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GMO Crops Research

18:34 EDT 20th July 2018 | BioPortfolio

Plant diversity and density predict belowground diversity and function in an early successional alpine ecosystem.

Despite decades of interest, few studies have provided evidence supporting theoretical expectations for coupled relationships between aboveground and belowground diversity and ecosystem functioning in non-manipulated natural ecosystems. We characterized plant species richness and density, soil bacterial, fungal and eukaryotic species richness and phylogenetic diversity (using 16S, ITS, and 18S gen...

How to design for a tailored subcellular distribution of systemic agrochemicals in plant tissues.

Foliar applied systemic agrochemicals require the entrance into the plant vascular system or into specific subcellular compartments to reach their target in planta or to be imbibed by piercing-sucking pests. An inappropriate subcellular localization, like accumulation of aphicides in vacuoles, might lower compound efficiency due to reduced exposure to the target. Permeabilities and mass distributi...

Effects of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis cotton on insecticide use, heliothine counts, plant damage, and cotton yield: A meta-analysis, 1996-2015.

The primary management tactic for lepidopteran pests of cotton in the United States of America (USA) is the use of transgenic cotton that produces Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) toxins. The primary target pests of this technology are Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Heliothis virescens (F.) in the eastern and central Cotton Belt of the USA. Concerns over the evolution of resistance in H. zea to ...

Is there more than the sewage plant? University freshmen's conceptions of the urban water cycle.

The concepts of 340 university freshmen concerning urban water cycles include various misconceptions (or intuitive conceptions) which severely contrast with correct scientific ones. Almost no student knew the correct urban water cycle in total, including cycle steps in the appropriate sequence: consumer (given), sewage-plant, nature and waterworks. Concepts mainly omit nature and waterworks, only ...

Genetic Fine-Mapping of a Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Associated with Embryogenic Tissue Culture Response and Plant Regeneration Ability in Maize ( L.).

Embryogenic and regenerable tissue cultures are widely utilized in plant transformation, clonal propagation, and biological research applications. Germplasm utilized in those applications are limited, however, due to genotype-dependent culture response. The goal of this study was to identify genomic regions controlling embryogenic and regenerable tissue culture response in the globally important c...

Simulated Soil Organic Carbon Response to Tillage, Yield, and Climate Change in the Southeastern Coastal Plains.

Intensive tillage, low-residue crops, and a warm, humid climate have contributed to soil organic carbon (SOC) loss in the southeastern Coastal Plains region. Conservation (CnT) tillage and winter cover cropping are current management practices to rebuild SOC; however, there is sparse long-term field data showing how these management practices perform under variable climate conditions. The objectiv...

Availability of Phosphorus after Long-term Whole and Separated Slurry Application to Perennial Grass prior to Corn Silage.

Removing solids from whole dairy slurry (WS) can reduce P loading on fields. This study investigated the effects of 11 yr of applications of WS, separated liquid fraction (LF), commercial fertilizer, WS plus fertilizer, and a control on total and extractable (Kelowna) soil P in perennial grass ( Schreb.) and two subsequent silage corn ( L.) crops. Plots received 200 kg N ha with or without 40 kg P...

Modeling Regional Effects of Climate Change on Soil Organic Carbon in Spain.

Soil organic C (SOC) stock assessments at the regional scale under climate change scenarios are of paramount importance in implementing soil management practices to mitigate climate change. In this study, we estimated the changes in SOC sequestration under climate change conditions in agricultural land in Spain using the RothC model at the regional level. Four Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Ch...

Implications of Observed and Simulated Soil Carbon Sequestration for Management Options in Corn-based Rotations.

Managing cropping systems to sequester soil organic C (SOC) improves soil health and resilience to changing climate. Perennial crops, no-till planting, manure, and cover crops can add SOC; however, their impacts have not been well documented in the northeastern United States. Our objectives were (i) to monitor SOC from a bioenergy cropping study in Pennsylvania that included a corn ( L.)-soybean [...

Assessing the Impact of Non-Urea Ruminant Urine Nitrogen Compounds on Urine Patch Nitrous Oxide Emissions.

Urea, the dominant form of N in ruminant urine, degrades in soil to produce NO emissions. However, the fate of non-urea urine N compounds (NUNCs) in soil and their contribution to urine patch NO emissions remain unclear. This study evaluated five NUNCs: allantoin (10%), creatinine (3%), creatine (3%), uric acid (1%), and (hypo)xanthine (0.6%), where numbers in parentheses represent the average per...

Climate Change Impacts on Yields and Soil Carbon in Row Crop Dryland Agriculture.

Dryland agroecosystems could be a sizable sink for atmospheric carbon (C) due to their spatial extent and level of degradation, providing climate change mitigation. We examined productivity and soil C dynamics under two climate change scenarios (moderate warming, representative concentration pathway [RCP] 4.5; and high warming, RCP 8.5), using long-term experimental data and the DayCent process-ba...

Biodegradation of di-butyl phthalate (DBP) by a novel endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis and its bioaugmentation for removing DBP from vegetation slurry.

Di-butyl phthalate (DBP) is a widely used plasticizer, recalcitrant and hazardous organic compound with high detection frequencies and concentrations in water and soil that pose a great threat to human health. A novel endphytic bacterium strain N-1 capable of efficiently degrading DBP and utilizing it as sole carbon source was isolated from Ageratum conyzoides. This bacterium was identified as Bac...

