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Immunization Research

21:42 EDT 19th August 2018 | BioPortfolio

Safety and immunogenicity of a pentavalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine containing serogroups A, C, Y, W, and X in healthy adults: a phase 1, single-centre, double-blind, randomised, controlled study.

Invasive meningococcal disease is an important public health problem, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. After introduction of MenAfriVac in 2010, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A disease has been almost eliminated from the region. However, serogroups C, W, Y, and X continue to cause disease outbreaks. We assessed the NmCV-5 pentavalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine targeting A, C, Y, W, and X ...

NmCV-5 meningococcal vaccine: Neisseria meningitidis' nemesis?

Antigen-specific antibody Fc glycosylation enhances humoral immunity via the recruitment of complement.

HIV-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) confer protection after passive immunization, but the immunological mechanisms that drive their development are poorly understood. Structural features of bNAbs indicate that they originate from extensive germinal center (GC) selection, which relies on persistent GC activity. However, why a fraction of infected individuals are able to successfull...

Invasive meningococcal disease in Shanghai, China from 1950 to 2016: implications for serogroup B vaccine implementation.

Serogroup B invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is increasing in China, but little is known about the causative meningococci. Here, IMD and carriage isolates in Shanghai characterised and the applicability of different vaccines assessed. Seven IMD epidemic periods have been observed in Shanghai since 1950, with 460 isolates collected including 169 from IMD and 291 from carriage. Analyses were div...

Oral Delivery of a DNA Vaccine Expressing the PrM and E Genes: A Promising Vaccine Strategy against Flavivirus in Ducks.

A flavivirus, named duck tembusu virus (DTMUV), emerged in China in 2010. This virus has caused great economic losses in the poultry industry in China and may pose a threat to public health. As a safe, efficient and convenient vaccine development strategy, DNA-based vaccines have become a popular approach for both human and veterinary applications. Attenuated bacteria have been widely used as vehi...

Transplant nephrectomy after graft failure: is it so risky? Impact on morbidity, mortality and alloimmunization.

To determine the impact of transplant nephrectomy on morbidity and mortality and HLA immunization.

Do vaccination interventions have effects? A study on how poultry vaccination interventions change smallholder farmer knowledge, attitudes, and practice in villages in Kenya and Tanzania.

Poultry are important for many poor households in developing countries, but there are many constraints to poultry production, including disease. One of the most important diseases of chickens is Newcastle disease (ND). Even though there are effective vaccines against this disease available in most countries, uptake by small-scale poultry keepers is often low. In this study, two areas in Kenya and ...

HPV vaccine confidence and cases of mass psychogenic illness following immunization in Carmen de Bolivar, Colombia.

We report the case of multiple adverse reactions following HPV vaccination in Colombian adolescents in Carmen de Bolivar. In August 2012, the country introduced a school-based HPV immunization programme which successfully reached over 90% of the target population in the first year. In 2014, between May 29th and June 2nd,15 adolescent girls in one school presented adverse reactions after vaccinatio...

Economic evaluation of adolescents and adults' pertussis vaccination: A systematic review of current strategies.

The reemergence of pertussis in the last two decades led to the introduction of adolescents and adults immunization strategies of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccines (Tdap) in several countries. The health authorities must consider economic aspects when deciding to recommend and fund new programs. Here we present a systematic review of worldwide full economic evaluations of pertussis v...

Long-term antibody persistence against hepatitis B in adolescents 14-15-years of age vaccinated with 4 doses of hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine in infancy.

We evaluated antibody persistence against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in adolescents previously vaccinated with a hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-HBV-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib), as part of the national newborn immunization program in Germany. We also assessed the anamnestic response to a challenge dose of a monovalent HBV...

Biophysical virus particle specific characterization to sharpen the definition of virus stability.

Vaccine thermostability is key to successful global immunization programs as it may have a significant impact on the continuous cold-chain maintenance logistics, as well as affect vaccine potency. Modern biological and biophysical techniques were combined to in-depth characterize the thermostability of a formulated rabies virus (RABV) in terms of antigenic and genomic titer, virus particle count a...

Vaccine-induced antibody level as the parameter of the influence of environmental salinity on vaccine efficacy in Nile tilapia.

To effectively increase production and improve economic returns, the co-culture of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and marine shrimp has been adopted in many countries, including China. Although O. niloticus is an euryhaline fish that can tolerate elevated salinities and even full-strength seawater, fluctuations in salinity levels can undoubtedly induce stress and affect the immune response o...

Anogenital Human Papillomavirus Virus DNA and Sustained Response to the Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine in Women Living with HIV-1.

