Advertisement

Topics

GMO Crops Research

06:41 EST 21st November 2018 | BioPortfolio

Community dynamics can modify the direction of simulated warming effects on crop yield.

Climate change affects agriculture through a range of direct and indirect pathways. These include direct changes to impacts of pests and diseases on crops and indirect effects produced by interactions between organisms. It remains unclear whether the net effects of these biotic influences will be beneficial or detrimental to crop yield because few studies consider multiple interactions within comm...

Automated phenotyping for early vigour of field pea seedlings in controlled environment by colour imaging technology.

Early vigour of seedlings is a beneficial trait of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) that contributes to weed control, water use efficiency and is likely to contribute to yield under certain environments. Although breeding is considered the most effective approach to improve early vigour of field pea, the absence of a robust and high-throughput phenotyping tool to dissect this complex trait is currentl...

Crop diversity and stability of revenue on farms in Central Europe: An analysis of big data from a comprehensive agricultural census in Bavaria.

Diversity of agricultural landscapes is important to maintain the provision of ecosystem services. In face of decreasing support measures for agricultural markets in the European Union, diversified crop portfolios could also offer a possibility to stabilize revenue at farm level (portfolio effect). We hypothesize that (i) diversity of crop portfolios changes along spatial gradients in the study ar...

Tolerance to seed predation mediated by seed size increases at lower latitudes in a Mediterranean oak.

The ability of plants to allocate energy to resistance against herbivores changes with abiotic conditions and thus may vary along geographical clines, with important consequences for plant communities. Seed size is a plant trait potentially influencing plant tolerance to endoparasites, and seed size often varies across latitude. Consequently, plant tolerance to endoparasites may change across geog...

A Novel Pollen Transfer Mechanism by Honey Bee Foragers on Highbush Blueberry (Ericales: Ericaceae).

Honey bees (Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae)) are effective pollinators of many crops but are thought to be inefficient in pollinating blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) due to their inability to buzz pollinate. Nonetheless, commercial growers rent honey bee hives for pollination, resulting in the dominance of honey bee workers visiting flowers during bloom. The objective of this study w...

Electron tomography in plant cell biology.

Electron tomography (ET) approaches are based on the imaging of a biological specimen at different tilt angles by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). ET can be applied to both plastic-embedded and frozen samples. Technological advancements in TEM, direct electron detection, automated image collection, and imaging processing algorithms allow for 2-7-nm scale axial resolution in tomographic reco...

Starch granule initiation and morphogenesis - progress in Arabidopsis and cereals.

Starch, the major storage carbohydrate in plants, is synthesised in plastids as semi-crystalline, insoluble granules. Many organs and cell types accumulate starch at some point during their development and maturation. The biosynthesis of the starch polymers, amylopectin and amylose, is relatively well understood and mostly conserved between organs and species. However, we are only beginning to und...

A moso bamboo drought-induced 19 protein, PeDi19-4, enhanced drought and salt tolerance in plants via the ABA-dependent signaling pathway.

Here, ten drought-induced 19 proteins (Di19) from Phyllostachys edulis were analyzed and an important stress-related candidate gene (PeDi19-4) was isolated based on analysis of phylogenetic relationships and expression profiles. PeDi19-4 is a nuclear localization protein that can bind the conserved TACA(A/G)T sequence, as determined using EMSA. PeDi19-4 has no transcriptional activity in yeast but...

Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of glycine-rich RNA-binding protein family in sweet potato wild relative Ipomoea trifida.

Glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins (GRPs) contain RNA recognition motif (RRM) and glycine-rich domains at the N- or C-terminus, respectively, and they participate in varied physiological and biochemical processes, as well as environmental stresses. Sweet potato from the genus Ipomoea is one of the most important crops. However, the role of the GRP gene family in Ipomoea plant species has not been r...

Local Auxin Biosynthesis Mediates Plant Growth and Development.

Auxin is one of the most important plant hormones controlling various aspects of plant growth and development. Here, we highlight three recent papers that shed light on how local auxin biosynthesis contributes to plant growth and development in response to endogenous developmental signals and exogenous environmental cues, such as shade and aluminum stress.

Ameliorative effect of Argyreia boseana Sant. & Pat. on stress in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Argyreia boseana Santapau and Patel commonly known as Kumbharao belongs to the family of Convolvulaceae. The plant is rare in distribution and found chiefly in the dediapada region of Gujarat. Traditionally it is used by the tribals of south Gujarat forest region in the treatment of various diseases of the nervous system. In order to study the scientific basis of the plants effect we set out to in...

N-Methyladenine DNA Methylation in Japonica and Indica Rice Genomes and Its Association with Gene Expression, Plant Development and Stress Responses.

N-methyladenine (6mA) DNA methylation has recently been implicated as a potential new epigenetic marker in eukaryotes, including the dicot model Arabidopsis thaliana. However, conservation and divergence of 6mA distribution patterns and the relevant functions in plants remain elusive. Here we report high-quality 6mA methylomes at single-nucleotide resolution in rice based on substantially improved...

Optimization and validation of extraction and quantification methods of antimalarial triterpenic esters in Keetia leucantha plant and plasma.

