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Immunization Research

09:49 EDT 19th August 2018 | BioPortfolio

HPV vaccine confidence and cases of mass psychogenic illness following immunization in Carmen de Bolivar, Colombia.

We report the case of multiple adverse reactions following HPV vaccination in Colombian adolescents in Carmen de Bolivar. In August 2012, the country introduced a school-based HPV immunization programme which successfully reached over 90% of the target population in the first year. In 2014, between May 29th and June 2nd,15 adolescent girls in one school presented adverse reactions after vaccinatio...

Economic evaluation of adolescents and adults' pertussis vaccination: A systematic review of current strategies.

The reemergence of pertussis in the last two decades led to the introduction of adolescents and adults immunization strategies of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccines (Tdap) in several countries. The health authorities must consider economic aspects when deciding to recommend and fund new programs. Here we present a systematic review of worldwide full economic evaluations of pertussis v...

Long-term antibody persistence against hepatitis B in adolescents 14-15-years of age vaccinated with 4 doses of hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine in infancy.

We evaluated antibody persistence against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in adolescents previously vaccinated with a hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-HBV-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib), as part of the national newborn immunization program in Germany. We also assessed the anamnestic response to a challenge dose of a monovalent HBV...

Biophysical virus particle specific characterization to sharpen the definition of virus stability.

Vaccine thermostability is key to successful global immunization programs as it may have a significant impact on the continuous cold-chain maintenance logistics, as well as affect vaccine potency. Modern biological and biophysical techniques were combined to in-depth characterize the thermostability of a formulated rabies virus (RABV) in terms of antigenic and genomic titer, virus particle count a...

Vaccine-induced antibody level as the parameter of the influence of environmental salinity on vaccine efficacy in Nile tilapia.

To effectively increase production and improve economic returns, the co-culture of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and marine shrimp has been adopted in many countries, including China. Although O. niloticus is an euryhaline fish that can tolerate elevated salinities and even full-strength seawater, fluctuations in salinity levels can undoubtedly induce stress and affect the immune response o...

Anogenital Human Papillomavirus Virus DNA and Sustained Response to the Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine in Women Living with HIV-1.

People living with HIV have increased Human Papillomavirus (HPV) related lesions and malignancies. We describe HPV DNA recovered from the cervix and anal canal, explore the effect of vaccination on HPV detection, and examine the durability of vaccine titers in women living with HIV-1 who were vaccinated with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine.

Mycobacterium vaccae immunization protects aged rats from surgery-elicited neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction.

Aging is a major risk factor for developing postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Neuroinflammatory processes, which can play a causal role in the etiology of postoperative cognitive dysfunction, are potentiated or primed as a function of aging. Here we explored whether exposure to a microorganism with immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, Mycobacterium vaccae NCTC 11659 (M. vaccae), ...

What are the beliefs and perceptions of practice nurses' influence about the uptake of the Measles, Mumps and Rubella vaccine: an integrative literature review?

To ascertain the beliefs and perceptions of practice nurses' influence about the uptake of the Measles, Mumps and Rubella vaccine.

PERCEPTIONS ON THE IMPORTANCE OF VACCINATION AND VACCINE REFUSAL IN A MEDICAL SCHOOL.

To identify the perception of medical students and physicians on the importance of vaccination and the risks of vaccine refusal.

Quality Focus: Immunization Awareness Striving to Improve Rates.

Cationic lipids as one-component vaccine adjuvants: A promising alternative to alum.

Effective vaccine formulations consist of several components: an antigen carrier, the antigen, a stimulator of cellular immunity such as a Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) ligand, and a stimulator of humoral response such as an inflammasome activator. Here, we investigated the immunostimulatory and adjuvant properties of lipopolyamines, cationic lipids used as gene carriers. We identified new lipopolyam...

Antibody Repertoires to the Same Ebola Vaccine Antigen Are Differentially Affected by Vaccine Vectors.

Comparative immune response profiling is important for selecting next-generation vaccines. We comprehensively evaluated the antibody responses from a panel of nine respiratory vaccines against Ebola virus (EBOV) derived from human and avian paramyxoviruses expressing EBOV glycoprotein (GP). Most vaccines were protective in guinea pigs but yielded antibody repertoires that differed in proportion ta...

True Versus False Bacteremia in Infants and Children Less Than 3 Years of Age.

The objective of this study was to examine patient history as well as clinical and laboratory features associated with true bacteremia versus false bacteremia in previously healthy febrile children ages 0 to 36 months in the era of polyvalent conjugate pneumococcal immunization.

Paradox of PEGylation in fabricating hybrid nanoparticle-based nicotine vaccines.

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has long been used in nanoparticle-based drug or vaccine delivery platforms. In this study, nano-nicotine vaccines (NanoNicVac) were PEGylated to different degrees to investigate the impact of PEG on the immunological efficacy of the vaccine. Hybrid nanoparticles with various degrees of PEGylation (2.5%-30%) were assembled. It was found that 30% PEGylation resulted in a h...

