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Infectious-diseases Research

09:11 EST 10th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

Efficient production of antifungal proteins in plants using a new transient expression vector derived from tobacco mosaic virus.

Fungi that infect plants, animals or humans pose a serious threat to human health and food security. Antifungal proteins (AFPs) secreted by filamentous fungi are promising biomolecules that could be used to develop new antifungal therapies in medicine and agriculture. They are small highly stable proteins with specific potent activity against fungal pathogens. However, their exploitation requires ...

Subdominance and poor intrinsic immunogenicity limit humoral immunity targeting influenza HA-stem.

Both natural influenza infection and current seasonal influenza vaccines primarily induce neutralising antibody responses against highly diverse epitopes within the "head" of the viral hemagglutinin (HA) protein. There is increasing interest on redirecting immunity towards the more conserved HA-stem or stalk as a means to broaden protective antibody responses. Here we examined HA-stem-specific B c...

Public Health Response to an Avian Influenza A(H7N8) Virus Outbreak in Commercial Turkey Flocks - Indiana, 2016.

In January 2016, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H7N8) virus and low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) A(H7N8) virus were detected in commercial turkey flocks in Dubois County, Indiana. The Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH) and the Dubois County Health Department (DCHD) coordinated the public health response to this outbreak, which was the first detection of HPAI A(H7N8) in a...

Age trends in asymptomatic and symptomatic Leishmania donovani infection in the Indian subcontinent: A review and analysis of data from diagnostic and epidemiological studies.

Age patterns in asymptomatic and symptomatic infection with Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent (ISC), are currently poorly understood. Age-stratified serology and infection incidence have been used to assess transmission levels of other diseases, which suggests that they may also be of use for monitoring and targeting control programm...

2'-Hydroxyflavanone activity in vitro and in vivo against wild-type and antimony-resistant Leishmania amazonensis.

To overcome the current problems in leishmaniasis chemotherapy, natural products have become an interesting alternative over the past few decades. Flavonoids have been studied as promising family of compounds for leishmaniasis treatment. 2'-Hydroxyflavanone (2HF) is a flavanone, a class of flavonoid that has shown promising results in cancer studies. In this study, we demonstrated the effects of 2...

Temporal changes in the viromes of Swedish Varroa-resistant and Varroa-susceptible honeybee populations.

The parasitic mite, Varroa destructor, in combination with the viruses it vectors, is the main cause for global colony losses of the European honeybee, Apis mellifera. However, an isolated honeybee population established in 1999 on the Island of Gotland, Sweden has naturally acquired resistance to the mite, and has survived without mite control treatment for more than 18 years. A recent study has ...

Effectiveness of influenza and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines against influenza-related outcomes including pneumonia and acute exacerbation of cardiopulmonary diseases: Analysis by dominant viral subtype and vaccine matching.

Influenza and pneumonia are leading causes of morbidity and mortality among the elderly. Although vaccination is a main strategy to prevent these infectious diseases, concerns remain with respect to vaccine effectiveness.

Atypical and severe manifestations of chikungunya virus infection in French Guiana: A hospital-based study.

French Guiana (FG) was the first country in South America to declare chikungunya virus infection (CHIKV). The outbreak affected about 16,000 persons between February 2014 and October 2015, with several atypical cases, but only two fatal cases. We aimed to describe the clinical presentation of patients hospitalized for CHIKV infection, to estimate and identify risk factors of unusual and severe for...

Modelling Toxoplasma gondii infection in a 3D cell culture system In Vitro: Comparison with infection in 2D cell monolayers.

Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models bridge the gap between two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures and animal models. Physiologically relevant, 3D culture models have significantly advanced basic cell science and provide unique insights into host-pathogen interactions intrinsically linked to cell morphology. Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intravacuolar parasite that chronically infects a ...

Staphylococcus aureus from ocular and otolaryngology infections are frequently resistant to clinically important antibiotics and are associated with lineages of community and hospital origins.

Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen that causes serious antibiotic-resistant infections. Its population structure is marked by the appearance and dissemination of successful lineages across different settings. To begin understanding the population structure of S. aureus causing ocular and otolaryngology infections, we characterized 262 isolates by antimicrobial sensitivity testing...

Immunogenic particles with a broad antigenic spectrum stimulate cytolytic T cells and offer increased protection against EBV infection ex vivo and in mice.

The ubiquitous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the primary cause of infectious mononucleosis and is etiologically linked to the development of several malignancies and autoimmune diseases. EBV has a multifaceted life cycle that comprises virus lytic replication and latency programs. Considering EBV infection holistically, we rationalized that prophylactic EBV vaccines should ideally prime the immune s...

Pharmacological interventions for acute hepatitis C infection.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded RNA (ribonucleic acid) virus that has the potential to cause inflammation of the liver. The traditional definition of acute HCV infection is the first six months following infection with the virus. Another commonly used definition of acute HCV infection is the absence of HCV antibody and subsequent seroconversion (presence of HCV antibody in a person wh...

