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Influenza Research

12:46 EDT 22nd March 2019 | BioPortfolio

Enhanced passive safety surveillance of three marketed influenza vaccines in the UK and the Republic of Ireland during the 2017/18 season.

Safety surveillance is required for each season's influenza vaccines to rapidly detect and evaluate potential new safety concerns before the peak period of immunization. Here we report the results of an enhanced passive safety surveillance for a trivalent split-virion inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3; Vaxigrip®), an intradermal version of this vaccine (IIV3-ID; Intanza® 15 µg), and a recent...

Optimal media reporting intensity on mitigating spread of an emerging infectious disease.

Mass media reports can induce individual behaviour change during a disease outbreak, which has been found to be useful as it reduces the force of infection. We propose a compartmental model by including a new compartment of the intensity of the media reports, which extends existing models by considering a novel media function, which is dependent both on the number of infected individuals and on th...

Is Life Expectancy of French Women Going to Plateau and Oscillate?

Some authors have hypothesised that life expectancy at birth could reach 100 years in developed countries in the next decades. Using recent data for French women, it is shown that life expectancy changes from 1993 to 2016 are mainly linked to mortality rates of oldest women. In recent years, it happened that life expectancy of French women oscillated, because of for instance influenza epidemics ki...

Adjuvants of influenza vaccines: new possibilities of using sulphated polysaccharides from marine brown algae.

The review article presents the characteristics of the main adjuvant groups (mineral salts of aluminum, synthetic squalenebased adjuvants - MF59 and AS03, CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides, virosomes, polyoxidonium, sovidone) included in the licensed influenza vaccine. The main mechanisms of adjuvant action, advantages and disadvantages of these adjuvants are shown. The vaccines adjuvants in the phase of ...

A delicate balancing act: immunity and immunopathology in human H7N9 influenza virus infections.

A delicate balance exists between a protective and detrimental immune response to an invading viral pathogen. Here, we review the latest advancements in our understanding of immunity and immunopathology during H7N9 influenza A virus (IAV) infections and its relevance to disease management and diagnosis.

Applications of CRISPR systems in respiratory health: Entering a new 'red pen' era in genome editing.

Respiratory diseases, such as influenza infection, acute tracheal bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, lung cancer and nasopharyngeal carcinoma, continue to significantly impact human health. Diseases of the lung and respiratory tract are influenced by environmental conditions and socio-economic factors; however, many of these serious respiratory diso...

Novel endosomal NOX2 oxidase inhibitor ameliorates pandemic influenza A virus-induced lung inflammation in mice.

Influenza A viruses (IAV) cause respiratory tract infections that can be fatal when the virus spreads to the alveolar space (i.e. alveolitis), and this is mainly observed with highly pathogenic strains. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by the NOX2 NADPH oxidase in endosomes has been directly implicated in IAV pathology. Recently, we demonstrated that treatment with a novel endosome-targete...

Prevalence of hepatitis E virus infection among people and swine in mainland China: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection remains an important public health problem, and it is endemic primarily in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of HEV among the general population, occupational population and swine in mainland China and its risk factors based on a systematic review and meta-analysis. Systematic search from EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane...

Avian influenza A (H9N2) virus infections among poultry workers, swine workers, and the general population in Beijing, China, 2013-2016: A serological cohort study.

Few studies have reported on the seroprevalence of antibodies against avian influenza A (H9N2) virus and the incidence of these infections in the northern China and among swine workers.

Noninvasive ventilation in critically ill patients with the Middle East respiratory syndrome.

Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been used in patients with the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, but the effectiveness of this approach has not been studied.

V1-69 antiviral broadly neutralizing antibodies: genetics, structures, and relevance to rational vaccine design.

Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are potential therapeutic molecules and valuable tools for studying conserved viral targets for vaccine and drug design. Interestingly, antibody responses to conserved epitopes can be highly convergent at the molecular level. Human antibodies targeting a number of viral antigens have often been found to utilize a restricted set of immunoglobulin germline gen...

Presence and fate of antibiotic residues, antibiotic resistance genes and zoonotic bacteria during biological swine manure treatment.

The presence and dissemination of antibiotic residues, antibiotic resistance genes and zoonotic bacteria in the environment is of growing concern worldwide. Manure management practices, such as biological removal of nitrogen from swine manure, may help to decrease levels of antibiotic residues, antibiotic resistance genes and zoonotic bacteria present in manure before fertilization, thereby reduci...

