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Infectious-diseases Research

00:35 EST 16th November 2018 | BioPortfolio

Prevalence and associated factors with Neospora caninum infection in female water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Pernambuco, Brazil.

Neosporosis is one of the major parasitic diseases that causes reproductive problems, making it a limitation for optimal efficiency in livestock. The aim of the present study was to conduct a seroepidemiological survey for bubaline neosporosis and to analyse associated factors associated with N. caninum infection in female water buffaloes in the State of Pernambuco, northeast Brazil. The prevalenc...

A phase 2 trial of abiraterone acetate without glucocorticoids for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

Abiraterone acetate suppresses adrenal androgens and glucocorticoids through the inhibition of CYP17; however, given the risk of mineralocorticoid excess, it is administered with glucocorticoids. Herein, the authors performed a phase 2, single-arm study that was designed to assess the safety of abiraterone acetate without steroids in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer.

Burkholderia mallei: the dynamics of networks and disease transmission.

Glanders is a highly infectious zoonotic disease caused by Burkholderia mallei. The transmission of B. mallei occurs mainly by direct contact, and horses are the natural reservoir. Therefore, the identification of infection sources within horse populations and animal movements is critical to enhance disease control. Here, we analyzed the dynamics of horse movements from 2014 to 2016 using network ...

Systemic biomarkers in respiratory tract infections.

Respiratory tract infections represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality despite the progress made in their diagnosis and treatment. Since the clinical presentation of a viral or bacterial infection is often similar, the identification of a biomarker that could guide the clinician whether or not to introduce an antibiotic therapy is crucial. C-reactive protein and procalcitonin are the most...

SAR studies leading to the identification of a novel series of metallo-β-lactamase inhibitors for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections that display efficacy in an animal infection model.

The clinical effectiveness of carbapenem antibiotics such as meropenem is becoming increasingly compromised by the spread of both metallo β-lactamase (MBL) and serine β-lactamase (SBL) enzymes on mobile genetic elements, stimulating research to find new β-lactamase inhibitors to be used in conjunction with carbapenems and other β-lactam antibiotics. Herein we describe our initial exploration o...

Characterization of Quinolone-Resistant Determinants in Tribe Proteeae Isolated from Pet Turtles with High Prevalence of qnrD and Novel gyrB Mutations.

Development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria has challenged significantly in both veterinary and human medicine. In this study, we analyzed the potential risk of pet turtles harboring tribe Proteeae as a source of quinolone-resistant determinants, including plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes and target gene alterations in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR). Anti...

First Report of Whole-Genome Sequence of Colistin-Resistant Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae Producing KPC-9 in India.

Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) is a class A carbapenemase endemic in the United States, China, South America, and Europe but is rarely reported from India. A single report of KPC-9 from K. pneumoniae in Israel has been published. K. pneumoniae has been classified into three phylogenetic groups: group 1 consists of K. pneumoniae and its subspecies, group 2 consists of Klebsiella quasipne...

The use of procalcitonin in the determination of severity of sepsis, patient outcomes and infection characteristics.

The primary objective of this study was to determine the correlation between procalcitonin values and illness severity by evaluating the degree of end organ dysfunction using the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, length of stay and the severity of sepsis (sepsis alone vs. septic shock), The hypothesis that procalcitonin values would be higher in sicker patients was formulated before data ...

Phase 2b Study of Pimodivir (JNJ-63623872) as Monotherapy or in Combination With Oseltamivir for Treatment of Acute Uncomplicated Seasonal Influenza A: TOPAZ Trial.

Pimodivir, a first-in-class inhibitor of influenza virus polymerase basic protein 2, is being developed for hospitalized and high-risk patients with influenza A.

Erratum.

Inhibiting Viral Polymerase and Neuraminidase in Treating Influenza.

Influenza epidemics observed in primary care from 1984 to 2017 in France: a decrease of epidemic size over time.

Epidemiological analysis of past influenza epidemics remains essential to understand the evolution of the disease and optimize control and prevention strategies. Here, we aimed to use data collected by a primary care surveillance system over the last three decades to study trends in influenza epidemics and describe epidemic profiles according to circulating influenza viruses.

Evidence of Artemisinin-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Eastern India.

DNA-PK Is Targeted by Multiple Vaccinia Virus Proteins to Inhibit DNA Sensing.

