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Immunization Research

11:23 EST 10th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

Effectiveness of influenza and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines against influenza-related outcomes including pneumonia and acute exacerbation of cardiopulmonary diseases: Analysis by dominant viral subtype and vaccine matching.

Influenza and pneumonia are leading causes of morbidity and mortality among the elderly. Although vaccination is a main strategy to prevent these infectious diseases, concerns remain with respect to vaccine effectiveness.

Determination of the minimum protective dose of a glycoprotein-G-deficient infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccine delivered via eye-drop to week-old chickens.

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an upper respiratory tract disease of chickens that is caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), an alphaherpesvirus. This disease causes significant economic loses in poultry industries worldwide. Despite widespread use of commercial live attenuated vaccines, many poultry industries continue to experience outbreaks of disease caused by ILTV. Effort...

The relationship between perceptions and self-paid hepatitis B vaccination: A structural equation modeling approach.

Malaysia has a comprehensive, publicly-funded immunization program for hepatitis B (HepB) among infants, but adults must pay for the vaccine. The number of HepB carriers among adults is expected to increase in the future; therefore, we examined the impact of five constructs (cues to action, perceived barriers, perceived benefit, perceived severity, and perceived susceptibility) on adults' willingn...

Recombinant Staphylococcal Antigen-F (r-ScaF), a novel vaccine candidate against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection: Potency and efficacy studies.

Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal and pathogen, its clinical importance is exacerbated by the spread of multi-drug resistant strains. The potential future failure of antibiotic therapy necessitates the development of novel control regimes, including new immunotherapeutic approaches. S. aureus has a large repertoire of surface components with potential for immunological targeting. The aim ...

A Demographic Analysis of Racial/Ethnic Minority Enrollment Into HVTN Preventive Early Phase HIV Vaccine Clinical Trials Conducted in the United States, 2002-2016.

Racial/ethnic minority communities in the United States are overrepresented among new HIV diagnoses, yet their inclusion in preventive HIV vaccine clinical trials is inadequate. An analysis of enrollment demographic characteristics from US preventive HIV vaccine clinical trials from 1988 through 2002 showed that enrollment of racial/ethnic minority groups increased. We analyzed enrollment in preve...

The impact of pneumococcal vaccine in reducing pneumonia hospitalizations in children under 5 years old, in Santa Catarina, Brazil, 2006 a 2014.

to analyze the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) on pneumonia hospital admissions among children in Santa Catarina, Brazil, 2006-2014.

What is the importance of vaccine hesitancy in the drop of vaccination coverage in Brazil?

The successful Programa Nacional de Imunizações do Brasil (Brazilian National Immunization Program) has been experiencing a major challenge with regard to vaccination coverage for children, which has been dropping. Several aspects are related, but certainly vaccine hesitancy has been strengthening itself as one of the main concerns of Brazilian public administrators and researchers. Vaccine hesi...

Varicella-zoster virus clades circulating in Spain over two decades.

Despite childhood universal VZV immunization was introduced in 2015, there are no data on VZV clade distribution in Spain.

Live-attenuated varicella zoster virus vaccine does not induce HIV target cell activation.

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is under consideration as a promising recombinant viral vector to deliver foreign antigens including HIV. However, new vectors have come under increased scrutiny since vaccination with Ad5-vectored HIV vaccine trials demonstrated increased HIV risk in individuals with pre-immunity to the vector which was thought to be associated with mucosal immune activation (IA). The...

Prospects for rotavirus vaccine introduction in the Philippines: bridging the available evidence into immunization policy.

Rotavirus (RV) diarrhea is one of the most common cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in the world. The World Health Organization has recommended RV vaccines' use in national immunization programmes since 2009. However, access to vaccines remain limited, particularly for most low- and middle-income countries where the burden of the disease is high. The Philippines is a lower-middle income c...

Cause and consequence of loss in vaccine trust.

Antibody persistence in pre-school children after hexavalent vaccine infant primary and booster administration.

Antibody persistence evaluation for all antigens of a fully liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP~T vaccine at 3.5 and 4.5 y of age following different primary series and booster schedules in South Africa and Latin America.

Intramuscular administration of a DNA vaccine encoding OmpK antigen induces humoral and cellular immune response in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and improves protection against Vibrio anguillarum.

