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Immunology Research

17:53 EST 19th February 2019 | BioPortfolio

Mucosal vaccine efficacy against intrarectal SHIV is independent of anti-Env antibody response.

It is widely believed that protection against acquisition of HIV or SIV infection requires anti-envelope (anti-Env) antibodies, and that cellular immunity may affect viral loads but not acquisition, except in special cases. Here we provide evidence to the contrary. Mucosal immunization may enhance HIV vaccine efficacy by eliciting protective responses at portals of exposure. Accordingly, we vaccin...

Autophagy and immunological aberrations in systemic lupus erythematosus.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease, in which immune defects can occur at multiple points of the cascading auto-aggressive immune reactions, resulting in a striking heterogeneity of clinical presentations. The clinical manifestations of such autoimmune response can be severe:-common manifestations symptoms include rash and renal inflammation progressing to kidney fai...

Microplitis bicoloratus bracovirus modulates innate immune suppression through the eIF4E-eIF4A axis in Spodoptera litura.

Eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is regulated during the innate immune response. However, its translational regulation under innate immune suppression remains largely unexplored. Microplitis bicoloratus bracovirus (MbBV), a symbiotic virus harbored by the parasitoid wasp, Microplitis bicoloratus, suppresses innate immunity in parasitized Spodoptera litura. Here, we generated eIF4E dsRNA and...

Point of care ultrasonography in the allergy and immunology clinic.

Microglia - mediated immunity partly contributes to the genetic association between Alzheimer's disease and hippocampal volume.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) suggest that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is partly explained by a burden of risk alleles (single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs) with relatively small effects. However, the mechanisms by which these loci cumulatively confer susceptibility remain largely unknown. Accumulating evidence suggests an association between increased AD risk allele burden (measured via a...

Adverse events in oral immunotherapy for the desensitization of cow's milk allergy in children: a randomized controlled trial.

This study focuses on side effects of cow's milk oral immunotherapy (CM-OIT) using consensus definitions of food-induced anaphylaxis.

Screening for inhalation technique errors with electronic medication monitors.

Do youth ask asthma providers the questions they want to ask?

AAAAI/ACAAI subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) surveillance study (2013-2017): fatalities, infections, delayed reactions and use of epinephrine auto-injectors.

SCIT is highly effective but safety risks exist.

The European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) Registry Working Definitions for the Clinical Diagnosis of Inborn Errors of Immunity.

Patient registries are instrumental for clinical research in rare diseases. They help to achieve a sufficient sample size for epidemiological and clinical research and to assess the feasibility of clinical trials. The European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) registry currently comprises information on >25,000 patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI). The prerequisite of a patient to be ...

A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Vaccination for Prevention of Herpes Zoster and Related Complications: Input for National Recommendations.

The U.S. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recently developed recommendations for use of a new recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV).

Immune Signaling Pathway during Terminal Bacteroid Differentiation in Nodules.

Plant innate immunity plays an important role in regulating symbiotic associations with rhizobia, including during rhizobial infection, rhizobial colonization, and bacteroid differentiation in leguminous plants. Here we propose that an immune signaling pathway similar to plant pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) is required for the regulation of bacteroid differentiation in Medicago truncatula nodule...

Single-Cell Analysis of Diverse Pathogen Responses Defines a Molecular Roadmap for Generating Antigen-Specific Immunity.

The immune system generates pathogen-tailored responses. The precise innate immune cell types and pathways that direct robust adaptive immune responses have not been fully characterized. By using fluorescent pathogens combined with massively parallel single-cell RNA-seq, we comprehensively characterized the initial 48 h of the innate immune response to diverse pathogens. We found that across all ...

From the pages of AllergyWatch May 2019.

Drug Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome (DIES): a clinical entity which deserves more awareness.

Con: OIT is safe/better than food avoidance.

Pro-Con Debate: Component resolved diagnostic testing is not useful for making food allergy diagnoses.

African American Ancestry Contribution to Asthma and Atopic Dermatitis.

Drug Hypersensitivity Reactions in the Americas: Similarities and Differences.

Protection against fatal pneumonia through mucosal and subcutaneous immunization with the pneumococcal SP0148 protein.

Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is associated with very high morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Vaccines are an effective measure for the reduction of S. pneumoniae infection. In particular, protein vaccines are attracting increasing attention because of their good immunogenicity and wide coverage of serotypes. Therefore, identifying effective protein vaccine targets is important for...

Stratum corneum interleukin-33 expressions correlate with the degree of lichenification and pruritus in atopic dermatitis lesions.

An EDS1 heterodimer signalling surface enforces timely reprogramming of immunity genes in Arabidopsis.

Plant intracellular NLR receptors recognise pathogen interference to trigger immunity but how NLRs signal is not known. Enhanced disease susceptibility1 (EDS1) heterodimers are recruited by Toll-interleukin1-receptor domain NLRs (TNLs) to transcriptionally mobilise resistance pathways. By interrogating the Arabidopsis EDS1 ɑ-helical EP-domain we identify positively charged residues lining a cavit...

Reverse immunodynamics: a new method for identifying targets of protective immunity.

Despite a dramatic increase in our ability to catalogue variation among pathogen genomes, we have made far fewer advances in using this information to identify targets of protective immunity. Epidemiological models predict that strong immune selection can cause antigenic variants to structure into genetically discordant sets of antigenic types (e.g. serotypes). A corollary of this theory is that t...

scFv6.C4 DNA vaccine with fragment C of Tetanus toxin increases protective immunity against CEA-expressing tumor.

The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is the main tumor-associated antigen of colorectal cancers. Previously, we developed a DNA vaccine using scFv6.C4, a CEA surrogate, against CEA-expressing tumors; 40% of the vaccinated mice were tumor-free after tumor challenge. In order to enhance vaccine efficacy, fragment C of Tetanus Toxin (FrC) was tested as adjuvant. C57BL/6J-CEA2682 mice were electroporate...

Cytokine-mediated communication: a quantitative appraisal of immune complexity.

Intercellular communication mediated by cytokines is the main mechanism by which cells of the immune system talk to each other. Many aspects of cytokine signalling in the immune system have been explored in great detail at the structural, biophysical, biochemical and cellular levels. However, a systematic understanding of the quantitative rules that govern cytokine-mediated cell-to-cell communicat...

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