People living with HIV have increased Human Papillomavirus (HPV) related lesions and malignancies. We describe HPV DNA recovered from the cervix and anal canal, explore the effect of vaccination on HPV detection, and examine the durability of vaccine titers in women living with HIV-1 who were vaccinated with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine.

Mycobacterium vaccae immunization protects aged rats from surgery-elicited neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction.

Aging is a major risk factor for developing postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Neuroinflammatory processes, which can play a causal role in the etiology of postoperative cognitive dysfunction, are potentiated or primed as a function of aging. Here we explored whether exposure to a microorganism with immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, Mycobacterium vaccae NCTC 11659 (M. vaccae), ...

What are the beliefs and perceptions of practice nurses' influence about the uptake of the Measles, Mumps and Rubella vaccine: an integrative literature review?

To ascertain the beliefs and perceptions of practice nurses' influence about the uptake of the Measles, Mumps and Rubella vaccine.

PERCEPTIONS ON THE IMPORTANCE OF VACCINATION AND VACCINE REFUSAL IN A MEDICAL SCHOOL.

To identify the perception of medical students and physicians on the importance of vaccination and the risks of vaccine refusal.

Quality Focus: Immunization Awareness Striving to Improve Rates.

Cationic lipids as one-component vaccine adjuvants: A promising alternative to alum.

Effective vaccine formulations consist of several components: an antigen carrier, the antigen, a stimulator of cellular immunity such as a Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) ligand, and a stimulator of humoral response such as an inflammasome activator. Here, we investigated the immunostimulatory and adjuvant properties of lipopolyamines, cationic lipids used as gene carriers. We identified new lipopolyam...

Antibody Repertoires to the Same Ebola Vaccine Antigen Are Differentially Affected by Vaccine Vectors.

Comparative immune response profiling is important for selecting next-generation vaccines. We comprehensively evaluated the antibody responses from a panel of nine respiratory vaccines against Ebola virus (EBOV) derived from human and avian paramyxoviruses expressing EBOV glycoprotein (GP). Most vaccines were protective in guinea pigs but yielded antibody repertoires that differed in proportion ta...

True Versus False Bacteremia in Infants and Children Less Than 3 Years of Age.

The objective of this study was to examine patient history as well as clinical and laboratory features associated with true bacteremia versus false bacteremia in previously healthy febrile children ages 0 to 36 months in the era of polyvalent conjugate pneumococcal immunization.

Paradox of PEGylation in fabricating hybrid nanoparticle-based nicotine vaccines.

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has long been used in nanoparticle-based drug or vaccine delivery platforms. In this study, nano-nicotine vaccines (NanoNicVac) were PEGylated to different degrees to investigate the impact of PEG on the immunological efficacy of the vaccine. Hybrid nanoparticles with various degrees of PEGylation (2.5%-30%) were assembled. It was found that 30% PEGylation resulted in a h...

Poly(propylacrylic acid)-peptide nanoplexes as a platform for enhancing the immunogenicity of neoantigen cancer vaccines.

Cancer vaccines targeting patient-specific tumor neoantigens have recently emerged as a promising component of the rapidly expanding immunotherapeutic armamentarium. However, neoantigenic peptides typically elicit weak CD8 T cell responses, and so there is a need for universally applicable vaccine delivery strategies to enhance the immunogenicity of these peptides. Ideally, such vaccines could als...

Hepatitis C virus escape studies for human monoclonal antibody AR4A reveal isolate-specific resistance and a high barrier to resistance.

Global control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) depends on development of a prophylactic vaccine. We studied escape for cross-genotype-reactive neutralizing antibody AR4A, providing valuable information for HCV vaccine design. We cultured HCV Core-NS2 recombinants H77(genotype 1a)/JFH1 or the highly-antibody-sensitive hypervariable region 1 (HVR1)-deleted variants H77/JFH1∆HVR1 and J6(genotype 2a)/JFH...

Outbreak of varicella in preschool children despite one-dose vaccination.

Kurugöl Z, Gökçe Ş. Outbreak of varicella in preschool children despite one-dose vaccination. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 56-62. In Turkey, a single-dose varicella vaccine was introduced into the National Immunization Program in 2013. Before this implementation, varicella vaccine had been available in the private sector since 2000. However, varicella outbreaks continued to occur in preschools and...

Postchemotherapy Immunization Practices for Non-HSCT Pediatric Oncology Patients.

Pediatric oncology patients treated with antineoplastic therapy have impaired immune systems that lead to loss of protective antibodies. They require reimmunization to protect against vaccine-preventable diseases. There are a paucity of studies on the clinical practice of pediatric oncologists and the available recommendations are heterogenous. This study describes current reimmunization practices...

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