Outer membrane protein K (OmpK) is an immunogenic protein that could act as subunit vaccine candidate for Vibrio anguillarum. In this study, a DNA vaccine encoding the OmpK gene of V. anguillarum was constructed and confirmed to express OmpK in vitro and in vivo. To evaluate the potential of pcDNA3.1-OmpK (pOmpK) as vaccine candidate, the humoral and cellular immune response, and protective effect...

Immunostimulation of Cyprinus carpio using phage lysate of Aeromonas hydrophila.

Over the last 50 years, various approaches have been established for the development of antigens for immunostimulation. We used phage lysate (PL), composed of inactivated antigens by the lytic bacteriophage pAh 6-c for Aeromonas hydrophila JUNAH strain to develop a vaccine for the prevention of A. hydrophila infection in Cyprinus carpio (common carp). We also assessed the poly lactide-co-glycolic...

Can a repurposed vaccine fight cancer?: Use of the poliovirus vaccine to target brain tumors draws interest.

The state of vaccine confidence.

HIV-positive gay men's knowledge and perceptions of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV vaccination: A qualitative study.

The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM) living with HIV are disproportionately impacted by HPV-associated anal cancer, with rates about 100-fold that of the general population. Fortunately, HPV vaccination has proven efficacy in preventing both anogenital warts (condyloma) in males and anal...

Expansion of the multidrug-resistant clonal complex 320 among invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A after the introduction of a ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Brazil.

In 2010, a ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced in the routine infant national immunization program in Brazil. Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) caused by serotype 19A (Spn19A) increased after the introduction of PCVs in several countries. We compared the frequency, antimicrobial resistance and molecular patterns of invasive Spn19A strains before and after PCV10 intro...

Diminished B-cell response after repeat influenza vaccination.

Annual vaccination with influenza vaccines is recommended for protection against influenza in the United States. Past clinical studies and meta-analysis, however, have reported conflicting results on the benefits of annual vaccination. B-cell responses elicited following repeat influenza vaccinations over multiple seasons have not been examined in detail. We analyzed the B-cell and antibody respon...

Passive immunotherapy with specific IgG fraction against autolysin: analogous protectivity in the MRSA infection with antibiotic therapy.

Staphylococcus aureus is a leading infectious cause of life-threatening diseases in human beings, with no effective vaccine available to date against this bacterium. Treatment of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections has become increasingly difficult because of the emergence of multidrug-resistant isolates. Immunotherapy represents a potential approach to prevent S. aureus-related infe...

Broadly protective influenza vaccines: design and production platforms.

Effective vaccines are the cornerstone of our defenses against acute influenza virus infections that result in ∼500 000 annual deaths worldwide. For decades, an on-going concerted effort has been to develop a universal influenza vaccine to combat the looming threat of potentially pandemic emerging and re-emerging influenza viruses. To address the need for rapid efficacious vaccines that could ...

Aluminum (oxy) Hydroxide Nanorods Activate an Early Immune Response in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Vaccine.

Bacterial vaccines have been widely used to prevent infectious diseases, especially in veterinary medicine. Although there are many reports on bacterin adjuvants, only a few contain innovations in bacterin adjuvants. Taking this into consideration, in this study, we designed and synthesized a new aluminum (oxy) hydroxide (AlOOH) nanorod (Al-NR) with a diameter of 200 ± 80 nm and a length of 1.1 ...

Epidemiologic challenges in norovirus vaccine development.

Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide. In the United States norovirus is estimated to cause 19-21 million illnesses, 1.7-1.9 million outpatient visits, 56,000-71,000 hospitalizations, and 570-800 deaths annually. Through direct costs and loss of productivity, norovirus disease cost the US economy more than $5.5 billion annually. Due to the lack of available the...

Safety, immunogenicity, and lot-to-lot consistency of live attenuated varicella vaccine in 1-3 years old children: a double-blind, randomized phase III trial.

The study was to evaluate the safety, immunogenicity and lot-to-lot consistency of live attenuated varicella vaccine in Chinese population aged 1-3 years. The double-blind, randomized phase III trial was conducted in Henan Province, China. In total, 1197 subjects were included in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned into four groups in a 2:2:2:1 ratio to receive one of the three lots of co...

Immunogenicity and safety of intramuscular versus subcutaneous administration of a combined measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine to children 12 to 18 months of age.

This randomized trial conducted in France compared intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) administration of two doses of a measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (MMRV) combination vaccine (ProQuad®) administered one month apart to 405 children 12-18 months of age (NCT00402831). The 2-dose regimen of MMRV administered IM was shown to be as immunogenic as the 2-dose regimen administered SC for ...

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