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Immunization Research

01:39 EDT 21st October 2018 | BioPortfolio

Generation of cancer vaccine immunogens derived from major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules using variable epitope libraries.

Although various immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), used for the treatment of advanced cancer, showed remarkably durable tumor regression in a subset of patients, there are important limitations in a large group of non-responders, and the generation of novel immunogens capable of inducing protective cellular immune responses is a priority in cancer immunotherapy field. During the last decades, s...

Intranasal immunization with aluminum salt-adjuvanted dry powder vaccine.

Intranasal vaccination using dry powder vaccine formulation represents an attractive, non-invasive vaccination modality with better storage stability and added protection at the mucosal surfaces. Herein we report that it is feasible to induce specific mucosal and systemic antibody responses by intranasal immunization with a dry powder vaccine adjuvanted with an insoluble aluminum salt. The dry pow...

Optic nerve involvement in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis to homologous spinal cord homogenate immunization in the dark agouti rat.

Dark-Agouti rats were immunized with spinal cord homogenate to develop Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, a model of multiple sclerosis. We assessed motor signs and recorded VEPs for five or eight weeks with epidural or epidermal electrodes, respectively, with final histopathology of optic nerves (ONs). Injected rats exhibited motor deficits a week after immunization. VEP delays arose from...

Nanoparticle Vaccines Against Infectious Diseases.

Due to emergence of new variants of pathogenic micro-organisms the treatment and immunization of infectious diseases have become a great challenge in the past few years. In the context of vaccine development remarkable efforts have been made to develop new vaccines and also to improve the efficacy of existing vaccines against specific diseases. To date, some vaccines are developed from protein sub...

Optimization of fermentation conditions for an strain engineered using the response surface method to produce a novel therapeutic DNA vaccine for rheumatoid arthritis.

Fermentation condition optimization and nutrients screening are of equal importance for efficient production of plasmid DNA vaccines. This directly affects the downstream purification and final quality and yield of plasmid DNA vaccines. The present study aimed to optimize the fermentation conditions for high-throughput production of therapeutic DNA vaccine pcDNA-CCOL2A1 by engineered DH5α, using...

Satisfaction of Female Patients with Health Care Services at the Peri-urban Community Health Centre in Islamabad.

Objective To evaluate the satisfaction levels of female patients with the availability and quality of health care services provided at the Community Health Centre (CHC) in Nurpur Shahan, a deprived peri-urban locality in Islamabad. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out among 346 randomly selected female patients who attended the CHC in Nurpur Shahan from January to March, 2018. Data w...

A Dynamic Model for Evaluation of the Bias of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Estimates from Observational Studies.

As influenza vaccination is now widely recommended in the United States, observational studies based on patients with acute respiratory illness (ARI) remain the only option to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE). We developed a dynamic probability model to evaluate bias of VE estimates from passive surveillance cohort, test-negative, and traditional case-control studies. The model includ...

Development of a bivalent food poisoning vaccine: augmented antigenicity of the C-terminus of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin by fusion with the B subunit of Escherichia coli Shiga toxin 2.

Food poisonings caused by Clostridium perfringens and Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) occur frequently worldwide; however, no vaccine is currently available. Therefore, we aimed to develop a bivalent vaccine against C. perfringens and STEC infections. Although it has been considered that C-terminal region of C. perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE) could be a good vaccine antigen to ...

Analyzing Vaccine Trials in Epidemics with Mild and Asymptomatic Infection.

Vaccine efficacy against susceptibility to infection (VES), regardless of symptoms, is an important endpoint of vaccine trials for pathogens with a high proportion of asymptomatic infection, as such infections may contribute to onward transmission and long-term sequelae such as Congenital Zika Syndrome. However, estimating VES is resource-intensive. We aim to identify approaches to accurately esti...

Incidence rates of narcolepsy diagnoses in Taiwan, Canada, and Europe: The use of statistical simulation to evaluate methods for the rapid assessment of potential safety issues on a population level in the SOMNIA study.

Vaccine safety signals require investigation, which may be done rapidly at the population level using ecological studies, before embarking on hypothesis-testing studies. Incidence rates were used to assess a signal of narcolepsy following AS03-adjuvanted monovalent pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza vaccination among children and adolescents in Sweden and Finland in 2010. We explored the utility of e...

Viral rebound in semen after antiretroviral treatment interruption in an HIV therapeutic vaccine double-blind trial.

This study aimed to determine the timing and level of HIV rebound in blood and seminal plasma and to characterize the HIV rebounding populations after antiretroviral treatment interruption (ATI) in HIV-1-infected participants enrolled in a therapeutic vaccine trial.

Anamnestic Immune Response and Safety of an Inactivated Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine in Primed Versus Vaccine-Naïve Children.

