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Infectious-diseases Research

01:45 EDT 24th September 2018 | BioPortfolio

Helicobacter pylori infection is not related to increased carotid intima-media thickness in general population.

The aim is to determine whether there is an independent association between Hp infection and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in a cross-section observational study. Among of 14588 routine health check-up participants, 13770 subjects underwent the C-urea breath test (C-UBT) and ultrasound measurement of CIMT. Traditional atherosclerotic risk factors were also recorded. The ratio of increased ...

Fecal calprotectin concentrations in cancer patients with Clostridium difficile infection.

Fecal calprotectin (fCPT) has been used as a surrogate marker for assessment of intestinal inflammation. We explore the utility of fCPT values as a diagnostic aid in cancer patients with suspected Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). A total of 232 stool specimens submitted for GeneXpert C. difficile PCR testing were included in the study. All specimens were tested for fCPT and toxin/GDH antigen...

Dietary Therapies: Emerging Paradigms in Therapy of Drug Resistant Epilepsy in Children : Based on 6th Dr. I. C. Verma Excellence in Research Award Oration.

About one-third of childhood epilepsy ultimately becomes drug resistant epilepsy. Only about one-third of drug resistant epilepsy is amenable for epilepsy surgery. Epilepsy surgery and vagal nerve stimulation is still beyond the reach of huge proportion of children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Ketogenic diet (KD) has been in use for almost a century now all over the world for drug resistant ep...

Control Strategies in Multigroup Models: The Case of the Star Network Topology.

In this paper, we propose control strategies for multigroup epidemic models. We use compartmental [Formula: see text] models to study the dynamics of n host groups sharing the same source of infection in addition to the transmission among members of the same group. In particular, we consider a model for infectious diseases with free-living pathogens in the environment and a metapopulation model wi...

Prediction of the very early occurrence of HCC right after DAA therapy for HCV infection.

Although direct-acting antiviral (DAA) developments make most of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection curable, some HCV patients develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after curative treatment of HCV. There is much dispute whether the rapid clearance of the virus enhances the HCC development. In advance of the dispute, we should make clear the characteristics of the patients with very early occurrenc...

Molecular Detection of Mycoplasma synoviae from Backyard and commercial Turkeys in Some Parts of Iran.

M. synoviae (MS) is an economically important pathogen and the major cause of airsacculitis and infectious synovitis in turkeys. Infection with this pathogen may remain asymptomatic but can render infected birds susceptible to secondary infections. This study was carried out for the molecular detection of MS infection in commercial and backyard turkey flocks in Tehran, Semnan, Isfahan, Qazvin, Zan...

Cloning of Clostridium Perfringens Iota Toxin Gene in Escherichia Coli.

Iota toxin is produced by Clostridium perfringens type E. This toxin causes antibiotic-associated enterotoxemia in lambs and calves. Iota toxin is a binary toxin that has two components including Ia (the enzyme component) and Ib (the binding component). Ib binds to the surface receptor of target cells and translocate Ia into the cytosol of cells. The aim of this study was to clone toxigenic epitop...

Should Genetic Testing for Variants Associated with Influenza Infection Be Mandatory for Health Care Employees?

Scientists are beginning to understand more about the role of host genetics in individuals' responses to influenza virus exposure. This fictional case addresses a situation in which a health care organization proposes requiring all health care practitioners with direct patient care responsibilities to undergo mandatory genetic testing for genetic variants used to (1) predict individuals' responses...

Occult Hepatitis B Infection Among Blood Donors in Al Azhar University Hospital, Upper Egypt: The Current Status After 25 years of Vaccine Introduction.

Occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) is a challenging topic with much debate regarding its clinical and virological relevance. The reliance on anti HBc seropositivity for diagnosis of OBI is still controversial. We aimed to determine the frequency of OBI among Egyptian blood donors, the role of anti HBc and HBe Ag as predictors of OBI and the possible risk factors. A total of 300 randomly sele...

Determining qualitative effect size ratings using a likelihood ratio scatter matrix in diagnostic test accuracy systematic reviews.

Background Diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) systematic reviews (SRs) characterize a test's potential for diagnostic quality and safety. However, interpreting DTA measures in the context of SRs is challenging. Further, some evidence grading methods (e.g. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Laboratory Systems Laboratory Medicine Best Practices method) require determination of quali...

Selective Uptake Into Drug Resistant Mammalian Cancer By Cell Penetrating Peptide-Mediated Delivery.

Research over the past decade has identified several of the key limiting features in multidrug resistance (MDR) cancer ther-apy applications, such as evolving glycoprotein receptors at the surface of the cell that limit therapeutic uptake, metabolic changes leading to protection from multidrug resistant mediators by enhanced degradation or efflux of therapeutics, and difficulty ensuring retention ...

Analyzing the capability of PSP, PCT and sCD25 to support the diagnosis of infection in cancer patients with febrile neutropenia.

Background Early diagnosis of infection is essential for the initial management of cancer patients with chemotherapy-associated febrile neutropenia (FN). In this study, we have evaluated two emerging infection biomarkers, pancreatic stone protein (PSP) and soluble receptor of interleukin 2, known as soluble cluster of differentiation 25 (sCD25), for the detection of an infectious cause in FN, in c...

