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Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV) Research

07:51 EDT 23rd October 2018 | BioPortfolio

Hepatitis C Virus in Women of Childbearing Age, Pregnant Women, and Children.

Perinatal transmission is an increasingly important mode of hepatitis C virus transmission. The authors characterized U.S. births among hepatitis C virus-infected women and evaluated trends in hepatitis C virus testing and positivity in women of childbearing age, pregnant women, and children aged less than 5years.

Varicella-Zoster Virus in Cerebrospinal Fluid at Relapses of Multiple Sclerosis is Infective in Vitro.

We have reported the presence of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA and viral particles in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients during exacerbation. It is not known whether these viruses are infective.

Adherence to Universal Travel Screening in the Emergency Department During Epidemic Ebola Virus Disease.

During the 2014 West African Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that all emergency department (ED) patients undergo travel screening for risk factors of importing EVD.

Pathogenesis of and New Therapies for Hepatitis D.

Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection of humans was first reported in 1977, and now it is now estimated that 15-20 million people are infected worldwide. Infection with HDV can be an acute or chronic process that occurs only in patients with an HBV infection. Chronic HDV infection commonly results in the most rapidly progressive form of viral hepatitis; it is the chronic viral infection that is mo...

Freeze-dried bioadhesive vaginal bigels for controlled release of Tenofovir.

Nowadays, million women live with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) worldwide and many of them are dying per year, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. The development of systems that can be accessed by this population group to prevent the sexual transmission of the virus is therefore necessary. The aim of this work was the formulation of freeze-dried bioadhesive vaginal bigels releasing Tenof...

Phytophthora infestans RNA virus 2, a novel RNA virus from Phytophthora infestans, does not belong to any known virus group.

Phytophthora infestans is the causal agent of potato and tomato late blight. In this study, we obtained the complete genome sequence of a novel RNA virus from this plant pathogen, tentatively named "Phytophthora infestans RNA virus 2" (PiRV-2). The PiRV-2 genome is 11,170 nt in length and lacks a polyA tail. It contains a single large open reading frame (ORF) with short 5' and 3' untranslated regi...

PARV4 found in wild chimpanzee faeces: an alternate route of transmission?

Human parvovirus 4 (PARV4, family Parvoviridae, genus Tetraparvovirus) displays puzzling features, such as uncertain clinical importance/significance, unclear routes of transmission, and discontinuous geographical distribution. The origin, or the general reservoir, of human PARV4 infection is unknown. We aimed to detect and characterize PARV4 virus in faecal samples collected from two wild chimpan...

Purinoceptor expression in hepatocellular virus (HCV)-induced and non-HCV hepatocellular carcinoma: an insight into the proviral role of the P2X4 receptor.

The basic idea behind this study was to discover the association and prevalence of purinoceptors in hepatitis C virus (HCV) and non-HCV hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Immunohistochemistry was performed to study the expression of P2X4 and P2X7 receptors on ex-planted liver tissue samples that were collected from HCC patients. Antibodies specific for the P2X4 and P2X7 receptors were used to target ...

Comparison of Schmallenberg virus sequences isolated from mammal host and arthropod vector.

Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is the member of Peribunyaviridae family, which comprises pathogens of importance for human and veterinary medicine. The virus is transmitted only between animals and mainly by biting midges of the genus Culicoides. This study was performed in order to determine SBV genetic diversity and elucidate the host-vector adaptation. All three viral segments were analysed for sequ...

Hepatitis E Virus-Associated Acute Encephalitic Parkinsonism.

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common infection worldwide and is an emerging infectious disease in the developed countries. The unique characteristics of HEV is that it displays different epidemiological and clinical characteristics between developing and developed countries. Neurological disorders are emerging extra hepatic manifestations of both acute and chronic Hepatitis E virus infection. We re...

CYP1A1 and 1B1-mediated metabolic pathways of dolutegravir, an HIV-1 integrase inhibitor.

Dolutegravir (DTG), a potent integrase inhibitor, is part of a recommended initial regimen for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Prior reports demonstrated that the clearance of DTG was higher in current smokers than non- smokers, but the mechanism remains unclear. Using a metabolomic approach, M4 (an aldehyde) was identified as a novel metabolite of DTG. In addition, the format...

NK-cell responses are biased towards CD16-mediated effector functions in chronic Hepatitis B virus infection.

