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Lantus (insulin glargine) Research

09:38 EDT 23rd October 2018 | BioPortfolio

Polysaccharides from Chinese herbal medicine for anti-diabetes recent advances.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease occurring when the body no longer produces adequate insulin or when it cannot use the produced insulin effectively. In recent years, more and more studies have revealed that Chinese materia medica polysaccharides are the key bioactive components of Chinese herbal medicine and have significant anti-diabetic effects with almost no side effects. In this rev...

Protamine nanocapsules as carriers for oral peptide delivery.

Peptides represent a promising therapeutic class with the potential to alleviate many severe diseases. A key limitation of these active molecules relies on the difficulties for their efficient oral administration. The objective of this work has been the rational design of polymer nanocapsules (NCs) intended for the oral delivery of peptide drugs. For this purpose, we selected insulin glulisine as ...

GPRC5B-Mediated Sphingomyelin Synthase 2 Phosphorylation Plays a Critical Role in Insulin Resistance.

GPRC5B recruitment of Src family kinases has been implicated in diet-induced insulin resistance. However, the mechanism of this action is not fully understood. Here, we report that GPRC5B-mediated phosphorylation of sphingomyelin synthase 2 (SMS2) by Fyn is a crucial step in the development of insulin resistance. Lipid-induced metabolic stress augments SMS2 phosphorylation by facilitating the inte...

High Genetic Risk Scores of ASIC2, MACROD2, CHRM3, and C2orf83 Genetic Variants Associated with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Impair Insulin Sensitivity and Interact with Energy Intake in Korean Women.

We explored the genetic variants that were associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by genome-wide association study (GWAS) and evaluated the association of genetic risk scores (GRS) of the selected genetic variants with insulin resistance and the interaction of the GRS with nutrient intake to develop insulin resistance.

Pancreatic endocrine-like cells differentiated from human umbilical cords Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells using small molecules.

Following success of pancreatic islet transplantation in the treatment of Type I diabetes mellitus, there is a growing interest in using cell-based treatment approaches. However, severe shortage of donor islets-pancreas impeded the growth, and made researchers to search for an alternative treatment approaches. In this context, recently, stem cell-based therapy has gained more attention. The curren...

Closed-loop insulin delivery has wide-ranging benefits.

Insulin Injection Technique is Associated with Glycemic Variability in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) receiving premixed insulin often fail to achieve optimal glycemic control. The insulin injection technique (IT) itself may be one of the factors affecting glycemic variability (GV). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between GV and IT in patients with T2D using premixed insulin.

Effects of Insulin Degludec and Insulin Glargine U300 on Day-to-Day Fasting Plasma Glucose Variability in Individuals with Type 1 Diabetes: A Multicenter, Randomized, Crossover Study (Kobe Best Basal Insulin Study 2).

Administered basal insulin markedly influences the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level of individuals with type 1 diabetes. Insulin degludec (IDeg) and insulin glargine U300 (IGlar U300) are now available as ultra-long-acting insulin formulations, but whether or how their glucose-stabilizing effects differ remains unclear. We will compare the effects of these basal insulins on parameters related to...

Liraglutide, sitagliptin and insulin glargine added to metformin: the effect on body weight and intrahepatic lipid in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and NAFLD.

To investigate the effect of anti-diabetic agents on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), 75 patients with T2DM and NAFLD under inadequate glycemic control by metformin were randomized (1:1:1) to receive add-on liraglutide, sitagliptin, or insulin glargine. The primary endpoint was the change in intrahepatic lipid (IHL) from baseline to week 26 as quant...

Insulin Initiation and Intensification.

miR-335-5p induces insulin resistance and pancreatic islet β-cell secretion in gestational diabetes mellitus mice through VASH1-mediated TGF-β signaling pathway.

Multiple studies have reported different methods in treating gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); however, the relationship between miR-335-5p and GDM still remains unclear. Here, this study explores the effect of miR-335-5p on insulin resistance and pancreatic islet β-cell secretion via activation of the TGFβ signaling pathway by downregulating VASH1 expression in GDM mice. The GDM mouse model ...

Design of a randomized controlled trial to decrease depression and improve insulin sensitivity in adolescents: mood and insulin sensitivity to prevent diabetes (MIND).

Depressive symptoms often manifest in adolescence and predict worsening insulin sensitivity, a key precursor in the path to β-cell failure and type 2 diabetes (T2D).

Innate immune priming of insulin secretion.

Increasing evidence suggests a role for the immune system to finely tune metabolic homeostasis. The possibility that the immune system can likewise regulate islet endocrine function has only commenced drawing attention. Islet beta cells are the main producers of insulin and have to dynamically respond to fluctuating insulin demands of the body. While inflammation has long been considered as an imp...

