Infectious-diseases Research

14:43 EDT 18th July 2018 | BioPortfolio

Medical-dental considerations in the care of children with facial cellulitis of odontogenic origin. A disease of interest for pediatricians and pediatric dentists.

An odontogenic infection is a polymicrobial, mixed infection (aerobic and anaerobic bacteria). It comprises various clinical conditions, whose importance varies depending on their frequency and potential severity. It is the most common type of oral infection and its treatment involves up to 10% of all antibiotic prescriptions. Facial cellulitis is a diffuse inflammation of soft tissue that is not ...

High Gut Microbiota Diversity Provides Lower Resistance against Infection by an Intestinal Parasite in Bumblebees.

The microbiome, especially the gut flora, is known to affect the interaction between parasites and their hosts. In this context, a parasitic infection can be viewed as an invasion into the preexisting microbial ecological community. Hence, in addition to the intrinsic defense mechanisms of the host itself, infection success depends on the colonization resistance of the microbiota. In the bumblebee...

Recombinant Duck Interferon Gamma Inhibits H5N1 Influenza Virus Replication In Vitro and In Vivo.

The highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) is widespread in waterfowl, causing enormous economic losses and posing a significant threat to public health. An increasing number of reagents have been identified to prevent the spread of influenza; however, there have been no reports on the anti-H5N1 effects of duck interferons, which exhibit antiviral activity against other viruses. Our ai...

Frequent Exposure to Many Hunting Dogs Significantly Increases Tick Exposure.

Certain professionals have more exposure to animals and therefore an increased risk of zoonoses. Professional hunting dog caretakers work with upwards of 50 dogs and are exposed to zoonoses through exposure to multiple potentially infectious canine secretions or excretions, as well as to the ticks that dogs carry. Dog caretakers reported having found embedded ticks on their bodies 5.83 times more ...

In vitro activity of β-lactams in combination with avibactam against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Achromobacter xylosoxidans isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis.

The in vitro activity of anti-pseudomonal β-lactams in combination with avibactam was evaluated against 54 multidrug-resistant non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli isolated from cystic fibrosis patients. Avibactam increased and/or restored the antibacterial activities of ceftazidime and aztreonam against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, respectively. No β-lactam-avibactam...

Direct Detection of penA Gene Associated with Ceftriaxone-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae FC428 Strain by Using PCR.

The ceftriaxone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae FC428 clone was first observed in Japan in 2015, and in 2017, it was documented in Denmark, Canada, and Australia. Here, we describe a PCR for direct detection of the penA gene associated with this strain that can be used to enhance surveillance activities.

Isolation of Complete Equine Encephalitis Virus Genome from Human Swab Specimen, Peru.

While studying respiratory infections in Peru, we identified Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) in a nasopharyngeal swab, indicating that this alphavirus can be present in human respiratory secretions. Because VEEV may be infectious when aerosolized, our finding is relevant for the management of VEEV-infected patients and for VEEV transmission studies.

Capillaria Ova and Diagnosis of Trichuris trichiura Infection in Humans by Kato-Katz Smear, Liberia.

We examined human stool samples from Liberia for soil-transmitted helminth ova by Kato-Katz smear and by quantitative PCR. Twenty-five samples were positive for Trichuris trichiura by smear but negative by quantitative PCR. Reexamination of samples showed that they contained Capillaria eggs that resemble T. trichiura in Kato-Katz smears.

Unilateral Phrenic Nerve Palsy in Infants with Congenital Zika Syndrome.

Since the first identification of neonatal microcephaly cases associated with congenital Zika virus infection in Brazil in 2015, a distinctive constellation of clinical features of congenital Zika syndrome has been described. Fetal brain disruption sequence is hypothesized to underlie the devastating effects of the virus on the central nervous system. However, little is known about the effects of ...

Autochthonous Hepatitis E during Pregnancy, France.

Acute hepatitis E virus infections occurred during the third trimester in 2 pregnant women in France who sought treatment with nonspecific symptoms or asymptomatic elevation of liver enzymes. Infection cleared quickly in both women. We detected no hepatitis E RNA in 1 newborn's feces at 3 weeks of age.

Visceral Leishmaniasis in Traveler to Guyana Caused by Leishmania siamensis, London, UK.

Coxiella burnetii Endocarditis and Meningitis, California, USA, 2017.

The epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii infection in the United States is not well characterized. We report a case-patient with C. burnetii endocarditis and meningitis. Infection was diagnosed by detecting high serologic titers for C. burnetii and confirmed by sequencing of C. burnetii 16S rRNA isolated from resected valvular tissue and PCR of cerebrospinal fluid.