Virus infection is sensed by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) detecting virus nucleic acids and initiating an innate immune response. DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a PRR that binds cytosolic DNA and is antagonized by vaccinia virus (VACV) protein C16. Here, VACV protein C4 is also shown to antagonize DNA-PK by binding to Ku and blocking Ku binding to DNA, leading to a reduced produc...

In Vivo Delivery of Synthetic Human DNA-Encoded Monoclonal Antibodies Protect against Ebolavirus Infection in a Mouse Model.

Synthetically engineered DNA-encoded monoclonal antibodies (DMAbs) are an in vivo platform for evaluation and delivery of human mAb to control against infectious disease. Here, we engineer DMAbs encoding potent anti-Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) glycoprotein (GP) mAbs isolated from Ebola virus disease survivors. We demonstrate the development of a human IgG1 DMAb platform for in vivo EBOV-GP mAb deli...

RNAi-mediated antiviral immunity in insects and their possible application.

Antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) in insects is known for some time. Previously, data from the model organism Drosophila was lightly transferred to other insects. However, since more research is performed on other insects, both similarities and important differences among the RNAi pathways of insects are revealed. The piRNA pathway, for example, is suggested to have antiviral functions in mosquito...

Beneficial Effects of Vaccination on Cardiovascular Events: Myocardial Infarction, Stroke, Heart Failure.

Influenza and pneumococcal infections have been suggested to be potential risk factors for causing adverse cardiovascular events, especially in high-risk patients. Vaccination against respiratory infections in patients with established cardiovascular disease (CVD) could serve as a potential cost-effective intervention to improve their clinical outcomes and cardiac societies have encouraged it. Pre...

Extracellular vesicle-associated miRNAs in ovarian cancer - design of an integrated NGS-based workflow for the identification of blood-based biomarkers for platinum-resistance.

Background Extracellular vesicle (EV)-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) have been suggested as promising biomarkers for blood-based cancer diagnosis. However, one of the major limitations for the use of EVs with diagnostic purpose is the lack of standardized EV-profiling techniques. In this regard, the objective of our study was to design an integrated next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based workflow f...

A modified DAW-22 compound F-B1 inhibits Bcr/Abl and induces apoptosis in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells.

The Bcr/Abl kinase is an oncogenic fusion protein that plays a central role in the pathogenesis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Some small-molecule kinase inhibitors such as imatinib were developed in the treatment of CML; however, resistant to imatinib is an emerging problem of CML therapy. Hence, additional approaches or compounds targeting leukemogenic cells are required. F-B1 is a new compo...

Assessing Residual Bias in Estimating Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness: Comparison of High-dose Versus Standard-dose Vaccines.

Estimating influenza vaccine effectiveness using an unvaccinated comparison group may result in biased effect estimates.

Gut structural damage, an ongoing process in chronically untreated HIV infection.

To investigate the longitudinal changes of gut structural damage in chronically untreated HIV infection.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Sexually Transmitted Infection Counseling and Testing Services Received by Gay and Bisexual Men Using Preexposure Prophylaxis at Their Last PrEP Care Visit.

Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) reduces risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection for many gay and bisexual men (GBM); however, bacterial sexually transmitted infections associated with decreasing condom use among users is of concern. Center for Disease Control and Prevention's guidelines for PrEP use recommend bacterial sexually transmitted infection screening every 6 months. We sought to inv...

Stable Low Hepatitis C Virus Antibody Prevalence Among HIV-Negative Men Who Have Sex With Men Attending the Sexually Transmitted Infection Outpatient Clinic in Amsterdam, 2007 to 2017.

In response to the increased hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence recently found among participants of the Amsterdam preexposure prophylaxis demonstration project, we evaluated HCV prevalence over time and the performance of the HCV-MOSAIC risk score for detection of HCV infection in HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) attending the Amsterdam sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic.

Delayed oseltamivir plus sirolimus treatment attenuates H1N1 virus-induced severe lung injury correlated with repressed NLRP3 inflammasome activation and inflammatory cell infiltration.

Severe influenza A virus infection causes high mortality and morbidity worldwide due to delayed antiviral treatment and inducing overwhelming immune responses, which contribute to immunopathological lung injury. Sirolimus, an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), was effective in improving clinical outcomes in patients with severe H1N1 infection; however, the mechanisms by which it at...

Human Borreliosis Caused by a New World Relapsing Fever Borrelia-like Organism in the Old World.

Relapsing fever is an infectious disease previously neglected in Africa, which imposes a large public health burden in the country. We aimed to investigate and report on a case of relapsing fever borreliosis in Zambia.

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