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Infectious-diseases Research

04:10 EDT 22nd August 2018 | BioPortfolio

Genetic Diversity of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi in California and Characterization of Epidemiological Factors for Olive Knot Development.

Olive knot, caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi, is a limiting disease in the production of table and oil olives in California. The genetic variability among 152 strains from major production areas of California was determined using BOX, ERIC, and REP primers in repetitive element sequence-based polymerase chain reaction. Overall genetic variability was low, and strains shared at least...

Molecular Characterization, Fitness, and Mycotoxin Production of Fusarium asiaticum Strains Resistant to Fludioxonil.

Fludioxonil is used in seedborne disease management of various fungal pathogens, including Fusarium asiaticum, the predominant causal agent of Fusarium head blight in China. In this study, we screened resistant strains from a large number of F. asiaticum strains collected from 2012 to 2016 and found that 4 of 1,000 field strains were highly resistant to fludioxonil. The 50% effective concentration...

Detection and Characterization of QoI-Resistant Phytophthora capsici Causing Pepper Phytophthora Blight in China.

Phytophthora capsici is a highly destructive plant pathogen that has spread worldwide. To date, the quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) azoxystrobin has been the choice of farmers for managing this oomycete. In this study, the sensitivity of 90 P. capsici isolates collected from Yunnan, Fujian, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, and Guangdong in southern China to azoxystrobin was assessed based on mycelial growth, sp...

An update on catheter-associated urinary tract infection. Inter-Society recommendations.

Representatives of the Argentine Society of Infectious Diseases (SADI) and the Argentine Society of Intensive Therapy (SATI) issued the present recommendations on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of catheter associated urinary tract infection (CA-UTI). Articles published during 2006-2016 were analyzed in the light of experts' opinion and local data. This document aims to offer basic strategies...

Timescales of influenza A/H3N2 antibody dynamics.

Human immunity influences the evolution and impact of influenza strains. Because individuals are infected with multiple influenza strains during their lifetime, and each virus can generate a cross-reactive antibody response, it is challenging to quantify the processes that shape observed immune responses or to reliably detect recent infection from serological samples. Using a Bayesian model of ant...

The antiparasitic drug niclosamide inhibits dengue virus infection by interfering with endosomal acidification independent of mTOR.

The antiparasitic agent niclosamide has been demonstrated to inhibit the arthropod-borne Zika virus. Here, we investigated the antiviral capacity of niclosamide against dengue virus (DENV) serotype 2 infection in vitro and in vivo.

Antibacterial soap use impacts skin microbial communities in rural Madagascar.

The skin harbors diverse communities of microorganisms, and alterations to these communities can impact the effectiveness of the skin as a barrier to infectious organisms or injury. As the global availability and adoption of antibacterial products increases, it is important to understand how these products affect skin microbial communities of people living in rural areas of developing countries, w...

Diverse pathways of escape from all well-characterized VRC01-class broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies.

Many broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) were shown effective in animal models, and are currently evaluated in clinical trials. However, use of these antibodies in humans is hampered by the rapid emergence of resistant viruses. Here we show that soft-randomization can be used to accelerate the parallel identification of viral escape pathways....

The C. difficile clnRAB operon initiates adaptations to the host environment in response to LL-37.

To cause disease, Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile must resist killing by innate immune effectors in the intestine, including the host antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin (LL-37). The mechanisms that enable C. difficile to adapt to the intestine in the presence of antimicrobial peptides are unknown. Expression analyses revealed an operon, CD630_16170-CD630_16190 (clnRAB), which is highly ind...

Multiple factors contribute to bimodal toxin gene expression in Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile.

Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile produces two major toxins, TcdA and TcdB, upon entry into stationary phase. Transcription of tcdA and tcdB requires the specialized sigma factor, σ , which also directs RNA Polymerase to transcribe tcdR itself. We fused a gene for a red fluorescent protein to the tcdA promoter to study toxin gene expression at the level of individual C. difficile ce...

Maximizing utilization of the donor pool by appropriate classification of hepatitis C antibody positive donors.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is unlike other viruses commonly encountered in organ transplantation (e.g., cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B virus [HBV]), in that up to one-third of immune-competent hosts acutely infected with HCV spontaneously clear the infection. Such patients will have a detectable HCV antibody (Ab), a marker of exposure to HCV, yet a detectable HCV RNA signifies active infection. Unlike ...

Effectiveness of Influenza Vaccine in Hemodialyzed Patients: A Retrospective Study.

Infection is one of the leading causes of mortality in dialysis patients, second only to cardiovascular disease. This retrospective study assessed the efficacy and clinical outcomes of influenza vaccination among hemodialysis (HD) patients. In the 2014-2015 season, 104 of 164 (63.6%) HD patients were vaccinated for influenza by the outpatient community health system facilities. Significantly more ...

