Immunization Research

11:53 EDT 22nd May 2018 | BioPortfolio

Trends in High-Grade Cervical Cancer Precursors in the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Era.

The 2006 introduction of human papillomavirus vaccine targeted against genotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18 should result in decreased cervical dysplasia in vaccinated women. However, new cervical cancer guidelines to increase screening intervals complicate interpretation of trends. The hypothesis is that cervical dysplasia would decrease only in young vaccine-eligible women, and not older women.

The immune response of rhesus macaques to novel vaccines comprising hepatitis B virus S, PreS1, and Core antigens.

Therapeutic vaccines represent a unique approach to hepatitis B virus (HBV) treatment and have the potential to induce long-term control of infection. This study explored the immune responses of rhesus macaques to novel vaccines comprising the S, PreS1, and Core antigens of the HBV that showed promise as prophylactic and therapeutic approaches in a mouse model. The tested vaccines included two DNA...

Conditional admission, religious exemption type, and nonmedical vaccine exemptions in California before and after a state policy change.

Recent measles and pertussis outbreaks in the US have focused national attention on state laws governing exemptions from mandatory vaccines for school entry. After several years of increases in nonmedical exemptions in California, the state assembly passed Assembly Bill 2109 in 2012, making nonmedical exemptions more difficult to obtain by requiring parents to obtain a signature from a health care...

Safety and immunogenicity of fractional dose intradermal injection of two quadrivalent conjugated meningococcal vaccines.

Vaccination with conjugated meningococcal vaccines is the best way to prevent invasive meningococcal disease. Changes in serogroup epidemiology have led to the inclusion of quadrivalent vaccines in the national immunization programs of several countries, but vaccines are frequently in short supply. Intradermal administration has the potential to increase vaccine availability through dose reduction...

Facilitators of and barriers to HPV vaccination among sexual and gender minority patients at a Boston community health center.

Young sexual minority individuals have lower human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine completion rates than the general population, and little is known about how gender minority people perceive HPV vaccination. The aim of this study was to qualitatively identify patient-, provider-, and systems-level barriers and facilitators for HPV vaccination among sexual and gender minority (SGM) people.

Production and efficacy of a low-cost recombinant pneumococcal protein polysaccharide conjugate vaccine.

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia. Although this is a vaccine preventable disease, S. pneumoniae still causes over 1 million deaths per year, mainly in children under the age of five. The biggest disease burden is in the developing world, which is mainly due to unavailability of vaccines due to their high costs. Protein polysaccharide conjugate vaccines are given...

An innovative medical school curriculum to address human papillomavirus vaccine hesitancy.

Vaccination rates against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in the US remain alarmingly low. Physicians can significantly influence a parent's decision to vaccinate their children. However, medical education often lacks training on specific strategies for communicating with vaccine hesitant parents.

Decline of HPV infections in Scandinavian cervical screening populations after introduction of HPV vaccination programs.

To monitor the changes in prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in women

Effectiveness of HPV vaccination against high grade cervical lesions in Japan.

The effectiveness of HPV vaccine against HSIL+ (pathologically diagnosed CIN2+) in the first cohort in Japan was investigated in 22,743 women aged 20 to 29 years (parts of national cervical cancer screening program of FY [fiscal year] 2015, the Japan Cancer Society). Vaccinated women had a statistically significant 69% lower risk of HSIL+ as compared to the unvaccinated women; the crude relati...

Nitrated T helper cell epitopes enhance the immunogenicity of HER2 vaccine and induce anti-tumor immunity.

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is an attractive target for cancer vaccine. However, autoimmune tolerance prevents vaccines based on HER2 protein from inducing long-lasting, highly effective anti-tumor immunity. In this study, we proved that the introduction of p-nitrophenylalanine in the universal T cell epitope (named NitraTh) enhances humoral immunity induced by B cell epitope a...

Efficient co-delivery of neo-epitopes using dispersion-stable layered double hydroxide nanoparticles for enhanced melanoma immunotherapy.

Cancer immunotherapy has shown tremendous progresses in recent years for various cancers and layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles are demonstrated as effective adjuvants for protein-based vaccines. This research further shows that the colloidal stability of LDH-based vaccines significantly influences the therapeutic efficacy and LDH nanoparticles are able to adjuvant multiple tumor-associa...

Prevalence and clinical profile of rotavirus A infection among diarrheal children and phylogenetic analysis with vaccine strains in Chengdu, West China, 2009-2014.

Rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe diarrheal disease in young children. However, little is known about the epidemiological and clinical profile of rotavirus A (RVA) in diarrheal children or the efficacy of Lanzhou lamb rotavirus vaccine (LLR) in Chengdu, China. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical profile of RVA in diarrheal children and provide gene analysis info...

A virus-like particle-based tetravalent vaccine for hand, foot, and mouth disease elicits broad and balanced protective immunity.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an infectious disease that mainly affects infants and children, causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. HFMD is commonly caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackieviruses A16 (CVA16), A6 (CVA6), and A10 (CVA10). Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccines are currently available in China; however, these vaccines fail to confer cross-protection agai...

Immune response and protective effect against spring viremia of carp virus induced by intramuscular vaccination with a SWCNTs-DNA vaccine encoding matrix protein.

To elicit the immune protective of vaccine against the highly contagious and pathogenic disease caused by spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV), a novel functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were applied as a delivery vehicle for DNA vaccine. In this study, we report a SWCNTs-DNA vaccine encoding matrix protein of SVCV which, when injected in the muscle at a dose of 10 μg SWCNTs-...

Recommendations for safe vaccination in children at the risk of taking allergic reactions to vaccine components

Vaccines are one of the most important advances in medicine as a public health tool for the control of immunopreventable diseases. Occasionally, adverse reactions may occur. If a child has a reaction to a vaccine, it is likely to disrupt his immunization schedule with risks to himself and the community. This establishes the importance of correctly diagnosing a possible allergy and defining appropr...

Strategies for a multi-stage neutralizing antibody-based HIV vaccine.

A critical property of a prophylactic HIV vaccine is likely to be its ability to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). BnAbs typically have multiple unusual features and are generated in a fraction of HIV-infected individuals through complex pathways. Current vaccine design approaches seek to trigger rare B cell precursors and then steer affinity maturation toward bnAbs in a multi-stage ...

Mainstreaming implementation science into immunization systems in the decade of vaccines: a programmatic imperative for the African Region.

Several innovations that can improve immunization systems already exist. Some interventions target service consumers within communities to raise awareness, build trust, improve understanding, remind caregivers, reward service users, and improve communication. Other interventions target health facilities to improve access and quality of vaccination services among others. Despite available empirical...

Safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of the ExPEC4V (JNJ-63871860) vaccine for prevention of invasive Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli disease: a phase 1, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy Japanese participants.

This Phase 1, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of different doses of ExPEC4V conjugate vaccine (4-16µg Polysaccharide [PS]/serotype) in healthy Japanese participants, stratified into younger (≥20 to

Response to third rubella vaccine dose.

Limited data exist on the immunogenicity of a third dose of the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR). In this study, our aim was to evaluate the long-term rubella immunogenicity afforded by two childhood MMR doses of the Norwegian vaccination program in a cohort of conscripts and to determine the effect of an additional dose of MMR vaccine, in order to inform vaccination policy. Blood samples...

Predictors of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Follow-Through Among Privately Insured US Patients.

To assess predictors of timely human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine follow-through among privately insured individuals initiating the 3-dose series.

Evaluation of the Impact of Shandong Illegal Vaccine Sales Incident on Immunizations in China.

A case of illegal vaccine sales in Shandong province, China, (hereinafter, the incident), which caused a lack of confidence among vaccination recipients and public panic, was uncovered in March 2016. We conducted a study comprising two cross-sectional surveys: at two months (May 2016) and seven months (October 2016) after the incident. The study aimed to evaluate the impact on immunizations; inves...

A Multifaceted Approach to RSV Vaccination.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the leading cause of pneumonia and bronchiolitis in infants, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition, RSV infections occur throughout different ages, thus, maintaining the virus in circulation, and increasing health risk to more susceptible populations such as infants, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. To date, there is no ...

Effectiveness And Impact Of A Single-Dose Vaccine Against Chickenpox In The Community Of Madrid Between 2001 And 2015.

Chickenpox is a contagious airborne disease. Immunization by varicella vaccine is an effective preventive measure. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact and effectiveness of a single-dose vaccination against chickenpox at 15 months of age.

A path analysis model suggesting the association between health locus of control and compliance with childhood vaccinations.

Despite vaccines benefits, parent's vaccine hesitancy is growing. Health locus of control (HLOC) may affect decision making regarding child vaccinations. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parents' HLOC and compliance with routine childhood immunization programs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 731 parents of children aged 3-4 years. Internal HLOC, powe...

QuickStats: Percentage of Adults Aged ≥60 Years Who Ever Had the Shingles Vaccine,* by Sex - National Health Interview Survey, 2008-2016.

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