It has not yet been demonstrated whether two doses of inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (IIV4) prime a booster response in infants. We evaluated the anamnestic immune response to an IIV4 in children aged 17-48 months.

Efficacy of Live Attenuated Herpes Zoster Vaccine in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

The risk of herpes zoster virus infection is increased among patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The herpes zoster vaccine (HZV) is therefore recommended for these patients, but little is known about its effectiveness, resulting in low use.

Meningococcal B (4CMenB) vaccine : uptodate and recommendations.

Neisseria meningitidis is the cause of relatively rare invasive infections, but with very important morbi-mortality. Vaccines are already available for serogroups A, C, W, Y. A new vaccine against meningococcus B is on the Belgian market since March 2017. Serogroup B is the most prevalent in Western countries. The target populations are children and teenager, since it is at this age that peaks in ...

HPV vaccination in boys and men : update and recommendations.

High-risk oncogenic HPVs (HR-HPV) are associated in men with pre-cancerous anal dysplasia, oropharyngeal, anal and penile cancer. Anogenital warts are induced by low-risk HPVs. These manifestations are increasing among men, and especially in some high-risk groups as men who have sex with men (MSM). This review targets HPV-associated disease epidemiology as well as safety, immunogenicity, and effic...

Differences in the impact of pneumococcal serotype replacement in individuals with and without underlying medical conditions.

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have had a well-documented impact on the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). However, declines in IPD due to vaccine-targeted serotypes have been partially offset by increases in IPD due to non-vaccine serotypes (NVT). The goal of this study was to quantify serotype-specific changes in the incidence of IPD that occurred in different age groups, ...

Evaluation of DNA vaccine encoding BCSP surface protein of Brucella abortus for protective immunity.

Brucellosis is a highly contagious and zoonotic disease and has a considerable impact on animal health and economy of a country, principally in Pakistan, where rural income largely depends upon livestock farming and dairy products. The disease burden is more in underdeveloped/developing countries due to the low economy and limited access to the diagnostic facilities. In Pakistan, the prevalence of...

Immunosuppression Does Not Affect Antibody Concentrations to Measles, Mumps, and Rubella in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends using the immunization record and not serologic testing to determine immunity against measles and rubella in the general population, due to potential false negatives. However, it is unknown whether the immune response is less durable among patients who are immunosuppressed.

Systems vaccinology and big data in the vaccine development chain.

Systems vaccinology has proven a fascinating development in the last decade. Where traditionally vaccine development has been dominated by trial and error, systems vaccinology is a tool that provides novel and comprehensive understanding if properly used. Datasets retrieved from systems-based studies endorses rational design and effective development of safe and efficacious vaccines. In this revie...

Modelling the decline and future of hepatitis A transmission in Australia.

Hepatitis A incidence has declined in most countries through a combination of prevention measures, augmented through the use of a highly effective vaccine. In Australia, the proportion of the population susceptible to hepatitis A infection has declined over time due to high rates of opportunistic vaccination as well as the sustained inflow of seropositive immigrants from high endemicity countries....

Estimating the annual risk of tuberculosis infection in Japan from interferon-gamma release assay data.

To assess tuberculosis transmission frequency at a population level, the age-dependent Mantoux test has been used widely to estimate the annual risk of infection (ARI) with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the widespread Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunization program implemented in Japan in the 20th century has made natural infections with M. tuberculosis difficult to distinguish from immu...

Standardized guinea pig model for Q fever vaccine reactogenicity.

Historically, vaccination with Coxiella burnetii whole cell vaccines has induced hypersensitivity reactions in humans and animals that have had prior exposure to the pathogen as a result of infection or vaccination. Intradermal skin testing is routinely used to evaluate exposure in humans, and guinea pig hypersensitivity models have been developed to characterize the potential for reactogenicity i...

Vaccine effectiveness against lineage matched and mismatched influenza B viruses across 8 seasons in Canada, 2010-11 to 2017-18.

Vaccine effectiveness (VE) against influenza B was derived separately for Victoria and Yamagata lineages across eight seasons (2010-11 to 2017-18) in Canada when trivalent influenza vaccine was predominantly used. VE was ≥50% regardless of lineage match to circulating viruses, except when the vaccine strain was unchanged from the prior season.

Impact of 13-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine among adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

A notable reduction of pneumococcal disease burden among adults was observed after introduction of 7 valent- pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in childhood immunization programs. In 2010, 13 valent-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced PCV7 in many jurisdictions; a comparative assessment of PCV13's impact has not yet been performed.

Decreasing vaccine coverage rates lead to increased vulnerability to the importation of vaccine-preventable diseases in Brazil.

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