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Immunization Research

22:10 EST 18th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

Development of reverse genetics system for small ruminant morbillivirus: rescuing recombinant virus to express Echinococcus granulosus EG95 antigen.

Peste des petits ruminants and cystic hydatidosis may be simultaneously endemic in a given area. Their pathogens are small ruminant morbillivirus (SRMV) and Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus), respectively. The SRMV, formerly called peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV), is classified into the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxovirida. This virus is an ideal vaccine vector to deliver...

Neethling vaccine proved highly effective in controlling lumpy skin disease epidemics in the Balkans.

Despite the wide use of the live attenuated Neethling lumpy skin disease (LSD) vaccine, only limited data existed on its efficacy and effectiveness prior to the large LSD epidemic in the Balkans, which took place during 2016-2017. In addition, analysis of risk factors for the disease was hardly performed with proper control for vaccination effects and potential differences in exposure to the virus...

Safety and immunogenicity of influenza A(H5N1) vaccine stored up to twelve years in the National Pre-Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Stockpile (NPIVS).

As part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Pandemic Influenza Plan preparedness and response strategy, the National Pre-Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Stockpile (NPIVS) program was established by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) in 2005 with the goal of building and maintaining a stockpile of vaccines for influenza viruses with pandemic potentia...

The efficacy, effectiveness, and immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in Africa: a systematic review.

The burden of influenza in Africa is substantial and underappreciated. Although surveillance has increased, the medical community's understanding of seasonal influenza vaccine performance remains limited. We did a systematic review, using PRISMA guidelines (PROSPERO CRD42017058107), on the efficacy, effectiveness, and immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in populations within Africa with the aim o...

Effective mucosal live attenuated Salmonella vaccine by deleting phosphotransferase system component genes ptsI and crr.

Salmonella enterica is a major human pathogen that causes invasive non-typhoidal Salmonellosis (iNTS), resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Although a number of pre-clinical and clinical studies have reported on the feasibility of developing a safe and effective vaccine against iNTS, there have been no licensed Salmonella vaccines available to protect against NTS strains. Vaccine form...

Factors affecting influenza vaccination in adults aged 50-64 years with high-risk chronic diseases in South Korea.

Influenza is a communicable disease with most of the mortality burden falling on high-risk populations and those with pre-existing comorbidities and chronic diseases. In South Korea, adults aged 50-64 years are recommended for influenza vaccination, but no government financial support is offered to encourage vaccination uptake, which has led to suboptimal vaccination rates and significant public ...

Compliance with vaccination schedules.

Childhood immunization is amongst the most cost-effective public health interventions for reducing children's morbidity and mortality. Vaccination coverage is commonly used to assess the vaccination status of a community. Adherence to schedule is critical for providing maximum effectiveness against vaccine-preventable diseases in the community. This is of paramount importance for diseases that are...

Pharmacist insights into adolescent human papillomavirus vaccination provision in the United States.

HPV vaccination coverage in the United States (US) falls short of the Healthy People 2020 goal of 80% coverage among 13-15 year-old adolescents. Pharmacies are a promising alternative vaccine delivery site that may increase access to HPV vaccination. Our objective was to assess pharmacists' insights into HPV vaccination provision to adolescents. We recruited 40 licensed pharmacists in eight state...

Maternal vaccination with a novel chimeric glycoprotein formulated with a polymer-based adjuvant provides protection from human parainfluenza virus type 3 in newborn lambs.

Human parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are major causative agents of serious respiratory tract illness in newborns and infants. Maternal vaccination could be a promising approach to provide immediate protection against severe PIV3 and RSV infection in young infants. Previously, we demonstrated that maternal immunization with a subunit vaccine consisting of the RSV...

The serogroup B meningococcal vaccine Bexsero elicits antibodies to Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis are closely related bacteria that cause a significant global burden of disease. Control of gonorrhoea is becoming increasingly difficult due to widespread antibiotic resistance. While vaccines are routinely used for N.meningitidis, no vaccine is available for N.gonorrhoeae. Recently, the outer membrane vesicle (OMV) meningococcal B vaccine, MeNZB, w...

Activation of astrocytes and expression of inflammatory cytokines in rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

The aim of the study was to investigate and discuss the activation of astrocytes and the expression of inflammatory cytokines in rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Twenty Wistar rats were randomly divided into the normal control (n=10) and EAE group (n=10). The rats in the EAE group were injected intraperitoneally with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 emulsion, and...

Field evaluation of a ready-to-use combined type 2 and vaccine in Denmark - a historical comparison of productivity parameters in 20 nursery and 23 finishing herds.

In practice, field evaluation of vaccine efficacy in individual herds is often based on a historical comparison of productivity data following initiation of vaccination. Being biased by time, this study design highly contrasts the more controlled, parallel-group design used for most initial vaccine efficacy studies but offers the possibility of including a larger number of animals and herds. As an...