Poly(propylacrylic acid)-peptide nanoplexes as a platform for enhancing the immunogenicity of neoantigen cancer vaccines.

Cancer vaccines targeting patient-specific tumor neoantigens have recently emerged as a promising component of the rapidly expanding immunotherapeutic armamentarium. However, neoantigenic peptides typically elicit weak CD8 T cell responses, and so there is a need for universally applicable vaccine delivery strategies to enhance the immunogenicity of these peptides. Ideally, such vaccines could als...

Hepatitis C virus escape studies for human monoclonal antibody AR4A reveal isolate-specific resistance and a high barrier to resistance.

Global control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) depends on development of a prophylactic vaccine. We studied escape for cross-genotype-reactive neutralizing antibody AR4A, providing valuable information for HCV vaccine design. We cultured HCV Core-NS2 recombinants H77(genotype 1a)/JFH1 or the highly-antibody-sensitive hypervariable region 1 (HVR1)-deleted variants H77/JFH1∆HVR1 and J6(genotype 2a)/JFH...

Outbreak of varicella in preschool children despite one-dose vaccination.

Kurugöl Z, Gökçe Ş. Outbreak of varicella in preschool children despite one-dose vaccination. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 56-62. In Turkey, a single-dose varicella vaccine was introduced into the National Immunization Program in 2013. Before this implementation, varicella vaccine had been available in the private sector since 2000. However, varicella outbreaks continued to occur in preschools and...

Postchemotherapy Immunization Practices for Non-HSCT Pediatric Oncology Patients.

Pediatric oncology patients treated with antineoplastic therapy have impaired immune systems that lead to loss of protective antibodies. They require reimmunization to protect against vaccine-preventable diseases. There are a paucity of studies on the clinical practice of pediatric oncologists and the available recommendations are heterogenous. This study describes current reimmunization practices...

Insertion-responsive microneedles for rapid intradermal delivery of canine influenza vaccine.

In this study, we present transcutaneous influenza vaccination using a novel tip-separable microneedle system called insertion-responsive microneedles (IRMNs). IRMNs are composed of dissolvable hyaluronic acid (HA) tips and biocompatible polycaprolactone (PCL) bases, the tip of which is instantly separated from the base during microneedle insertion and retraction. Vaccine antigens derived from can...

A real time high-resolution melting PCR assay for detection and differentiation among sheep pox virus, goat pox virus, field isolates and vaccine strains of lumpy skin disease virus.

In this paper, we report on the development of a real time high-resolution melting (HRM) PCR assay for detection and differentiation among sheep pox virus (SPPV), goat pox virus (GTPV), field isolates and vaccine strains of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) based on high-resolution melting curve analysis of their target PCR amplicons. A 111 bp region of LSDV010 ORF, which harbors unique genetic diff...

Recommendations and barriers to vaccination in systemic lupus erythematosus.

Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) pose a unique dilemma pertaining to immunization against common pathogens. SLE patients are usually not immunized with vaccines based on the fear of either precipitating infection in this immunosuppressed patient population (with live vaccines) or aggravating autoimmunity and hence lupus flares (with any vaccines). However, elevated vulnerability to...

Intranasal immunization of cocktail/fusion protein containing Tir along with ΔG active fragment of Zot as mucosal adjuvant confers enhanced immunogenicity and reduces E. coli O157:H7 shedding in mice.

Ruminants are the major reservoirs of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and its fecal shedding mainly act as a source of entry of this pathogen into the human food chain. In humans, E. coli O157:H7 infection causes diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Intimate adherence of E. coli O157:H7 is mediated by Translocated intimin receptor (Tir) to which intimin binds in the host cell. Sin...

A Recombinant Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) Expressing S Protein of Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) Protects Chickens against IBV and NDV.

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes a highly contagious respiratory, reproductive and urogenital tract disease in chickens worldwide, resulting in substantial economic losses for the poultry industry. Currently, live-attenuated IBV vaccines are used to control the disease. However, safety, attenuation and immunization outcomes of current vaccines are not guaranteed. Several studies indicate t...

Novel vaccine candidates against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Tuberculosis (TB) is now among the top ten causes of mortality worldwide being resulted in 1.7 million deaths in 2016. The Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the only available TB vaccine which fails to provide consistent protection against pulmonary TB in adults and adolescents despite being efficacious at protecting infants and young children from the most severe, often deadly forms of TB disease....

B-cell and T-cell epitope identification with stability analysis of AI-2 import ATP-binding cassette LsrA from S. typhi -In silico approach.

Typhoid fever is a severe illness in humans, caused by Salmonella typhi, a Gram-negative bacterium. Membrane proteins of S. typhi have strong potential for its use in development of subunit vaccine against typhoid. In current study, peptide-based subunit vaccine constructed from AI-2 import ATP-binding cassette transporter protein (LsrA) against S. typhi. B-cell and T-cell epitopes were identified...

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