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy triggered by influenza B.

Influenza is associated with a high prevalence of cardiac complications, including myocarditis and exacerbation of ischemic heart disease or heart failure (HF). However, only four cases of stress-induced takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC), all of them triggered by virus A influenza, have been reported so far. Another two TC cases after anti-influenza vaccination are also available in the literature. Th...

Factors that affect immunization data quality in Kabarole District, Uganda.

Reliable and timely immunization data is vital at all levels of health care to inform decisions and improve program performance. Inadequate data quality may impair our understanding of the true vaccination coverage and also hinder our capability to meet the program objectives. It's therefore important to regularly assess immunization data quality to ensure good performance, sound decision making a...

Spatial transmission of H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza between Minnesota poultry premises during the 2015 outbreak.

The spatial spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 during the 2015 outbreak in the U.S. state of Minnesota was analyzed through the estimation of a spatial transmission kernel, which quantifies the infection hazard an infectious premises poses to an uninfected premises some given distance away. Parameters were estimated using a maximum likelihood method for the entire outbreak as ...

Reply to "The epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in China".

We thank Dr. Zhao for his interest in our study. Estimation of the incidence of most infectious diseases is challenging, because infection might have occurred several years before symptoms arise or a diagnosis is made. As a result, we used "reporting incidence" rather than "incidence" in our study, which refer to the incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection derived from a web-based surveilla...

Differentiating antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using secondary electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (SESI-MS/MS).

Secondary electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (SESI-MS) is an innovative metabolomics approach that primarily focuses on the gas-phase analyte detection. In this study, we developed a secondary electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (SESI-MS/MS) method with a homemade SESI-MS front end, for sensitive, reproducible and selective detection of headspace volatile organic compounds (VOC...

Increasing prevalence and dissemination of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella serotype Typhimurium with multidrug resistance in hospitalized patients from southern Brazil.

Nontyphoidal Salmonella serotypes are the main cause of human food-borne infection, including several hospitalization cases in the developing countries.

Post-exposure prophylaxis for Middle East respiratory syndrome in Healthcare workers.

An effective post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) strategy may limit the spread of infection. However, there is no consensus regarding PEP for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection. We assessed the efficacy of ribavirin and lopinavir/ritonavir as PEP for healthcare workers (HCWs) exposed to patients with severe MERS-CoV pre-isolation pneumonia. We assessed the safety of PEP ...

Clostridium difficile-related hospitalizations and risk factors for in-hospital mortality in Spain between 2001 and 2015.

To examine trends in the incidence, characteristics and in-hospital outcomes of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) hospitalizations from 2001 to 2015; to compare clinical variables among patients according to the diagnosis position (primary or secondary) of CDI and to identify factors associated with in-hospital mortality (IHM).

Whole genome sequencing reveals a prolonged and spatially spread nosocomial outbreak of PVL positive MRSA (USA300).

We describe the detection and unfolding of a prolonged and spatially distributed nosocomial outbreak of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST 8 (USA300).

Construction and rescue of Muscovy duck-origin goose parvovirus from an infectious clone containing an E-box deletion within the left terminal region.

To obtain a deletion mutant of Muscovy duck-origin goose parvovirus (MDGPV) and to analyze its biological characteristics, the pMDGPVPT plasmid, which contains a full-length DNA infectious clone of the MDGPV PT strain, was used in this study as the template. The E-box at nt 315 of the left inverted terminal repeat sequence (L-ITR) was deleted by overlap extension PCR to obtain the infectious recom...

Genome-wide analysis of Borrelia turcica and 'Candidatus Borrelia tachyglossi' shows relapsing fever-like genomes with unique genomic links to Lyme disease Borrelia.

Borrelia are tick-borne bacteria that in humans are the aetiological agents of Lyme disease and relapsing fever. Here we present the first genomes of B. turcica and B. tachyglossi, members of a recently described and rapidly expanding Borrelia clade associated with reptile (B. turcica) or echidna (B. tachyglossi) hosts, transmitted by hard ticks, and of unknown pathogenicity. Borrelia tachyglossi ...

Microbial risk assessment in recreational freshwaters from southern Brazil.

In this study, total coliforms (TC), Escherichia coli, enterovirus (EV), rotavirus (RV), and human mastadenovirus species C and F (HAdV-C and HAdV-F) were evaluated in water samples from Belo Stream. For HAdV-C and F, the infectivity was assessed by integrated cell culture quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (ICC-qPCR). Samples were collected monthly (May/2015 to April/2016) at four s...

CDC25B promotes influenza A virus replication by regulating the phosphorylation of nucleoprotein.

Cell division cycle 25 B (CDC25B) is a member of the CDC25 phosphatase family. It can dephosphorylate cyclin-dependent kinases and regulate the cell division cycle. Moreover, siRNA knockdown of CDC25B impairs influenza A virus (IAV) replication. Here, to further understand the regulatory mechanism of CDC25B for IAV replication, a CDC25B-knockout (KO) 293T cell line was constructed using CRISPR/Cas...

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