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Acute hepatitis C (AHC) is not frequently identified because patients are usually asymptomatic, although may be recognized after iatrogenic exposures such as needle stick injuries, medical injection, and acupuncture. We describe an outbreak of AHC among 12 patients who received IV saline flush from a single multi-dose vial after intravenous contrast administration for a computerized tomography (CT...
HIV infection has been associated with an impaired lung function in high-income countries, but the association between HIV infection and pulmonary function in Sub-Saharan Africa remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the relation between HIV infection and pulmonary function in a rural African population.
Gut fungi may influence the course of Clostridium difficile infection either positively or negatively for the host. Fungi are not prominent in the mouse gut, and C. albicans, the major human gastrointestinal commensal yeast, is in low abundance or absent in mice. Bifidobacterium is one of the probiotics that may attenuate the severity of C. difficile infection. Inflammatory synergy between C. albi...
A retrospective review of Listeria monocytogenes infection at Tygerberg Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, from 2006 to 2016: Is empirical ampicillin still indicated after the first month of life?
Ampicillin to treat Listeria monocytogenes (LM) infection is empirically added to the treatment of infants (<3 months) with suspected sepsis or meningitis.
Annual influenza vaccinations are currently recommended for all health care personnel (HCP) to limit the spread of influenza to those at high risk of developing serious complications from the virus. Vaccination coverage has been shown to be significantly greater among employers requiring and encouraging HCP to receive the annual influenza vaccination.
Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are the syndrome for which antibiotics are most commonly prescribed; viruses for which antibiotics are ineffective cause most ARIs.
Influenza vaccination rates in the United States are suboptimal near 40%, but little is known about variations in care based on clinic appointment time.
Some studies have reported negative effects of prior-season influenza vaccination. Prior-season influenza vaccination effects on vaccine effectiveness (VE) in children are not well understood.
The timing of sexual partnerships is important for sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission potential. Studies often measure timing as whether partnerships overlap in time (concurrency), but this measure does not account for how STI risk from previous partners can be carried forward into future partnerships even when there is a time gap between them (serial monogamy) if the infectious per...
Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, and incidence has increased rapidly in recent years, likely owing to increased injection drug use. Current estimates of prevalence at the state level are needed to guide prevention and care efforts but are not available through existing disease surveillance systems.
We investigated the benefits of a local preventive therapy based on copper beads against severe bone infection using a rabbit open tibial fracture model.
The incidence of lung fungal infections, namely invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) and mucormycosis, is increasing in neutropenic and nonneutropenic patients. As they are a major cause of death, early diagnosis and antifungal therapy are crucial for outcome. The role of biomarkers in the management of this infections is the scope of this review.
In 2009, Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 caused the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century with high mortality rates of about 284 500 deaths. This virus, however, continues to circulate as a seasonal influenza virus and to cause illness and deaths worldwide. In this study, we describe the genetic diversity of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses collected between 2014 and 2016 in Cameroon. Three gene segments (HA, N...
Reducing the number of influenza A virus (IAV) infected pigs at weaning is critical to minimize IAV spread to other farms. Sow vaccination is a common measure to reduce influenza levels at weaning. However, the impact of maternally-derived antibodies on IAV infection dynamics in growing pigs is poorly understood. We evaluated the effect of maternally-derived antibodies at weaning on IAV prevalence...
Late endosome-resident interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) inhibits fusion of diverse viruses, including Influenza A virus (IAV), by a poorly understood mechanism. Despite the broad antiviral activity of IFITM3, viruses like Lassa virus (LASV), are fully resistant to its inhibitory effects. It is currently unclear whether resistance arises from a highly efficient fusion machinery t...
Late-onset infection is the most common serious complication associated with hospital care for newborn infants. Because confirming the diagnosis by microbiological culture typically takes 24 to 48 hours, the serum level of the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) measured as part of the initial investigation is used as an adjunctive rapid test to guide management in infants with suspected ...
The objective of this study was to evaluate immunoregulatory and protective potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in a mouse model of lethal HSV1 infection. MSC were isolated from bone marrow of DBA mice and cultured in ﬂasks with DMEM containing 10% FBS, insulin, transferrin, selenite, fbroblast growth factor, glutaminе and gentamicin. Antiviral activity was tested on HSV1-infected Vero ce...
The results of the study of the distribution of calicivirus infection in a population of domestic cats of different breeds, contained individually or the group method, the virus isolation in the cell culture and a comparative phylogenetic analysis of their nucleotide sequences with published sequences of reference feld and vaccine strains of Feline calicivirus (FCV) from other countries: USA, Germ...
The optimal duration of contact precautions for vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) colonized patients is uncertain and individual patient characteristics alone may not predict risk of prolonged colonization. Using a cohort of adult patients who underwent testing for VRE at intensive care unit (ICU) admission we tested the association between local (unit-level) vancomycin use and persistent co...
Recently, the number of HIV-infected travellers to (sub)tropical areas has increased substantially. In the Netherlands, HIV-positive travellers with CD4-cells of