Inadequate use of antibiotics and increase in neonatal sepsis caused by resistant bacteria related to health care assistance: a systematic review.

Technologies and life support management have enhanced the survival of preterm infants. The immune system of newborns is immature, which contributes to the occurrence of healthcare-associated infections (HAI). The overlap of several conditions with neonatal sepsis and the difficulty of diagnosis and laboratory confirmation during this period result in a tendency to over-treat neonatal sepsis. The ...

Peptide based Antimicrobials: Design Strategies and Therapeutic Potential.

Therapeutic activity of antibiotics is noteworthy, as they are used in the treatment of microbial infections. Regardless of their utility, there has been a steep decrease in the number of drug candidates due to antibiotic resistance, an inevitable consequence of noncompliance with the full therapeutic regimen. A variety of resistant species like MDR (Multi-Drug Resistant), XDR (Extensively Drug-Re...

Multistate modelling to estimate excess length of stay and risk of death associated with organ/space infection after elective colorectal surgery.

Accounting for time-dependency and competing events are strongly recommended to estimate excess length of stay (LOS) and risk of death associated with healthcare-associated infections.

Neuraminidase inhibitors susceptibility profiles of highly pathogenic influenza A (H5N1) viruses isolated from avian species in India (2006-2015).

We tested 65 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) viruses, isolated from avian species in India between 2006 and 2015, for susceptibility to the FDA approved neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs), oseltamivir and zanamivir using a phenotypic fluorescence-based assay. The overall incidence of resistant variants among HPAI A(H5N1) viruses was 7.69% (5/65). The NA inhibition assay identifi...

Transient inhibition of sphingosine kinases confers protection to influenza A virus infected mice.

Influenza continues to pose a threat to public health by causing illness and mortality in humans. Discovering host factors that regulate influenza virus propagation is vital for the development of novel drugs. We have previously reported that sphingosine kinase (SphK) 1 promotes influenza A virus (IAV) replication in vitro. Here we demonstrate that the other isoform of SphK, SphK2 promotes the rep...

Adherence to Pre-exposure Prophylaxis among Men Who have Sex with Men: A Prospective Cohort Study.

To evaluate the adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in a clinical trial of a population of men who have sex with men (MSM), to explore the influence of social psychology and objective factors (e.g., forgetting, too busy,) on adherence and to provide evidence for subsequent PrEP research.

Incremental yield and cost of urine Determine TB-LAM and sputum induction in seriously ill adults with HIV.

Tuberculosis is a major cause of mortality among HIV-infected inpatients and WHO (2016) recommends an algorithm to improve diagnosis. Urine lateral flow lipoarabinomannan (LAM) and sputum Xpert MTB/RIF are promising tools but the optimal diagnostic algorithm is unclear.

Tigecycline salvage therapy for critically ill children with multidrug-resistant/extensively drug-resistant infections after surgery.

The aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of salvage therapy of tigecycline in critically ill children after surgery with infections caused by MDR/XDR bacteria.

Delayed diagnosis of colorectal sexually transmitted diseases due to their resemblance to inflammatory bowel diseases.

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), mainly LGV (lymphogranuloma venereum) induces colorectal symptoms that may be misdiagnosed as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). To understand missed diagnosis of colorectal STDs and their association with LGV in Israel we describe patients that presented with STDs masquerading as IBD.

Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in people with gastrointestinal disorders in Queensland and Western Australia.

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the commonest pathogenic microsporidian found in humans and animals in many countries, but there is scant information on this pathogen in Australia. Here, we conducted the first molecular epidemiological investigation of E. bieneusi in humans with gastrointestinal disorders in Queensland and Western Australia. Genomic DNAs derived from 605 individual faecal samples from ...

Identification and genomic characterization of influenza viruses with different origin in Mexican pigs.

Swine influenza is a worldwide disease, which causes damage to the respiratory system of pigs. The H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes circulate mainly in the swine population of Mexico. There is evidence that new subtypes of influenza virus have evolved genetically and have been rearranged with human viruses and from other species; therefore, the aim of our study was to identify and characterize the genetic c...

An Outbreak of Goatpox virus infection in Wild Red Serow (Capricornis rubidus) in Mizoram, India.

Goatpox virus (GTPV) belongs to the genus Capripoxvirus associated with characteristic clinical lesions in fully susceptible breeds of sheep and goats. To date, there is no report of outbreaks of GTPV infection in any wild animals. The present study reports the outbreak of GTPV infection in wild Red Serow (Capricornis rubidus.) in Mizoram, India. A total of 113 wild Serow carcasses were recovered ...

Post-operative Infection of Prosthetic Materials or Stents Involving the Supra-aortic Trunks: A Comprehensive Review.

The aim of this paper was to provide recommendations for diagnosis and management in the setting of infection following open or endovascular reconstructions of the supra-aortic trunks.

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