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Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV) Research

09:48 EST 14th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

Advancements in Life Cycle Human Exposure and Toxicity Characterization.

The Life Cycle Initiative, hosted at the United Nations Environment Programme, selected human toxicity impacts from exposure to chemical substances as an impact category that requires global guidance to overcome current assessment challenges. The initiative leadership established the Human Toxicity Task Force to develop guidance on assessing human exposure and toxicity impacts. Based on input gath...

Spatial Patterns and Risk Factors of Bluetongue Virus Infection in Inner Mongolia, China.

Bluetongue (BT) is a noncontagious disease affecting domestic and wild ruminants. Outbreaks of BT can cause serious economic losses. Although the causative agent, BT virus (BTV) is endemic in China, a comprehensive analysis has yet to be conducted examining the spatial distribution and risk factors of the virus throughout the Inner Mongolia province. Between June 2013 and February 2015, a total of...

Analysis and insights into recombination signals in lumpy skin disease virus recovered in the field.

Wide spread incidences of vaccine-like strains of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) have recently been reported in a Russian region with a neighboring country that actively vaccinate with a live attenuated LSD vaccine. The use of live-attenuated viruses (LAVs) as vaccines during an active outbreak, creates potential ground for coinfection of hosts and emergence of a strain combining genetic fragment...

Characterization of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 genetic variants and application towards RT-qPCR assay design.

Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) is the most widely prevalent and economically important of the complex of RNA viruses associated with grapevine leafroll disease (GLD). Phylogenetic studies have grouped GLRaV-3 isolates into nine different monophyletic groups and four supergroups, making GLRaV-3 a genetically highly diverse virus species. In addition, new divergent variants have bee...

Loss of Transfected Human Brain Micro-Vascular Endothelial Cell Integrity during Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

Herpes simplex virus infection through the neuronal route is the most well-studied mode of viral encephalitis that can persists in a human host for a lifetime. However, the involvement of other possible infection mechanisms by the virus remains underexplored. Therefore, this study aims to determine the temporal effects and mechanisms by which the virus breaches the human brain micro-vascular endot...

CCR5 deficiency enhances hepatic innate immune cell recruitment & inflammation in a murine model of acute hepatitis B infection.

Human genetic studies demonstrate a link between the 32-bp deletion that produces a nonfunctional CCR5 receptor (CCR5∆32) and enhanced recovery from acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. To investigate the role of CCR5 in immune responses to acute HBV, we intravenously infected Ccr5 (WT) and Ccr5 (KO) mice with a replication-incompetent adenovirus containing the overlapping HBV1.3 construct (...

Management and treatment of the HCV-infected kidney transplant patient.

The prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection is increased in patients with end stage kidney disease compared to the general population and is an adverse outcome determinant. Direct-acting antiviral therapy for hepatitis C virus is changing the management paradigm of infected kidney transplant candidates and recipients, with potential to reduce patient morbidity and mortality. This review describe...

New cell lines for efficient propagation of koi herpesvirus and infectious salmon anaemia virus.

The production of piscine viruses, in particular of koi herpesvirus (KHV, CyHV-3) and infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), is still challenging due to the limited susceptibility of available cell lines to these viruses. A number of cell lines from different fish species were compared to standard diagnostic cell lines for KHV and ISAV regarding their capability to exhibit a cytopathic effect (CP...

Viral transmission in honey bees and native bees, supported by a global black queen cell virus phylogeny.

In recent decades, we have realized that honey bee viruses are not, in fact, exclusive to honey bees. The potential impact of Apis-affiliated viruses on native pollinators is prompting concern. Our research addresses the issue of virus crossover between honey bees and native bees foraging in the same localities. We measured the presence of black queen cell virus (BQCV), deformed wing virus (DWV), ...

Virus genotyping by massive parallel amplicon sequencing: adenovirus and enterovirus in the Norwegian MIDIA study.

Direct genotyping of adenovirus or enterovirus from clinical material using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by Sanger sequencing is often difficult due to the presence of multiple virus types in a sample, or due to varying efficacy of PCR amplifying the capsid gene on the background of foreign nucleic acids. Here we present a simple protocol for virus genotyping using massive parallel amp...

Seasonal Viral Influenza Among Persons with Primary Antibody Immunodeficiency.

Impact of upstream oil extraction and environmental public health: A review of the evidence.

Upstream oil extraction, which includes exploration and operation to bring crude oil to the surface, frequently occurs near human populations. There are approximately 40,000 oil fields globally and 6 million people that live or work nearby. Oil extraction can impact local soil, water, and air, which in turn can influence community health. As oil resources are increasingly being extracted near huma...

Is antibody-mediated rejection in kidney transplant recipients a risk factor for developing cytomegalovirus or BK virus infection? Results from a case-control study.