Visceral Leishmaniasis in Traveler to Guyana Caused by Leishmania siamensis, London, UK.

Probable Locally Acquired Babesia divergens-Like Infection in Woman, Michigan, USA.

We report an asplenic patient who was infected with Babesia divergens-like/MO-1. The clinical course was complicated by multiorgan failure that required intubation and dialysis. The patient recovered after an exchange transfusion and antimicrobial drug therapy. Physicians should be alert for additional cases, particularly in asplenic persons.

Case Definition of Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis in Resource-Constrained Settings.

Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is a recognized complication of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). In 2015, the World Health Organization reported 2.2 million new cases of nonbacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB; some of these patients probably had undiagnosed CPA. In October 2016, the Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections convened an international expert panel to develop a case definition ...

In vitro activity of fosfomycin against Campylobacter isolates from poultry and wild birds.

Fosfomycin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic with the activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens by inhibiting the bacterial cell wall synthesis. Given the potential therapeutic efficacy of fosfomycin against Campylobacter spp., the aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro fosfomycin susceptibility of Campylobacter isolates from avian sources including poultry and w...

Inhibition of Japanese encephalitis virus infection by the host zinc-finger antiviral protein.

CCCH-type zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP) is a host factor that restricts the infection of many viruses mainly through RNA degradation, translation inhibition and innate immune responses. So far, only one flavivirus, yellow fever virus, has been reported to be ZAP-resistant. Here, we investigated the antiviral potential of human ZAP (isoform ZAP-L and ZAP-S) against three flaviviruses, Japanes...

Diagnosis of Human Echinococcosis via Exhaled Breath Analysis: A Promise for Rapid Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases Caused by Helminths.

Human echinococcosis is a neglected infectious disease affecting more than one million people globally. Its diagnosis is expensive and difficult because of lack of adequate resources in low-resource locations, where most cases occur.

Kingella kingae Septic Arthritis in an Older-Than-Expected Child.

Kingella kingae typically causes musculoskeletal infection in young children between the ages of 6 months and 4 years who may be in close contact with other similarly aged children who are colonized with the organism in their oropharynx. Kingella infections have rarely been described in older individuals with chronic medical conditions or immune compromise. This is a case report of a healthy, olde...

Risk factors and attack rates of seasonal influenza infection: results of the SHIVERS seroepidemiologic cohort study.

Understanding the attack rate of influenza infection and the proportion who become ill by risk group is key to implementing prevention measures. While population-based studies of anti-haemagglutinin antibody responses have been described previously, studies examining both anti-haemagglutinin and anti-neuraminidase antibodies are lacking.

Analyses of prevalence and molecular typing reveal the spread of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella infection across 2 breeder chicken farms1.

In this study, Salmonella prevalence and antimicrobial resistance were evaluated at various production stages in 2 geographically separated breeder farms (referred to as G and F). Day-old chicks for the breeder flock at farm F were purchased from farm G. A total of 219 Salmonella isolates, all identified as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis, were recovered from 1,430 samples ...

Neuroimmune regulation of lung infection and inflammation.

The distal airway of the lung is innervated by vagus nerve. Upon stimulation, vagus nerve endings release acetylcholine or neuropeptides via C-fiber afferents to regulate lung infection and immunity. Vagal sensory nerve endings, brain integration center, acetylcholine, and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) expressing cells are key components of pulmonary parasympathetic inflammatory ref...

Hospital-acquired pneumonia in the light of current recommendations - is there a space for improving patient care?

Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is an infection of the lung parenchyma. It is the second most frequent nosocomial infection and the leading cause of death from infection in critically ill patients. Hospital-acquired and, particularly, ventilator-associated pneumonia prolong the hospital stay and increase treatment costs. The clinical signs of pneumonia are rather non-specific, with limited possi...

Vaginal preparation with antiseptic solution before cesarean section for preventing postoperative infections.

Cesarean delivery is one of the most common surgical procedures performed by obstetricians. Infectious morbidity after cesarean delivery can have a tremendous impact on the postpartum woman's return to normal function and her ability to care for her baby. Despite the widespread use of prophylactic antibiotics, postoperative infectious morbidity still complicates cesarean deliveries. This is an upd...

Intravaginal practices and genital human papillomavirus infection among female sex workers in Cambodia.

Intravaginal practices (IVPs) include washing, wiping, or inserting something inside the vagina. This study investigates the associations between IVPs and genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.

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