we demonstrate a method for accelerating soybean breeding in compact growth chambers, which greatly shortens the generation time...

Promoter variations in a homeobox gene, BnA10.LMI1, determine lobed leaves in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

BnA10.LMI1 positively regulates the development of leaf lobes in Brassica napus, and cis-regulatory divergences cause the different allele effects. Leaf shape is an important agronomic trait, and large variations in this trait exist within the Brassica germplasm. The lobed leaf is a unique morphological characteristic for Brassica improvement. Nevertheless, the molecular basis of leaf lobing in Br...

Discovery and mechanism study of a novel chromium-accumulating plant, Lonicera japonica Thunb.

Finding chromium-accumulating plants is of great interest for phytoremediation of soil contaminated by chromium (Cr). Inspired by Traditional Chinese Medicine, we examined the Cr-resistance and Cr-accumulation of Lonicera japonica Thunb. After a two-phase study using both soil and water culture, we found that L. japonica could be a novel Cr-accumulating plant, which contains an average Cr(III) con...

Zinc finger nuclease-mediated targeting of multiple transgenes to an endogenous soybean genomic locus via non-homologous end joining.

Emerging genome editing technologies hold great promise for the improvement of agricultural crops. Several related genome editing methods currently in development utilize engineered, sequence-specific endonucleases to generate DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) at user-specified genomic loci. These DSBs subsequently result in small insertions/deletions (indels), base substitutions, or incorporation o...

Removal of soil biota alters soil feedback effects on plant growth and defense chemistry.

We examined how removal of soil biota affects plant-soil feedback (PSF) and defense chemistry of Jacobaea vulgaris, an outbreak plant species in Europe containing defense compounds pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Macrofauna and mesofauna, as well as fungi and bacteria were removed size-selectively from unplanted soil, or soil with J. vulgaris exposed or not to above- or belowground insect herbivore...

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria promote plant size inequality.

The uniformity of crop yield is extremely important for consumers and of as much relevance to the grower as overall yield. However, size inequality within a plant population is rarely measured and has never before been considered in relation to the use of beneficial microbes for yield enhancement. For the first time, we show that addition of soil bacteria to calabrese plants significantly increase...

Germanium in the soil-plant system-a review.

Germanium (Ge) is widespread in the Earth's crust. As a cognate element to silicon (Si), Ge shows very similar chemical characteristics. Recent use of Ge/Si to trace Si cycles and changes in weathering over time, growing demand for Ge as raw material, and consequently an increasing interest in Ge phytomining have contributed to a growing interest in this previously rather scarcely considered eleme...

Organic matter facilitates the binding of Pb to iron oxides in a subtropical contaminated soil.

The bioavailability and potential uptake of heavy metals by crops is fundamentally influenced by the forms of metals in soils. Organic matter plays an important role in controlling the transformation of heavy metal fractionations in soils. However, long-term effects of organic matter on heavy metal speciation remains highly uncertain. In this study, rice straw was introduced to a subtropical Pb-co...

Enhanced production of phenolic compounds in hairy root cultures of Polygonum multiflorum and its metabolite discrimination using HPLC and FT-IR methods.

Hairy root cultures (HRCs) are characterized by fast and unlimited root growth, and they have greater genetic stability than other cultivation methods. HRCs are known to accumulate phytochemical levels comparable to those of intact plant. In this study, HRCs of Polygonum multiflorum were established from leaf explants infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain KCCM 11879. Over 60% of the explan...

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