Toward Better Understanding of Insulin Therapy by Translation of a PK-PD Model to Visualize Insulin and Glucose Action Profiles.

Insulin replacement therapy is a fundamental treatment for glycemic control for managing diabetes. The engineering of insulin analogues has focused on providing formulations with action profiles that mimic as closely as possible the pattern of physiological insulin secretion that normally occurs in healthy individuals without diabetes. Hence, it may be helpful to practitioners to visualize insulin...

Human αB-crystallin as fusion protein and molecular chaperone increases the expression and folding efficiency of recombinant insulin.

Low expression and instability are significant challenges in the recombinant production of therapeutic peptides. The current study introduces a novel expression and purification system for human insulin production using the molecular chaperone αB-crystallin (αB-Cry) as a fusion partner protein. Insulin is composed of A- and B-chain containing three disulfide bonds (one intarchain and two interch...

Adipose tissue expression of CCL19 is positively associated with insulin resistance.

Chemokines produced by adipose tissue (AT) are involved in the development of chronic low-grade inflammation in obese humans and rodents. AT CCL19 expression in obesity and its association with metabolic inflammation and insulin resistance is poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the effects of CCL19 gene expression on inflammatory markers in subcutaneous AT and insulin resistance.

ZINC SUPPLEMENTATION REDUCES DIET-INDUCED OBESITY AND IMPROVES INSULIN SENSITIVITY IN RATS.

Rates of obesity have been growing at alarming rates, compromising the health of the world population. Thus, the search for interventions that address the metabolic repercussions of obesity are necessary. Here we evaluated the metabolic and antioxidant effects of zinc and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation on obese rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with high-fat/high-fructose diet (HFD...

A potential novel pathological implication of serum soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell 2 in insulin resistance in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama Study.

No cohort study has examined the pathological significance of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell 2 (TREM2), a cell surface receptor expressed on myeloid lineage cells, and its soluble form, sTREM2, in insulin resistance in a general population.

The core sequence of PIF competes for insulin/amyloid β in insulin degrading enzyme: potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease.

The central pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the sequential proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) to amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) agglomeration. The clearance of Aβ may be induced by the large zinc-binding protease insulin degrading enzyme (IDE). IDE is the common link between AD and Type II diabetes as insulin is an IDE target as well. Not surprisingly, the se...

Effect of exercise modality on markers of insulin sensitivity and blood glucose control in pregnancies complicated with gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

Exercise can be used as a strategy to attenuate hyperglycaemia experienced during gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). To maximize its use for clinical management, the most effective modality should be identified. The purpose of this review is to elucidate the most effective modality of exercise on insulin sensitivity and blood glucose control in pregnant women with or at risk of GDM.

Efficacy of canagliflozin against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a prospective cohort study.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide and is characterized by insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis and often prediabetes or diabetes. Canagliflozin, a selective sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, is a new oral anti-diabetic drug that reduces hyperglycaemia by promoting urinary glucose excretion. Glycosuria produced by canagliflozin is...

Increased endothelial shear stress improves insulin-stimulated vasodilation in skeletal muscle.

It has been postulated that increased blood flow-associated shear stress on endothelial cells is an underlying mechanism by which physical activity enhances insulin-stimulated vasodilation. This report provides evidence supporting the hypothesis that increased shear stress exerts insulin-sensitizing effects in the vasculature and this evidence is based on experiments in vitro in endothelial cells,...

Insulin Substrate Receptor (IRS) proteins in normal and malignant hematopoiesis.

The insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins are a family of cytoplasmic proteins that integrate and coordinate the transmission of signals from the extracellular to the intracellular environment via transmembrane receptors, thus regulating cell growth, metabolism, survival and proliferation. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways are the best-characterized downstream signaling pathways ac...

Insulin receptor plays a central role in skin carcinogenesis by regulating cytoskeleton assembly.

Diabetes mellitus prevalence is increasing rapidly and is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In addition to the known severe complications associated with the disease, in recent years diabetes has been recognized as a major risk factor for cancer. Patients with diabetes experience significantly higher incidence of and higher mortality rates from many types of cancer. However, to d...

Maternal separation blunted spatial memory formation independent of peripheral and hippocampal insulin content in young adult male rats.

This study explores the effects of maternal separation as a chronic early life stress (ELS) on pancreatic islets insulin content and secretion, and their potential relationship with the hippocampus insulin content and spatial memory in young adulthood. Male rat offspring were divided into two groups: stress (STR) and non-stress (non-STR) groups. The animals of the STR group were separated from the...

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