Efficient Induction of T Cells against Conserved HIV-1 Regions by Mosaic Vaccines Delivered as Self-Amplifying mRNA.

Focusing T cell responses on the most vulnerable parts of HIV-1, the functionally conserved regions of HIV-1 proteins, is likely a key prerequisite for vaccine success. For a T cell vaccine to efficiently control HIV-1 replication, the vaccine-elicited individual CD8 T cells and as a population have to display a number of critical traits. If any one of these traits is suboptimal, the vaccine is...

Sex differences in vaccine-induced humoral immunity.

Vaccines are among the most impactful public health interventions, preventing millions of new infections and deaths annually worldwide. However, emerging data suggest that vaccines may not protect all populations equally. Specifically, studies analyzing variation in vaccine-induced immunity have pointed to the critical impact of genetics, the environment, nutrition, the microbiome, and sex in infl...

Up-to-date vaccine delivery systems: robust immunity elicited by multifarious nanomaterials upon administration through diverse routes.

In this review, we summarize the recent design strategies (2015-present) of nanomaterial-based vaccine delivery systems via multiple routes to induce robust protective immunity. The selected topics are focused on the novel design strategies of nanomaterial carriers for vaccine delivery. Inspired by recent advances, we also briefly introduce the emerging administration routes that may give rise to ...

Use of Combination Systemic-Intratumoral HPV Vaccine to Treat Cutaneous Basaloid Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

Use of Combination Systemic-Intratumoral HPV Vaccine to Treat Cutaneous Basaloid Squamous Cell Carcinomas-Reply.

Analysis and insights into recombination signals in lumpy skin disease virus recovered in the field.

Wide spread incidences of vaccine-like strains of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) have recently been reported in a Russian region with a neighboring country that actively vaccinate with a live attenuated LSD vaccine. The use of live-attenuated viruses (LAVs) as vaccines during an active outbreak, creates potential ground for coinfection of hosts and emergence of a strain combining genetic fragment...

First field efficacy trial of the ChAd63 MVA ME-TRAP vectored malaria vaccine candidate in 5-17 months old infants and children.

Heterologous prime boost immunization with chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63) and Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA) vectored vaccines is a strategy previously shown to provide substantial protective efficacy against P. falciparum infection in United Kingdom adult Phase IIa sporozoite challenge studies (approximately 20-25% sterile protection with similar numbers showing clear delay in time to pa...

Vaccines for colorectal cancer: an update.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is known as the third most common and fourth leading cancer associated death worldwide. The occurrence of metastasis has remained as a critical challenge in CRC, so that distant metastasis (mostly to the liver) has been manifested in about 20%-25% of patients. Several screening approaches have introduced for detecting CRC in different stages particularly in early stages. Th...

Emerging Technologies for Low-Cost, Rapid Vaccine Manufacture.

To stop the spread of future epidemics and meet infant vaccination demands in low- and middle-income countries, flexible, rapid and low-cost vaccine development and manufacturing technologies are required. Vaccine development platform technologies that can produce a wide range of vaccines are emerging, including: a) humanized, high-yield yeast recombinant protein vaccines; b) insect cell-baculovir...

Microneedle-Mediated Vaccine Delivery to the Oral Mucosa.

The oral mucosa is a minimally invasive and immunologically rich site that is underutilized for vaccination due to physiological and immunological barriers. To develop effective oral mucosal vaccines, key questions regarding vaccine residence time, uptake, adjuvant formulation, dose, and delivery location must be answered. However, currently available dosage forms are insufficient to address all t...

Effectiveness of influenza and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines against influenza-related outcomes including pneumonia and acute exacerbation of cardiopulmonary diseases: Analysis by dominant viral subtype and vaccine matching.

Influenza and pneumonia are leading causes of morbidity and mortality among the elderly. Although vaccination is a main strategy to prevent these infectious diseases, concerns remain with respect to vaccine effectiveness.

Determination of the minimum protective dose of a glycoprotein-G-deficient infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccine delivered via eye-drop to week-old chickens.

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an upper respiratory tract disease of chickens that is caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), an alphaherpesvirus. This disease causes significant economic loses in poultry industries worldwide. Despite widespread use of commercial live attenuated vaccines, many poultry industries continue to experience outbreaks of disease caused by ILTV. Effort...

The relationship between perceptions and self-paid hepatitis B vaccination: A structural equation modeling approach.

Malaysia has a comprehensive, publicly-funded immunization program for hepatitis B (HepB) among infants, but adults must pay for the vaccine. The number of HepB carriers among adults is expected to increase in the future; therefore, we examined the impact of five constructs (cues to action, perceived barriers, perceived benefit, perceived severity, and perceived susceptibility) on adults' willingn...

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