Infectious-diseases Research

17:29 EDT 17th October 2018 | BioPortfolio

Alternative Pharmaceutical Formulation for Oral Administration of Rifampicin.

Tuberculosis (TB) is considered an emergency global public health, mainly due to the TB-HIV co-infection, bacillus dormancy stage, and emergence of resistant strains. In addition, the therapeutic toxicity and its pharmacokinetic interactions with other drugs may influence treatment non-compliance, low serum concentration of drugs, and, consequently, treatment failure. Strategies using nanotechnolo...

Impact on mortality of adherence to evidence-based interventions in patients with catheter-related bloodstream infection due to methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus.

Recent studies have demonstrated improved survival when the management of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (BSI) is compliant with evidence-based therapeutic interventions. Whether this effect extends to low-risk sources, such as catheter-related BSI, remains unclear.

Overview of Prevalence, Characteristics, Risk Factors, Resistance, and Virulence of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Saudi Arabia.

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are Gram-positive bacteria that are resistant to vancomycin. Infections caused by VRE are associated with adverse outcomes such as extended length of hospital stay, increased cost, and high mortality rate. Clinical and surveillance VRE isolates have been reported from Saudi Arabia. In this review, prevalence, characteristics, risk factors, resistance, and vir...

Demographic, socio-economic and behavior as risk factors of tuberculosis in Malaysia: a systematic review of the literature.

Background Tuberculosis (TB) is making a comeback and has remained one of the main causes of mortality among the list of infectious diseases in Malaysia. Objective To evaluate the burden and demographic, socio-economic and behavior as risk factors of TB among communities in Malaysia. Method A comprehensive search of Scopus, Sciencedirect, PubMed, DOAJ, CINAHL Plus, MyJournal, BIREME, BMC Public He...

Viral therapeutics: where we are and where we are going.

Strong sex bias in elite control of paediatric HIV infection.

Reports of posttreatment control following antiretroviral therapy (ART) have prompted the question of how common immune control of HIV infection is in the absence of ART. In contrast to adult infection, where elite controllers have been very well characterized and constitute approximately 0.5% of infections, very few data exist to address this question in paediatric infection.

Effect of incident hepatitis C infection on CD4 count and HIV RNA trajectories based on a multinational HIV seroconversion cohort.

Most studies on hepatitis C virus (HCV)/HIV co-infection do not account for the order and duration of these two infections. We aimed to assess the effect of incident HCV infection, and its timing relative to HIV seroconversion (HIVsc) in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) on their subsequent CD4 T-cell count (CD4) and HIV-RNA viral load (VL) trajectories.

Preoperative Hypoglycemia Increases Infection Risk After Trigger Finger Injection and Release.

Diabetes mellitus is a well-known risk factor for infection after trigger finger (TF) injection and/or release. However, the effect of preoperative hypoglycemia before TF injection or release is currently unknown. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of preoperative hypoglycemia on infection incidence after TF injection or release.

Streptococcal Infections and Exacerbations in PANDAS: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

The pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS) hypothesis suggests an association between group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS) infections and subsequent onset or exacerbation of neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or tic disorders.

Anamnestic Immune Response and Safety of an Inactivated Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine in Primed Versus Vaccine-Naïve Children.

It has not yet been demonstrated whether two doses of inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (IIV4) prime a booster response in infants. We evaluated the anamnestic immune response to an IIV4 in children aged 17-48 months.

A novel framework for inferring parameters of transmission from viral sequence data.

Transmission between hosts is a critical part of the viral lifecycle. Recent studies of viral transmission have used genome sequence data to evaluate the number of particles transmitted between hosts, and the role of selection as it operates during the transmission process. However, the interpretation of sequence data describing transmission events is a challenging task. We here present a novel an...

Association of the Duration of Antibiotic Therapy With Major Surgical Site Infection in Cochlear Implantation.

Infection after cochlear implantation is a rare but serious event that can lead to meningitis. There is no consensus on prevention of infection in these patients, and each center applies its own strategy.