Study of an enhanced dry anaerobic digestion of swine manure: Performance and microbial community property.

Anaerobic digestion could treat organic wastes and recovery energy. Dry anaerobic digestion had advantages of low heating energy, small digester and less digestate, but its methane production was poor. In this study, an enhanced dry anaerobic digestion of swine manure (thermal treatment + dry anaerobic digestion) was proposed, and its feasibility was investigated via semi-continuous experiment...

Characterization of a blaIMP-4-carrying plasmid from Enterobacter cloacae of swine origin.

To characterize an MDR blaIMP-4-harbouring plasmid from Enterobacter cloacae EC62 of swine origin in China.

Swine-origin H1 influenza viruses isolated from humans exhibit sustained infectivity in an aerosol state.

The relative importance of influenza virus transmission via aerosols is not fully understood, but experimental data suggests that aerosol transmission may represent a critical mode of influenza virus spread among humans. Decades ago, prototypical laboratory strains of influenza were shown to persist in aerosols; however, there is a paucity of data available covering currently circulating influenza...

Rescue and characterization of a recombinant HY12 bovine enterovirus carrying a foreign HA epitope in the 3A nonstructural protein.

Full-length infectious cDNA clones for recombinant HY12 bovine enteroviruses designated as rHY12-3A-2-HA, rHY12-3A-3-HA, and rHY12-3A-9-HA were constructed by the insertion of an epitope from influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) at the N-terminus of the HY12-encoded 3A protein at amino acid positions 2, 3, and 9. The recombinant HY12 viruses expressing the HA epitope were rescued and characterized u...

Epidemiology, control, and prevention of Newcastle disease in endemic regions: Latin America.

Newcastle disease (ND) infects wild birds and poultry species worldwide, severely impacting the economics of the poultry industry. ND is especially problematic in Latin America (Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, and Peru) where it is either endemic or re-emerging. The disease is caused by infections with one of the different strains of virulent avian Newcastle disease virus (NDV), recently renamed Avia...

Divergent coronaviruses detected in wild birds in Brazil, including a central park in São Paulo.

Coronaviruses are single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses associated with important avian diseases. Their relatively high rates of mutation and recombination frequencies allow them to adapt to new hosts and ecological niches. Although Brazil has 18% of global avian species diversity, studies regarding the presence of avian viral diseases in wild birds in South America are scarce. In this study,...

Safety of Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Cancer Patients Receiving Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors (ICI).

Cancer patients are at a higher risk for developing influenza (flu) related complications. It is unclear if the flu vaccine exacerbates immune events in patients treated with ICIs.

Avian Diseases 63-1 Table of Contents.

Avian Diseases 62-4 Table of Contents.

Local structural changes of the influenza A virus ribonucleoprotein complex by single mutations in the specific residues involved in efficient genome packaging.

The influenza A virus genome consists of eight single-stranded negative-sense RNA segments. The noncoding regions located at the 3'- and 5'- ends of each segment are necessary for genome packaging, and the terminal coding regions are required to precisely bundle the eight segments. However, the nucleotide residues important for genome bundling are not defined. Here, we introduced premature termina...

Reemergence of Classical Swine Fever, Japan, 2018.

In September 2018, classical swine fever reemerged in Japan after 26 years, affecting domestic pigs and wild boars. The causative virus belongs to an emerging clade within the 2.1 subgenotype, which caused repeated outbreaks in eastern and Southeast Asia. Intensive surveillance of swine will help control and eradicate this disease in Japan.

Evaluation of the sentinel surveillance system for influenza-like illnesses in the Greater Accra region, Ghana, 2018.

Influenza-like Illness (ILI) is a medical diagnosis of possible influenza or another respiratory illness with a common set of symptoms. The deaths of four schoolchildren, during a pandemic influenza outbreak in December 2017 in Ghana, raised doubts about the ILI surveillance system's performance. We evaluated the ILI surveillance system in the Greater Accra region, Ghana, to assess the system's at...

Original Antigenic Sin: Friend or Foe in Developing a Broadly Cross-Reactive Vaccine to Influenza?

In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, two articles (Lee et al., 2019; Henry et al., 2019) find the influenza-specific antibody repertoire in humans becomes static over time and with age, despite repeated exposures. Identified persistent dominant clones target conserved viral epitopes, supporting the feasibility of a universal influenza vaccine.

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