Arundo donax L. can substitute traditional energy crops for more efficient, environmentally-friendly production of biogas: A Life Cycle Assessment approach.

Maize silage contributes to biogas production in Lombardy Region (400 anaerobic digestion plants) employing 47,000 Ha (Production Model - PM1). Reducing the area devoted to this energy crop is a goal to free soil for food production. Double cropping (PM2) and Arundo donax L. (PM3) have been proposed and tested to measure the impacts for the three Production Models by Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)....

Design and evaluation of a sequence capture system for genome-wide SNP genotyping in highly heterozygous plant genomes: a case study with a keystone Neotropical hardwood tree genome.

Targeted sequence capture coupled to high-throughput sequencing has become a powerful method for the study of genome-wide sequence variation. Following our recent development of a genome assembly for the Pink Ipê tree (Handroanthus impetiginosus), a widely distributed Neotropical timber species, we now report the development of a set of 24,751 capture probes for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (S...

Assessments of Temporal Variations in Haplotypes of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' and Its Vector, the Potato Psyllid, in Potato Fields and Native Vegetation.

The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), had been known for nearly a century to cause psyllid yellows of solanaceous crops. However, it has only been a decade since the insect was discovered to transmit the bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (Lso), which putatively causes potato zebra chip disease. This project was initiated to quantify temporal incid...

New insights into the plant epitranscriptome.

Throughout all kingdoms of life, ribonucleotides are marked with covalent chemical modifications that change the structure and binding properties of modified RNA molecules. These marks are deposited by "writer" proteins, recognized by "readers", and removed by "erasers", thus forming an epitranscriptomic system of marks and binding proteins directly analogous to the epigenome. Recent advances in m...

A zinc finger transcriptional repressor confers pleiotropic effects on rice growth and drought tolerance by down-regulating stress-responsive genes.

The C2H2-type zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) are involved in a wide range of plant development and stress responses. Many studies have shown the positive roles of ZFP genes in stress tolerance. However, overexpression of ZFP genes usually leads to the side effect of growth retardation. Here we report a new member of ZFP family, Oryza sativa drought responsive zinc finger protein 1 (OsDRZ1) positively...

The Quantitative Genetic Control of Root Architecture in Maize.

Roots remain an under-explored frontier in plant genetics despite their well-known influence on plant development, agricultural performance, and competition in the wild. Visualizing and measuring root structures and their growth is vastly more difficult than characterizing aboveground parts of the plant and is often simply avoided. The majority of research on maize root systems has focused on thei...

The control effect of fungicide pyraclostrobin against freckle disease of banana and its residue dynamics under field conditions.

Fungicide pyraclostrobin has been widely employed to control plant diseases by inhibiting the mitochondrial respiration of pathogenic fungi. Due to its broad spectrum, the extensive use of pyraclorstrobin was reported to cause emerging resistance on crops. Here, we evaluated the control effect of 250 g L of pyrachlostrobin suspension concentrate (SC) against freckle disease (caused by Phyllostict...

Barley heads east: Genetic analyses reveal routes of spread through diverse Eurasian landscapes.

One of the world's most important crops, barley, was domesticated in the Near East around 11,000 years ago. Barley is a highly resilient crop, able to grown in varied and marginal environments, such as in regions of high altitude and latitude. Archaeobotanical evidence shows that barley had spread throughout Eurasia by 2,000 BC. To further elucidate the routes by which barley cultivation was sprea...

Characterization of wheat (Triticum aestivum) TIFY family and role of Triticum Durum TdTIFY11a in salt stress tolerance.

The TIFY proteins constitute a plant-specific super-family and they are involved in regulating many plant processes, such as development, defences and stress responses. The Jasmonate-ZIM-Domain (JAZ) proteins, the best-characterized sub-group of the TIFY family are key regulator of the jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathway. Jasmonates regulate several aspects of plant development, and play a prima...

Inheritance and QTL mapping of cucumber mosaic virus resistance in cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.).

The commercial yield of cucurbit crops infected with Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) severely decreases. Chemical treatments against CMV are not effective; therefore, genetic resistance is considered the primary line of defense. Here, we studied resistance to CMV in cucumber inbred line '02245' using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population generated from a cross between '65G' and '02245' as suscept...

Adaptive Foraging of Pollinators Can Promote Pollination of a Rare Plant Species.

Most pollinators have the foraging flexibility to visit a wide variety of plant species. Yet few studies of pollinator-mediated processes in plants have considered the effects of variation in individual foraging patterns on plant reproductive success. In this study, we use an individual-based model of pollinator foraging economics to predict how visitation rates and pollination success of two cofl...

Cognitive Performance in Indian School-Going Adolescents Is Positively Affected by Consumption of Iron-Biofortified Pearl Millet: A 6-Month Randomized Controlled Efficacy Trial.

Iron deficiency remains the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency globally, but few studies have examined how iron status relates to cognition in adolescents. Iron biofortification of staple food crops is being scaled up, yet it is unknown whether consuming biofortified crops can benefit cognition.

Potato snakin-1 gene enhances tolerance to Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in transgenic lettuce plants.

Snakin-1 is a cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptide (AMP) isolated from potato tubers, with broad-spectrum activity. It belongs to the Snakin/GASA family, whose members have been studied because of their diverse roles in important plant processes, including defense. To analyze if this defensive function may lead to disease tolerance in lettuce, one of the most worldwide consumed leafy vegetable, we ...

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