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Hypogonadism

17:20 EST 22nd November 2017 | BioPortfolio

Hypogonadism occurs when the body's sex glands produce little or no hormones. In men, these glands (gonads) are the testes. In women, these glands are the ovaries.

The cause of hypogonadism is primary or central. In primary hypogonadism, the ovaries or testes themselves do not function properly.

Causes of primary hypogonadism include:

  • Certain autoimmune disorders
  • Genetic and developmental disorders
  • Infection
  • Liver and kidney disease
  • Radiation
  • Surgery

The most common genetic disorders that cause primary hypogonadism are Turner syndrome (in women) and Klinefelter syndrome (in men).

In central hypogonadism, the centers in the brain that control the gonads (hypothalamus and pituitary) do not function properly. Causes of central hypogonadism include:

  • Bleeding
  • Certain medicines, including steroids and opiates
  • Genetic problems
  • Infections
  • Nutritional deficiencies
  • Iron excess (hemochromatosis)
  • Radiation
  • Rapid, significant weight loss
  • Surgery
  • Trauma
  • Tumors

A genetic cause of central hypogonadism that also takes away the sense of smell is Kallmann syndrome in males. The most common tumors affecting the pituitary are craniopharyngioma in children and prolactinoma in adults.

Source: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001195.htm

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