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Immunization Research

23:07 EDT 19th October 2018 | BioPortfolio

A Dynamic Model for Evaluation of the Bias of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Estimates from Observational Studies.

As influenza vaccination is now widely recommended in the United States, observational studies based on patients with acute respiratory illness (ARI) remain the only option to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE). We developed a dynamic probability model to evaluate bias of VE estimates from passive surveillance cohort, test-negative, and traditional case-control studies. The model includ...

Development of a bivalent food poisoning vaccine: augmented antigenicity of the C-terminus of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin by fusion with the B subunit of Escherichia coli Shiga toxin 2.

Food poisonings caused by Clostridium perfringens and Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) occur frequently worldwide; however, no vaccine is currently available. Therefore, we aimed to develop a bivalent vaccine against C. perfringens and STEC infections. Although it has been considered that C-terminal region of C. perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE) could be a good vaccine antigen to ...

Analyzing Vaccine Trials in Epidemics with Mild and Asymptomatic Infection.

Vaccine efficacy against susceptibility to infection (VES), regardless of symptoms, is an important endpoint of vaccine trials for pathogens with a high proportion of asymptomatic infection, as such infections may contribute to onward transmission and long-term sequelae such as Congenital Zika Syndrome. However, estimating VES is resource-intensive. We aim to identify approaches to accurately esti...

Incidence rates of narcolepsy diagnoses in Taiwan, Canada, and Europe: The use of statistical simulation to evaluate methods for the rapid assessment of potential safety issues on a population level in the SOMNIA study.

Vaccine safety signals require investigation, which may be done rapidly at the population level using ecological studies, before embarking on hypothesis-testing studies. Incidence rates were used to assess a signal of narcolepsy following AS03-adjuvanted monovalent pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza vaccination among children and adolescents in Sweden and Finland in 2010. We explored the utility of e...

Viral rebound in semen after antiretroviral treatment interruption in an HIV therapeutic vaccine double-blind trial.

This study aimed to determine the timing and level of HIV rebound in blood and seminal plasma and to characterize the HIV rebounding populations after antiretroviral treatment interruption (ATI) in HIV-1-infected participants enrolled in a therapeutic vaccine trial.

Anamnestic Immune Response and Safety of an Inactivated Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine in Primed Versus Vaccine-Naïve Children.

It has not yet been demonstrated whether two doses of inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (IIV4) prime a booster response in infants. We evaluated the anamnestic immune response to an IIV4 in children aged 17-48 months.

Efficacy of Live Attenuated Herpes Zoster Vaccine in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

The risk of herpes zoster virus infection is increased among patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The herpes zoster vaccine (HZV) is therefore recommended for these patients, but little is known about its effectiveness, resulting in low use.

Meningococcal B (4CMenB) vaccine : uptodate and recommendations.

Neisseria meningitidis is the cause of relatively rare invasive infections, but with very important morbi-mortality. Vaccines are already available for serogroups A, C, W, Y. A new vaccine against meningococcus B is on the Belgian market since March 2017. Serogroup B is the most prevalent in Western countries. The target populations are children and teenager, since it is at this age that peaks in ...

HPV vaccination in boys and men : update and recommendations.

High-risk oncogenic HPVs (HR-HPV) are associated in men with pre-cancerous anal dysplasia, oropharyngeal, anal and penile cancer. Anogenital warts are induced by low-risk HPVs. These manifestations are increasing among men, and especially in some high-risk groups as men who have sex with men (MSM). This review targets HPV-associated disease epidemiology as well as safety, immunogenicity, and effic...

Differences in the impact of pneumococcal serotype replacement in individuals with and without underlying medical conditions.

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have had a well-documented impact on the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). However, declines in IPD due to vaccine-targeted serotypes have been partially offset by increases in IPD due to non-vaccine serotypes (NVT). The goal of this study was to quantify serotype-specific changes in the incidence of IPD that occurred in different age groups, ...

Evaluation of DNA vaccine encoding BCSP surface protein of Brucella abortus for protective immunity.

Brucellosis is a highly contagious and zoonotic disease and has a considerable impact on animal health and economy of a country, principally in Pakistan, where rural income largely depends upon livestock farming and dairy products. The disease burden is more in underdeveloped/developing countries due to the low economy and limited access to the diagnostic facilities. In Pakistan, the prevalence of...

Immunosuppression Does Not Affect Antibody Concentrations to Measles, Mumps, and Rubella in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends using the immunization record and not serologic testing to determine immunity against measles and rubella in the general population, due to potential false negatives. However, it is unknown whether the immune response is less durable among patients who are immunosuppressed.

Systems vaccinology and big data in the vaccine development chain.