A Single-Step Gold Nanoparticle-Blood Serum Interaction Assay Reveals Humoral Immunity Development and Immune Status of Animals from Neonates to Adults.

A well-developed, functional immune system is paramount to combat harmful attack from pathogenic organisms and prevent infectious diseases. Newborn animals and humans have only limited immunity upon birth, but their immune functions are expected to develop within weeks to months and eventually to reach a maturity that will provide full protection. Despite the importance of immune activity in anima...

Recombinant Staphylococcal Antigen-F (r-ScaF), a novel vaccine candidate against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection: Potency and efficacy studies.

Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal and pathogen, its clinical importance is exacerbated by the spread of multi-drug resistant strains. The potential future failure of antibiotic therapy necessitates the development of novel control regimes, including new immunotherapeutic approaches. S. aureus has a large repertoire of surface components with potential for immunological targeting. The aim ...

Bezlotoxumab Use as Adjunctive Therapy with the Third Fecal Microbiota Transplant in Refractory Recurrent Clostridium Difficile Colitis; A Case Report and Concise Literature Review.

Clostridium difficile is the most commonly reported pathogen to cause nosocomial infections in the United States with a high burden affecting morbidity, mortality and healthcare expenditure. The use of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) is one of the current standard therapies for recurrent C. difficile infection (CDIr). One emerging promising approach is the use of monoclonal antibodies that ...

Differentiation between persistent infection/colonization and re-infection/re-colonization of Mycobacterium abscessus isolated from patients in Northeast Thailand.

Mycobacterium abscessus can cause true infection or be present in the host as a harmless colonist. The ability of M. abscessus to cause disease and develop drug resistance is known to have a genetic basis. We aimed to differentiate between persistent infection and reinfection using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and to study the genetic diversity of M. abscessus relative to multi-organ infectio...

Enhanced anxiety-like behavior emerges with weight gain in male and female obesity-susceptible rats.

Epidemiological data suggest that body mass index and obesity are strong risk factors for depression and anxiety. However, it is difficult to separate cause from effect, as predisposition to obesity may enhance susceptibility to anxiety, or vice versa. Here, we examined the effect of diet and obesity on anxiety-like behaviors in male and female selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant ...

Ecological niche modeling as a tool for prediction of the potential geographic distribution of Bacillus anthracis spores in Tanzania.

Anthrax is caused by the spore-forming, Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The aim of the study was to predict the potential distribution of B. anthracis in Tanzania and produce epidemiological evidence for management of anthrax outbreaks in the country.

Clostridium septicum: A usual suspect? Aortic rupture following right hemicolectomy: A case report.

There is a known association between Clostridium Septicum, mycotic aneurysm and colon neoplasm.

Eosinophil count (EC) as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for infection in the internal medicine department setting.

Eosinopenia has been previously investigated as a marker to differentiate infectious from non-infectious diagnoses and as a prognostic marker. Most previous studies were conducted in intensive care unit patients. Our study focuses on the value of eosinopenia in patients admitted to the Internal Medicine department.

The predictive value of quantitative nucleic acid amplification detection of Clostridium difficile toxin gene for faecal sample toxin status and patient outcome.

Laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains unsettled, despite updated guidelines. We investigated the potential utility of quantitative data from a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) for C. difficile toxin gene (tg) for patient management.

Predictive factors of Clostridioides difficile infection in hospitalized patients with new diarrhea: A retrospective cohort study.

Diagnostic testing for Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) by nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) cannot distinguish between colonization and infection. A positive NAAT may therefore represent a false positive for infection, since diarrhea due to various aetiologies may occur in hospitalized patients. Our objective was to help answer the question: "does this medical inpatient with diarrhea...

Cost-effectiveness analyses and cost analyses in castration-resistant prostate cancer: A systematic review.

Treatment of metastatic prostate cancer is associated with high personal and economic burden. Recently, new treatment options for castration-resistant prostate cancer became available with promising survival advantages. However, cost-effectiveness of those new treatment options is sometimes ambiguous or given only under certain circumstances. The aim of this study was to systematically review stud...

Vectored delivery of anti-SIV envelope targeting mAb via AAV8 protects rhesus macaques from repeated limiting dose intrarectal swarm SIVsmE660 challenge.

Gene based delivery of immunoglobulins promises to safely and durably provide protective immunity to individuals at risk of acquiring infectious diseases such as HIV. We used a rhesus macaque animal model to optimize delivery of naturally-arising, autologous anti-SIV neutralizing antibodies expressed by Adeno-Associated Virus 8 (AAV8) vectors. Vectored transgene expression was confirmed by quantit...

Dressings used to prevent surgical site infection in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery: integrative review.

To identify and describe which dressings are recommended to prevent surgical site infection in hospitalized adult patients after cardiac surgeries.

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