Data are scarce on cytomegalovirus (CMV) and BK virus (BKV) infection after antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR).

Type I Interferons: Distinct Biological Activities and Current Applications for Viral Infection.

The interferons (IFNs) are a primary defense against pathogens because of the strong antiviral activities they induce. IFNs can be classified into three groups: type I, type II and type III, according to their genetic, structural, and functional characteristics and their receptors on the cell surface. The type I IFNs are the largest group and include IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-ε, IFN-ω, IFN-κ, IFN-δ,...

Public Health Response to an Avian Influenza A(H7N8) Virus Outbreak in Commercial Turkey Flocks - Indiana, 2016.

In January 2016, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H7N8) virus and low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) A(H7N8) virus were detected in commercial turkey flocks in Dubois County, Indiana. The Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH) and the Dubois County Health Department (DCHD) coordinated the public health response to this outbreak, which was the first detection of HPAI A(H7N8) in a...

Reinvestigating the status of malaria parasite (Plasmodium sp.) in Indian non-human primates.

Many human parasites and pathogens have closely related counterparts among non-human primates. For example, non-human primates harbour several species of malaria causing parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Studies suggest that for a better understanding of the origin and evolution of human malaria parasites it is important to know the diversity and evolutionary relationships of these parasites in n...

Temporal changes in the viromes of Swedish Varroa-resistant and Varroa-susceptible honeybee populations.

The parasitic mite, Varroa destructor, in combination with the viruses it vectors, is the main cause for global colony losses of the European honeybee, Apis mellifera. However, an isolated honeybee population established in 1999 on the Island of Gotland, Sweden has naturally acquired resistance to the mite, and has survived without mite control treatment for more than 18 years. A recent study has ...

Determination of the minimum protective dose of a glycoprotein-G-deficient infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccine delivered via eye-drop to week-old chickens.

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an upper respiratory tract disease of chickens that is caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), an alphaherpesvirus. This disease causes significant economic loses in poultry industries worldwide. Despite widespread use of commercial live attenuated vaccines, many poultry industries continue to experience outbreaks of disease caused by ILTV. Effort...

Atypical and severe manifestations of chikungunya virus infection in French Guiana: A hospital-based study.

French Guiana (FG) was the first country in South America to declare chikungunya virus infection (CHIKV). The outbreak affected about 16,000 persons between February 2014 and October 2015, with several atypical cases, but only two fatal cases. We aimed to describe the clinical presentation of patients hospitalized for CHIKV infection, to estimate and identify risk factors of unusual and severe for...

Transmission dynamics of re-emerging rabies in domestic dogs of rural China.

Despite ongoing efforts to control transmission, rabies prevention remains a challenge in many developing countries, especially in rural areas of China where re-emerging rabies is under-reported due to a lack of sustained animal surveillance. By taking advantage of detailed genomic and epidemiological data for the re-emerging rabies outbreak in Yunnan Province, China, collected between 1999 and 20...

Pharmacological interventions for acute hepatitis C infection.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded RNA (ribonucleic acid) virus that has the potential to cause inflammation of the liver. The traditional definition of acute HCV infection is the first six months following infection with the virus. Another commonly used definition of acute HCV infection is the absence of HCV antibody and subsequent seroconversion (presence of HCV antibody in a person wh...

Zika transmission ways, can it be transmitted from person to person?

In this article we describe the main transmission mechanisms of the Zika virus, from those already known, such as zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission of the virus, perinatal, occupational transmission, by blood products and by sexual contact. Given the possibility of person-to-person transmission, some measures of attention are proposed as the necessary studies are advanced to confirm or disca...

Physiological Models of Human Neuronal Development and Disease.

Human neural network development occurs at stages inaccessible to longitudinal monitoring. By transplanting human neurons to the adult mouse brain, recent studies explore human neural circuit formation in realistic cellular and physiological environments, establishing new models for human neurodevelopmental disorders.

Development of a respiratory disease model for enterovirus D68 in 4-week-Old mice for evaluation of antiviral therapies.

Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a non-polio enterovirus that affects the respiratory system and can cause serious complications, especially in children and older people with weakened immune systems. As an emerging virus, there are no current antiviral therapies or vaccines available. Our goal was to develop a mouse model of human EV-D68 infection that mimicked the disease observed in humans and could ...

An affinity peptide exerts antiviral activity by strongly binding nervous necrosis virus to block viral entry.

Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) causes viral nervous necrosis (VNN), a disease that leads to almost 100% mortality among larvae and juvenile fish, severely affecting the aquaculture industry. VNN vaccines based on inactivated viruses or virus-like particles (VLPs) are unsuitable for fish fry with immature adaptive immune systems. Here, we applied an anti-NNV strategy based on affinity peptides (AFPs)...

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