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Insulin Therapy Research

08:56 EST 10th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

Global Tudor-SN transgenic mice are protected from obesity-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance.

In the current study, we explored the impact of Tudor-staphylococcal nuclease (SN) on obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice, because the functional involvement of Tudor-SN in lipid metabolism in vivo is unknown. HFD-transgenic (Tg) mice exhibited reductions in hepatic steatosis and systemic insulin resistance. There was no difference in hepatic lipid accumulation between chow-fed wild-t...

In vivo monitoring of intracellular Ca dynamics in the pancreatic β-cells of zebrafish embryos.

Assessing the response of pancreatic islet cells to glucose stimulation is important for understanding β-cell function. Zebrafish are a promising model for studies of metabolism in general, including stimulus-secretion coupling in the pancreas. We used transgenic zebrafish embryos expressing a genetically-encoded Ca sensor in pancreatic β-cells to monitor a key step in glucose induced insulin se...

Diet and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: beyond weight loss and exercise.

Insulin resistance (IR) and pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction are core pathophysiologic features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Select lifestyle and pharmacologic interventions, including weight loss, physical activity, a Mediterranean diet intervention, and hypoglycemic agents, have been shown to prevent or delay T2DM. However, dietary factors other than weight loss may also impact risk, main...

Not performing an OGTT results in underdiagnosis, inadequate risk assessment and probable cost increases of (pre)diabetes in Han Chinese over 40 years: a population based prospective cohort study.

Screening for (pre)diabetes is recommended in China using fasting blood glucose as routine strategy currently but not oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in high-risk population. We aimed to explore the impact by not performing an OGTT in Han Chinese over 40 years. 6682 participants were included in the prospective cohort study followed up for 3 years. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h post-load pl...

E4orf1: A protein for enhancing glucose uptake despite impaired proximal insulin signaling.

Type 2 diabetes is often linked with impaired proximal insulin signaling. Hence, a therapeutic agent that enhances cellular glucose uptake without requiring proximal insulin signaling would be desirable for improving glycemic control. The E4orf1 peptide (E4) derived from human adenovirus 36 (Ad36) promotes cellular glucose uptake in vitro and in vivo, independent of insulin. E4 bypasses a part of ...

The self-care dilemma of type 2 diabetic patients: The mechanism of self-regulation resource depletion.

Self-care is important for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients' disease prognosis, but there is a common phenomenon of self-regulation failure in T2DMs. In order to figure this problem out, the current study explored the interaction between self-regulation resource depletion and diabetes self-care based on the limited resource model of self-regulation. 104 patients were surveyed using the Sel...

Acute effects of zinc and insulin on arcuate anorexigenic Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons.

Acute insulin administration results in a hyperpolarization and concomitant decrease of firing rate in a subpopulation of arcuate Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and Neuropeptide Y/Agouti-related peptide (NPY/AgRP) cells. This rapid effect on cellular activity has been implicated as a cellular correlate of insulin effects on energy balance and glucose homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that zinc in ...

Intensive versus standard multifactorial cardiovascular risk factor control in screen-detected type 2 diabetes: 5 year and longer-term modelled outcomes of the ADDITION-Leicester study.

Diabetes treatment algorithms recommend intensive intervention in those with a shorter duration of disease. Screening provides opportunities for earlier multifactorial cardiovascular risk factor control. Using data from the ADDITION-Leicester study (NCT00318032), we estimated the effects of this approach on modelled risk of diabetes related complications in screen-detected patients.

Geospatial Analysis of Birth Records to Target Programming for Mothers With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Michigan, 2013.

The incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the United States has increased during the past several decades. The objective of this study was to use birth records and a combination of statistical and geographic information system (GIS) analyses to evaluate GDM rates among subgroups of pregnant women in Michigan.

Novel metabolic disorders in skeletal muscle of Lipodystrophic Bscl2/Seipin deficient mice.

Bscl2 mice recapitulate many of the major metabolic manifestations in Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy type 2 (BSCL2) individuals, including lipodystrophy, hepatosteatosis, muscular hypertrophy, and insulin resistance. Metabolic defects in Bscl2 mice with regard to glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle have never been investigated. Here, we identified Bscl2 mice displayed reduc...

5- lipoxygenase (ALOX5): genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes and vitamin D effects on monocytes.

The arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) pathway has been implicated in chronic inflammatory disease which may be influenced by vitamin D due to vitamin D response elements (VDRE). We investigated an ALOX5 polymorphism (rs4987105) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the in vitro effects of calcitriol (1,25(OH)D) on ALOX5 metabolism in monocytes of T2D patients and healthy controls (HC). 533 ...

NEW INSIGHTS ON THE REGULATION OF CANCER CACHEXIA BY N-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS.

Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome that develops during malignant tumor growth. Changes in plasma levels of several hormones and inflammatory factors result in an intense catabolic state, decreased activity of anabolic pathways, anorexia, and marked weight loss, leading to cachexia development and/or accentuation. Inflammatory mediators appear to be related to the control of a highly reg...

Combined synergetic potential of metformin loaded pectin-chitosan biohybrids nanoparticle for NIDDM.

Combined therapy is a promising approach over its preference to minimize the dose, adverse effects and enhanced therapeutic efficiency in a various diseases including diabetes.

Mulberry leaf polysaccharides suppress renal fibrosis.

A mulberry leaf polysaccharide (MLP-1) was prepared and partially characterised, and its anti-renal-fibrosis effects were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN) rats. MLP-1, with a molecular weight of 2,792,624 Da, consisted of arabinose, glucose, xylose, rhamnose, and mannose in a molar ratio of 1:1.13:2.35:6.74:8.85. Intraperitoneal injection of MLP-1 (2 mL; 0...

The unique spatial-temporal treatment failure patterns of adjuvant gefitinib therapy: A post-hoc analysis of the ADJUVANT trial (CTONG 1104).

Adjuvant gefitinib therapy prolonged disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with resected early-stage epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutation positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the ADJUVANT study (CTONG 1104). However, treatment failure patterns after gefitinib therapy are less well characterized.

High Circulating Alarin Levels Are Associated with Presence of Metabolic Syndrome.

Alarin has been reported to be related with increased food intake and body weight. The relationship of circulating Alarin with insulin resistance or metabolic syndrome (MetS), however, is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the physiological role of Alarin and its association with MetS in humans.

Effect of Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter-2 Inhibition on the Aldosterone/Renin Ratio in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

The aldosterone to renin ratio (ARR) is recommended for case detection of primary aldosteronism (PA). Several factors including medications can undermine its diagnostic accuracy. The objective was to explore the effect of Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter-2 Inhibition on the ARR in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who were prescribed a Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter-2 Inhibitor (SGLT-2i) a...

Status and trends in the use of insulin analogs, insulin delivery systems and their association with glycemic control: comparison of the two consecutive recent cohorts of Japanese children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Background Treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has greatly changed by the general use of insulin analogs and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). To investigate whether these advances have been translated into continued improvement in glycemic control in Japanese children and adolescents, we analyzed the registration data of the two consecutive recent cohorts of Japanese chil...

A Turkish girl with H syndrome: stunted growth and development of autoimmune insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in the 6th year of diagnosis.

Background H syndrome ([OMIM] 602782) is an autosomal recessive disorder with systemic manifestations and characteristic skin lesions, caused by mutations of the SLC29A3 gene. Short stature and diabetes mellitus are the major endocrine problems related to H syndrome, however, clear data from clinical follow-up of H syndrome patients is lacking in the literature. Case presentation Here, we present ...

Cluster randomised trial on the effectiveness of a computerised prompt to refer (back) patients with type 2 diabetes.

Information and communications technology (ICT) could support care organisations to cope with the increasing number of patients with diabetes mellitus. We aimed to aid diabetes care providers in allocating patients to the preferred treatment setting (hospital outpatient clinic or primary care practice), by using the Electronic Medical Record (EMR).

Effects of nanoparticles of hydroxy-aluminum phthalocyanine on markers of liver injury and glucose metabolism in diabetic mice.

Photodynamic therapy, by reducing pain and inflammation and promoting the proliferation of healthy cells, can be used to treat recurrent lesions, such as diabetic foot ulcers. Studies using the photosensitizer phthalocyanine, together with the nanostructured copolymeric matrix of Pluronic® and Carbopol® for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers and leishmaniosis lesions, are showing promising ou...

Family Health Strategies: Profile/quality of life of people with diabetes.

To evaluate the quality of life and to analyze the epidemiological profile of people with diabetes treated in Family Health Strategies.

Degree of risk for foot ulcer due to diabetes: nursing assessment.

To classify the level of risk for foot ulcers in people with diabetes mellitus and identify their main predictive risk factors.

Nursing consultation for people with diabetes mellitus: experience with an active methodology.

to describe our experience with a methodology for teaching nursing consultation in support of people with diabetes mellitus at a Family Health Unit.

Diabetes insipidus secondary to tuberculous meningoencephalitis with hypothalamic involvement extending to the hypophysis: a case report.

The involvement of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the central nervous system (CNS) is an uncommon and devastating manifestation of tuberculosis. We report a case of disseminated tuberculosis presenting as meningoencephalitis, hypothalamic involvement with extension to the hypophysis, and secondary insipidus diabetes diagnosed at autopsy.

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