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Lantus (insulin glargine) Research

03:08 EDT 15th August 2018 | BioPortfolio

Association of weight gain and fifteen adipokines with declining beta-cell function in Mexican Americans.

Obesity and adipokines are associated with development of type 2 diabetes. However, limited longitudinal studies have examined their roles on declining β-cell function over time. This report assessed three adiposity measures (BMI, percent body fat, trunk fat), insulin resistance, and fifteen adipokines in relationship to longitudinal change in β-cell function measured by disposition index (DI) f...

Different roles of insulin receptor a and b in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis in zebrafish.

An inability of insulin to signal glycolysis and gluconeogenesis would largely result in type 2 diabetes. In this study, the physiological roles of zebrafish insulin receptor a and b in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis were characterized. We observed that, though blood glucose in insra-/- fish and insrb-/- fish were comparable with the control siblings at 0 hours postprandium (hpp), the most ...

Autophagy upregulation as a possible mechanism of arsenic induced diabetes.

The key features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) caused by high fat diet (HFD) in combination with arsenic (As) exposure (pronounced glucose intolerance despite a significant decrease in insulin resistance) are different from those expected for T2DM. Autophagy has been considered as a possible link between insulin resistance and obesity. Therefore in this study, we utilized autophagy gene expre...

Cost-Effectiveness of Insulin Degludec vs. Insulin Glargine U100 in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a UK Setting.

Understanding which therapeutic innovations in diabetes represent the best value requires rigorous economic evaluation. Data from randomised controlled trials and observational studies indicate that insulin degludec has a hypoglycemia advantage versus insulin glargine 100 units/mL (glargine U100), the most widely prescribed basal insulin analogue in the UK. This analysis was done to more rigorousl...

Brain glucose uptake is associated with endogenous glucose production in obese subjects before and after bariatric surgery and predicts metabolic outcome at follow-up.

We have previously shown that insulin enhances brain glucose uptake (BGU) in obese but not in lean subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate further this finding by combining BGU with measures of endogenous glucose production (EGP). Associations between insulin-stimulated BGU and peripheral markers such as metabolites and inflammatory markers were also explored.

Is insulin pump therapy effective in Type 1 diabetes?

There continues to be uncertainty about the effectiveness in Type 1 diabetes of insulin pump therapy (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, CSII) vs. multiple daily insulin injections (MDI). This narrative review discusses the reasons for this uncertainty, summarizes the current evidence base for CSII and suggests some future research needs. There are difficulties in interpreting trials of CSI...

Melatonin Improves Hyperglycemia Induced Damages In Rat Brain.

Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disorder which is characterized by the development of resistance to the cellular activity of insulin or inadequate insulin production. It leads to hyperglycemia, prolonged inflammation and oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is assumed to play an important role in the development of diabetic complications. Melatonin is the hormone that interacts with insulin in dia...

A Mathematical Model of Type 1 Diabetes Involving Leptin Effects on Glucose Metabolism.

Leptin, a hormone released from fat cells in adipose tissues, was recently found to be capable of normalizing glucose metabolism in animals. Clinical data on patients with lipodystrophy indicates that leptin may have a positive effect on glucose metabolism in individuals with diabetes. There are growing expectations that leptin can improve the current insulin treatment for patients with type 1 dia...

Liver-specific ablation of insulin-degrading enzyme causes hepatic insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, without affecting insulin clearance in mice.

The role of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), a metalloprotease with high affinity for insulin, in insulin clearance remains poorly understood.

Expression, purification and biological activity of monomeric insulin precursors from methylotrophic yeasts.

The methylotrophic yeasts Pichia pastoris and Hansenula polymorpha have been used for the production of recombinant monomeric insulin precursor (MIP). Recombinant plasmids with one, two and four cassettes of the MIP gene have been successfully constructed in the pPICZαA expression vector to study the effects of gene copy number on MIP production. The MIP protein can be detected by dot-blot analys...

Effects of Insulin Treatment with Glargine or Premixed Insulin Lispro Programs in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.

The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of intensive insulin therapy (premixed insulin lispro vs. insulin glargine) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Efficacy of 1,550-nm Erbium-Glass Fractional Laser Treatment and Its Effect on the Expression of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 and Wnt/β-Catenin in Androgenetic Alopecia.

A new treatment for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is 1,550-nm erbium-glass (Er:Glass) fractional laser. The wound healing process associated with this treatment is believed to be due to the stimulation of hair regrowth. Both the Wingless-related integration site (Wnt) proteins and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are important molecules that promote new hair growth.

Effects of Clove and Fermented Ginger on Blood Glucose, Leptin, Insulin and Insulin Receptor Levels in High Fat DietInduced Type 2 Diabetic Rabbits.