Systems vaccinology has proven a fascinating development in the last decade. Where traditionally vaccine development has been dominated by trial and error, systems vaccinology is a tool that provides novel and comprehensive understanding if properly used. Datasets retrieved from systems-based studies endorses rational design and effective development of safe and efficacious vaccines. In this revie...

Modelling the decline and future of hepatitis A transmission in Australia.

Hepatitis A incidence has declined in most countries through a combination of prevention measures, augmented through the use of a highly effective vaccine. In Australia, the proportion of the population susceptible to hepatitis A infection has declined over time due to high rates of opportunistic vaccination as well as the sustained inflow of seropositive immigrants from high endemicity countries....

Estimating the annual risk of tuberculosis infection in Japan from interferon-gamma release assay data.

To assess tuberculosis transmission frequency at a population level, the age-dependent Mantoux test has been used widely to estimate the annual risk of infection (ARI) with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the widespread Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunization program implemented in Japan in the 20th century has made natural infections with M. tuberculosis difficult to distinguish from immu...

Standardized guinea pig model for Q fever vaccine reactogenicity.

Historically, vaccination with Coxiella burnetii whole cell vaccines has induced hypersensitivity reactions in humans and animals that have had prior exposure to the pathogen as a result of infection or vaccination. Intradermal skin testing is routinely used to evaluate exposure in humans, and guinea pig hypersensitivity models have been developed to characterize the potential for reactogenicity i...

Vaccine effectiveness against lineage matched and mismatched influenza B viruses across 8 seasons in Canada, 2010-11 to 2017-18.

Vaccine effectiveness (VE) against influenza B was derived separately for Victoria and Yamagata lineages across eight seasons (2010-11 to 2017-18) in Canada when trivalent influenza vaccine was predominantly used. VE was ≥50% regardless of lineage match to circulating viruses, except when the vaccine strain was unchanged from the prior season.

Impact of 13-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine among adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

A notable reduction of pneumococcal disease burden among adults was observed after introduction of 7 valent- pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in childhood immunization programs. In 2010, 13 valent-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced PCV7 in many jurisdictions; a comparative assessment of PCV13's impact has not yet been performed.

Decreasing vaccine coverage rates lead to increased vulnerability to the importation of vaccine-preventable diseases in Brazil.

Passive inhalation of dry powder influenza vaccine formulations completely protects chickens against H5N1 lethal viral challenge.

Bird to human transmission of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) poses a significant risk of triggering a flu pandemic in the human population. Therefore, vaccination of susceptible poultry during an HPAIV outbreak might be the best remedy to prevent such transmissions. To this end, suitable formulations and an effective mass vaccination method that can be translated to field setting...

Vaccination Coverage for Selected Vaccines and Exemption Rates Among Children in Kindergarten - United States, 2017-18 School Year.

State and local school vaccination requirements exist to ensure that students are protected from vaccine-preventable diseases (1). This report summarizes vaccination coverage and exemption estimates collected by state and local immunization programs* for children in kindergarten (kindergartners) in 49 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and kindergartners provisionally enrolled (attending sch...

Vaccination Coverage Among Children Aged 19-35 Months - United States, 2017.

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends routine vaccination by age 24 months against 14 potentially serious illnesses (1). CDC used data from the 2017 National Immunization Survey-Child (NIS-Child) to assess vaccination coverage at national, state, territorial, and selected local levels among children aged 19-35 months in the United States. Coverage remained high and sta...

A Single-Dose Live-Attenuated Zika Virus Vaccine with Controlled Infection Rounds that Protects against Vertical Transmission.

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection of the mother during pregnancy causes devastating Zika congenital syndrome in the offspring. A ZIKV vaccine with optimal safety and immunogenicity for use in pregnant women is critically needed. Toward this goal, we have developed a single-dose live-attenuated vaccine candidate that infects cells with controlled, limited infection rounds. The vaccine contains a 9-amino-...

GroEL, a novel vaccine candidate of piscine Streptococcus agalactiae identified by immunoproteome.

Streptococcus agalactiae is the major etiological agent of streptococcosis, which is responsible for huge economic losses in fishery, particularly in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) aquaculture. A research priority to control streptococcosis is to develop vaccines, so we sought to figure out the immunogenic proteins of S. agalactiae and screen the vaccine candidates for streptococcosis in the pres...

Safety Follow-up of a Dengue Vaccine When Administered Concomitantly with a Yellow Fever Vaccine in Healthy Toddlers in Colombia.

This was a safety follow-up study conducted in 382 toddlers in Colombia who had last received dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) 2 years before. A review of local municipal epidemiologic reports for dengue cases was also conducted for ~28 months postimmunization. One case of clinical dengue was reported; it was neither considered as severe nor related to the study vaccine.

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