The aim of this study is to develop validated methods for the extraction and quantification of antimalarial triterpene esters from Keetia leucantha and from plasma samples. These compounds, showing in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activities, were optimally extracted from Keetia leucantha twigs using ultrasounds with dichloromethane and from plasma using protein precipitation with acetonitrile....

How could phytoextraction reduce Cd content in soils under annual crops? Simulations in the French context.

Human populations are threatened by chronic exposure to the Cd accumulated in foods after being taken up from soils by crops. To evaluate how phytoextraction with the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens as an annual crop or as a cover crop could modify the Cd mass balance in French agricultural soils, we simulated this process according to two scenarios. If current practices are maintained (firs...

Spatial analysis of energy use and GHG emissions from cereal production in India.

Agriculture contributes 18% of India's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Yet, little is known about the energy requirements of individual crops, making it difficult to link nutrition-enhancing dietary changes to energy consumption and climate change. We estimate the energy and CO intensity of food grains (rice, wheat, sorghum, maize, pearl millet and finger millet) taking into account their irrigati...

Community composition, structure and productivity in response to nitrogen and phosphorus additions in a temperate meadow.

Global nitrogen (N) enrichment likely alters plant community composition and increases productivity, consequently affecting ecosystem stability. Meanwhile, the effects of N addition on plant community composition and productivity are often influenced by phosphorus (P) nutrition, as the effects of N and P addition and interactions between N and P on plant community structure and productivity are st...

Health implication of heavy metals exposure via multiple pathways for residents living near a former e-waste recycling area in China: A comparative study.

Herein, crop (vegetables and rice, n = 30), soil (n = 14), dust (n = 12), and PM10 (n = 25) samples were collected to assess the environmental quality of a former e-waste recycling area and evaluate the related health risks. In dust and PM, the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were lower than previously reported values, although the numbers for soil, vegetabl...

Impacts of the mycotoxin zearalenone on growth and photosynthetic responses in laboratory populations of freshwater macrophytes (Lemna minor) and microalgae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata).

Mycotoxins are an important class of chemicals of emerging concern, recently detected in aquatic environments, potentially reflecting the influence of fungicide resistance and climatic factors on fungal diseases in agricultural crops. Zearalenone (ZON) is a mycotoxin formed by Fusarium spp. and is known for its biological activity in animal tissues; both in vitro and in vivo. ZON has been reported...

Enhanced phytoremediation of uranium-contaminated soils by arbuscular mycorrhiza and rhizobium.

Uranium phytoextraction is a promising technology, however, facing difficult that limited plant biomass due to nutrient deficiency in the contaminated sites. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of a symbiotic associations of a legume Sesbania rostrata, rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) for reclamation of uranium contaminated soils. Results showed AMF and rhizobia had a ...

Experimental study on the carcinogenic effects of pesticides with ascertained carcinogenic activity under the conditions of its simultaneous influence on the organism of laboratory animals.

Introduction: It is known that pesticides have both short-term and long-term effects of the action on the human body. Today, taking into account the growth rate of the agricultural crops protection means' market and the expansion of the range of pesticide mixtures and combined formulations, there is a need for a more in-depth study of its possible effects on the environment and the human body. Rec...

Connecting genome structural variation with complex traits in crop plants.

Structural genome variation is a major determinant of useful trait diversity. We describe how genome analysis methods are enabling discovery of trait-associated structural variants and their potential impact on breeding. As our understanding of complex crop genomes continues to grow, there is growing evidence that structural genome variation plays a major role in determining traits important for b...

Community Response to Extreme Drought (CRED): a framework for drought-induced shifts in plant-plant interactions.

As climate changes, many regions of the world are projected to experience more intense droughts, which can drive changes in plant community composition through a variety of mechanisms. During drought, community composition can respond directly to resource limitation, but biotic interactions modify the availability of these resources. Here, we develop the Community Response to Extreme Drought frame...

Accumulation patterns of endogenous β-aminobutyric acid during plant development and defense in Arabidopsis thaliana.

We have recently discovered that β-aminobutyric acid (BABA), a molecule known for its ability to prime defenses in plants, is a natural plant metabolite. However, the role played by endogenous BABA in plants is currently unknown. In this study we investigated the systemic accumulation of BABA during pathogen infection, the levels of BABA during plant growth and development, and analyzed mutants p...

Reward regulation in plant-frugivore networks requires only weak cues.

Theory assumes that fair trade among mutualists requires highly reliable communication. In plant-animal mutualisms the reliability of cues that indicate reward quality is often low. Therefore, it is controversial whether communication allows animal mutualists to regulate their reward intake. Here we show that even loose relationships between fruit brightness and nutritional rewards (r = 0.11-0...

ADP-Ribosylation Factor-Like 2 (ARL2) regulates cilia stability and development of outer segments in rod photoreceptor neurons.

Photoreceptor cells are specialized neurons with a sensory cilium carrying an elaborate membrane structure, the outer segment (OS). Inherited mutations in genes involved in ciliogenesis frequently result in OS malformation and blindness. ADP-ribosylation factor-like 2 (ARL2) has recently been implicated in OS formation through its association with Binder of ARL2 (BART or ARL2BP), a protein linked ...

Advertisement
Quick Search
Advertisement
Advertisement

 

review and buy GMO Crops market research data and corporate reports here