The aimed of this research is to evaluate the effects of clove and fermented ginger supplements on blood glucose,serum insulin, insulin receptor and Leptin levels of high fat diet-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rabbits. Clove and gingerare spices with records of medicinal value over decades. Thirty males rabbits weighing, 1-1.5kg were used for the research.Type 2 diabetes was induced by feedi...

Cellular phosphatase activity of C1-Ten/Tensin2 is controlled by Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate binding through the C1-Ten/Tensin2 SH2 domain.

Regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation on insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) is essential for insulin signaling. The protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) C1-Ten/Tensin2 has been implicated in the regulation of IRS-1, but the molecular basis of this dephosphorylation is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that the cellular phosphatase activity of C1-Ten/Tensin2 on IRS-1 is mediated by the bi...

The effect of exercise training on intrahepatic triglyceride and hepatic insulin sensitivity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

This systematic review and meta-analysis determined the impact of structured exercise training, and the influence of associated weight loss, on intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) in individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It also examined its effect on hepatic insulin sensitivity in individuals with or at increased risk of NAFLD. Analyses were restricted to studies using magnetic...

Factors related to the self-application of insulin in subjects with diabetes mellitus.

To identify the factors associated with the self-application of insulin in adult individuals with Diabetes Mellitus.

HIGH FAT DIET-INDUCED OBESITY AND INSULIN RESISTANCE IN CYP4A14 MICE IS MEDIATED BY 20-HETE.

20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) has been shown to positively correlate with body mass index, hyperglycemia and plasma insulin levels. This study seeks to identify a causal relationship between 20-HETE and obesity-driven insulin resistance. Cyp4a14 male mice, a model of 20-HETE overproduction, were fed a regular or high-fat diet (HFD) for 15 weeks. 20-SOLA, a 20-HETE antagonist, was admin...

Short-term feeding of a ketogenic diet induces more severe hepatic insulin resistance than a obesogenic high-fat diet.

A ketogenic diet is known to lead to weight loss and is considered metabolically healthy; however there are conflicting reports on its effect on hepatic insulin sensitivity. KD fed animals appear metabolically healthy in the fasted state after 3 days of dietary challenge, whereas obesogenic high-fat diet (HFD) fed animals show elevated insulin levels. A glucose challenge reveals that both KD and ...

Reducing proinflammatory signalling and enhancing insulin secretion with the application of oxygen persufflation in human pancreata.

Potential cause-effect relationship between insulin autoimmune syndrome and alpha lipoic acid: Two case reports.

Insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS) or Hirata disease is a rare cause of autoimmune hypoglycemia with apparent high insulin levels and anti-insulin autoantibodies and was first described by Hirata in Japan in 1970. IAS cases are usually related to exposure to sulfhydryl-containing drugs, which stimulate the production of insulin autoantibodies. Among sulfhydryl-containing compounds, alpha lipoic aci...

Neuroprotective effect of treadmill exercise against blunted brain insulin signaling, NADPH oxidase and Tau hyperphosphorylation in rats fed a high-fat diet.

Obesity induces oxidative stress by causing hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, while contributing to cognitive and memory decline by inducing insulin resistance in the brain and hyperphosphorylation of Tau proteins. We aimed to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise in improving these obesity-induced pathological phenomena. Sprague-Dawley rats aged 20 weeks were fed a high-fat diet (HFD)...

THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THYROID CANCER AND INSULIN RESISTANCE, METABOLIC SYNDROME AND ITS COMPONENTS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS.

Thyroid cancer is rapidly increasing in incidence worldwide in the past several decades, same as the incidence of metabolic syndrome. We performed a system review and meta-analysis of the association between metabolic syndrome, its components and insulin resistance and thyroid cancer incidence.

Perceptions and experiences of adult patients with type 1 diabetes using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy: Results of an online survey.

To assess perceptions of patients using subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) about metabolic control, pump malfunctions, technical and insertion site adverse events (AEs) related to infusion sets/catheters as well as patients' practices.

The effects of expression of different microRNAs on insulin secretion and diabetic nephropathy progression.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently become well-known efficacious biomarkers for the diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). MiRNAs, short noncoding RNAs, are posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression, which regulate several biological cell functions, including insulin production and secretion, as well as insulin resistance in tissues. Today, the focus of the medical world is centered on the ...

Physicochemical, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses of amphiphilic cyclodextrin-based nanoparticles designed to enhance intestinal delivery of insulin.

Due to excellent efficacy, low toxicity, and well-defined selectivity, development of new injectable peptides is increasing. However, the translation of these drugs into products for effective oral delivery has been restricted due to poor oral bioavailability. Nanoparticle (NP) formulations have potential to overcome the barriers to oral peptide delivery through protecting the payload and increasi...

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