Phenotypical and functional NK-cell alterations are well described in chronic Hepatitis B virus (cHBV) infection. However, it is largely unknown whether these alterations result from general effects on the overall NK-cell population or the emergence of distinct NK-cell subsets. Indeed, memory-like NK cells emerge in association with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection that is common in cHBV inf...

FRET-based assay using a three-way junction DNA substrate to identify inhibitors of human cytomegalovirus pUL89 endonuclease activity.

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) packages its viral genome using a multi-protein complex often called the terminase complex. The terminase complex promotes the packaging of a single copy of the double-stranded viral DNA genome by cleaving concatemeric genomic DNA during particle assembly. The endonuclease activity necessary to cleave the viral genomic DNA derives from a terminase complex protein, pUL8...

The effect of a Brief HIV Prevention Program on Risk Reduction Behaviors among Thai Men Diagnosed with Sexually Transmitted Infections.

To test the effectiveness of a brief Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevention program on HIV and STIs knowledge, perceived benefits of condom use, risk reduction self-efficacy, risk reduction behaviors and reinfection rate among Thai males with sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Achieving Sustainable Development Goals for HIV/AIDS in the Republic of Congo - Progress, Obstacles and Challenges in HIV/AIDS Health Services.

The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic continues to be a major global public health issue. Since 2012, there has been a paucity of information from the RoC on HIV incidence and prevalence rates, national HIV program effectiveness, HAART rollout, patient adherence to treatment, operational and basic science research studies on HIV/AIDS, and donor funding and its impact from the RoC. We con...

Novel natural non-nucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase identified by shape- and structure-based virtual screening techniques.

In this work we report a parallel application of both docking- and shape-based virtual screening (VS) methods, followed by Molecular Dynamics simulations (MDs), for discovering new compounds able to inhibit the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity. Specifically, we screened more than 143000 natural compounds commercially avail...

Virus-Induced Immunosuppression in Chickens.

A healthy immune system is a cornerstone for poultry production. Any factor diminishing the immune responses will affect production parameters and increase cost. There are numerous factors, infectious and noninfectious, causing immunosuppression (IS) in chickens. This paper reviews the three viral diseases that most commonly induce IS or subclinical IS in chickens: Marek's disease virus (MDV), chi...

HIV-related Malignancies and Mimics: Imaging Findings and Management.

The risk of developing malignancy is higher in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection than in non-HIV-infected patients. Several factors including immunosuppression, viral coinfection, and high-risk lifestyle choices lead to higher rates of cancer in the HIV-infected population. A subset of HIV-related malignancies are considered to be acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-...

Herpes Simplex Virus type-1 infection affects the expression of extracellular matrix components in human nucleus pulposus cells.

Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration has a complex multifactorial origin and it is tightly associated with changes in the secretion of proteoglycans and collagen of the Nucleus Pulposus (NP) extracellular matrix. Chronic infection by Herpes virus has been previously associated with disc degeneration after detection of Herpes Simplex Virus type-1 (HSV-1) and CMV DNA in human excised disc samples....

Tangeretin, an extract from Citrus peels, blocks cellular entry of arenaviruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fever.

The family Arenaviridae consists of numerous enveloped RNA viruses with ambisense coding strategies. Eight arenaviruses, including Lassa virus, are known to cause severe and fatal viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in humans, yet vaccines and treatments for disease caused by arenaviruses are very limited. In this study, we screened a natural product library consisting of 131 compounds and identified ta...

Vitamin D derivatives inhibit hepatitis C virus production through the suppression of apolipoprotein.

Supplementation with vitamin D (VD) has been reported to improve the efficacy of interferon-based therapy for chronic hepatitis C. We found that 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-(OH)D), one of the metabolites of VD, has antiviral effects by inhibiting the infectious virus production of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). In this study, to clarify the underlying mechanisms of the anti-HCV effects, we searched VD d...

Immunosuppression for immunodeficiency- getting smarter.

The Impact of Endogenous Breast Cancer Resistance Protein on Human P-glycoprotein-mediated Transport Assays Using LLC-PK1 Cells Transfected with Human P-glycoprotein.

Location is everything: protein translocations as a viral infection strategy.

Protein movement between different subcellular compartments is an essential aspect of biological processes, including transcriptional and metabolic regulation, and immune and stress responses. As obligate intracellular parasites, viruses are master manipulators of cellular composition and organization. Accumulating evidences have highlighted the importance of infection-induced protein translocatio...

A Mechanism for the Activation of the Influenza Virus Transcriptase.

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