Improving diagnosis and case management of patients with tuberculosis: A review of gaps, needs and potential solutions in accessing laboratory diagnostics.

Tuberculosis (TB) recently surpassed HIV/AIDS as the deadliest infectious disease. Despite some advancements in technologies and programs, TB remains a global health epidemic that, without significant gains in better diagnostic and management, will not abate. This review describes the molecular diagnostic gaps, needs, and potential solutions for improving access to diagnosis and management of pati...

Poor Adherence to Guidelines for Treatment of Chronic HBV Infection at Primary Care and Referral Practices.

The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) guidelines for treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have changed with time. We assessed rates of treatment evaluation and initiation in patients with chronic HBV infection from different practice settings in the past 14 years.

Prediction of Time to Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Using Low-Molecular-Weight Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Expression for Men with Metastatic Hormone-Naïve Prostate Cancer.

Low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatase (LMW-PTP) expression affects carcinogenesis in various cancers and has been associated with determining the overall survival among men with metastatic hormone-naïve prostate cancer (mHNPC). In this study, we analyzed the value of LMWPTP for prediction of time to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) for men with mHNPC.

HIV-associated haematological complications.

Despite recent advances in combined anti- retroviral therapy that have profoundly changed the prognosis of HIV infection, HIV-associated haematological complications remains frequent whatever the stage of the disease. Some types of lymphoma observed a dramatic reduction in their incidences but others such as diffuse B-cell lymphoma and Hodkin lymphoma remain as frequent as before the CART era. Tre...

Proteomic analysis of four Clostridium botulinum strains identifies proteins that link biological responses to proteomic signatures.

Microorganisms alter gene and protein expression in response to environmental conditions to adapt and survive. Whereas the genetic composition of a microbe represents an organism's biological potential, the proteins expressed provide a functional readout of the organism's response to the environment. Understanding protein expression patterns in response to specific environmental conditions further...

Host cellular unfolded protein response signaling regulates Campylobacter jejuni invasion.

Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial foodborne illness in humans worldwide. Bacterial entry into a host eukaryotic cell involves the initial steps of adherence and invasion, which generally activate several cell-signaling pathways that induce the activation of innate defense systems, which leads to the release of proinflammatory cytokines and induction of apoptosis. Recent studies ha...

Streptococcal Lancefield polysaccharides are critical cell wall determinants for human Group IIA secreted phospholipase A2 to exert its bactericidal effects.

Human Group IIA secreted phospholipase A2 (hGIIA) is an acute phase protein with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Infection models in hGIIA transgenic mice have suggested the importance of hGIIA as an innate defense mechanism against the human pathogens Group A Streptococcus (GAS) and Group B Streptococcus (GBS). Compared to other Gram-positive bacteria, GAS is remarkably resi...

The Effects of Hepatitis C Infection and Treatment on All-cause Mortality Among People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

Persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; PLwH) are commonly co-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Most co-infected individuals can achieve a sustained HCV virologic response after treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAA). However, the effect of HCV co-infection and DAA treatment on mortality after initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) is unknown for PLwH.

Is Microbiota Research Advancing Our Understanding of Infection?

Cross-sectional whole-genome sequencing and epidemiological study of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in China.

The increase in MDR-TB severely hampers TB prevention and control in China, a country with the second highest MDR-TB burden globally. The first nationwide drug-resistant TB surveillance program provides an opportunity to comprehensively investigate the epidemiological/drug-resistance characteristics, potential drug-resistance mutations, and effective population changes of Chinese MDR-TB.

Reply to Karabay and Karabay.

Reply to Gudiol et al.

Frequent Door Openings During Cardiac Surgery are Associated with Increased Risk for Surgical Site Infection: A Prospective Observational Study.

Preliminary studies analyzing surrogate markers have suggested that operating room (OR) door openings may be a risk factor for surgical site infection (SSI). We therefore aimed to estimate the effect of OR door openings on SSI risk in patients receiving a cardiac surgery.

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