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Lantus (insulin glargine) Research

04:19 EST 21st January 2019 | BioPortfolio

Efficacy and Safety of Premixed Human Insulin Combined with Sulfonylureas in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Previously Poorly Controlled with Insulin.

Some type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients treated with premixed insulin alone or in combination with oral glucose-lowering agents (without sulfonylureas) cannot reach the required glucose targets. Clinical studies have demonstrated that diabetes patients treated with sulfonylureas achieve stable glycemic control, with a low hypoglycemic rate. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety...

Obesity, adipocytes and insulin resistance - friends for life?

Since the 1980s there has been an alarming increase in obesity all over the world. A sedentary life style and the uptake of energy-dense foods are drivers of this trend, exacerbated by changes in food systems and environments. In 2015 about 107 million children and 603 million adults were obese with an overall prevalence of 5% among children and 12% among adults . A high body mass index (BMI >25)...

Sequence Specificity of Amylin-Insulin Interaction: A Fragment-based Insulin Fibrillation Inhibition Study.

Subcutaneous insulin delivery serves as the major treatment for the ever-increasing spread of type II diabetes worldwide. However, long-term exposure to insulin results in local aggregates at the site of injection. This therapeutic concern accentuates the need to develop newer effective excipients to stabilize the insulin in pharmaceutical formulations. The fact that in normal physiological condit...

Adipokine levels are associated with insulin resistance in antipsychotics users independently of BMI.

The prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus is increased among patients with severe mental disorders, and particularly use of second generation antipsychotic drugs is associated with metabolic side effects. Antipsychotics have been found to alter levels of adipokines which regulate insulin sensitivity, but their role in antipsychotic-associated insulin resistance is ...

ADDRESSING PITFALLS IN MANAGEMENT OF DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS (DKA) WITH A STANDARDIZED PROTOCOL.

Objective To determine the efficacy and safety of a DKA-Power Plan(PP) for guiding IV insulin infusions prior to anion gap (AG) closure and administering subcutaneous (SC) insulin ≥1 hour before discontinuing IV insulin. Methods Retrospective chart review of patients with DKA before (Pre-PP) (n = 60) and following (Post-PP) (n = 60) implementation of a DKA-PP. Groups were compared for percentage...

Correlations of insulin resistance and HbA1c with cytokines IGF-1, bFGF and IL-6 in the aqueous humor of patients with diabetic cataract.

The study aimed to investigate the correlations of insulin resistance and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) with cytokines [insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] in the aqueous humor of patients with diabetic cataract.

Increased Dairy Product Intake Modifies Plasma Glucose Concentrations and Glycated Hemoglobin: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Dairy product intake is inversely associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in numerous cohort studies; yet, the beneficial effects of increased dairy product intake on T2D risk factors such as fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, insulin resistance with the homeostasis model assessment, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) remain inconclusive in clinical trials. The objective of this study...

Thyroid abnormalities in patients with extreme insulin resistance syndromes.

Insulin and leptin may increase growth and proliferation of thyroid cells, underlying an association between type 2 diabetes and papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Patients with extreme insulin resistance due to lipodystrophy or insulin receptor mutations (INSR) are treated with high-dose insulin and recombinant leptin (metreleptin), which may increase risk of thyroid neoplasia. The aim of this study...

Metabolic consequences of discretionary fortified beverage consumption containing excessive vitamin B levels in adolescents.

Over the past decade, there has been a substantial increase in the number of beverage products containing added vitamins and minerals. Often viewed as a healthier choice by consumers, the metabolic impacts of excessive vitamin consumption are relatively unknown, especially in children. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a widely available, vitamin fortified beverage (5h Energy Dec...

Newly identified set of obesity-related genotypes and abdominal fat influence the risk of insulin resistance in a Korean population.

We aimed to identify obesity-related single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci in a Korean population and construct an obesity genetic risk score (GRS) to examine the association of the genetic predisposition to obesity with insulin resistance (IR). In total, 9,675 subjects were included, and 7,666 of these subjects were used for replication. A GRS was constructed using the SNP loci that overlappe...

Vitis vinifera (grape) seed extract and resveratrol alleviate bisphenol-A-induced metabolic syndrome: Biochemical and molecular evidences.

The mechanisms of bisphenol-A (BPA)-induced metabolic syndrome as well as the protective role of grape seed extract (GSE) and resveratrol were investigated. Rats were treated with BPA (0 and 35 mg·kg ·day , gavage) plus resveratrol (25, 50, and 100 mg·kg ·day , i.p.) or GSE (3, 6, 12 mg·kg ·day , i.p.) or vitamin E (200 IU/kg/every other day, i.p.). After 2 months, mean systolic blood p...

Patterns and trends in insulin initiation and intensification among patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Middle East and North Africa region.

Current and future estimates of the burden of diabetes in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region are among the highest in the world. VISION, an 18-month observational study, explored patterns of insulin initiation and intensification in T2DM patients in the MENA region.

TRPV2 channels mediate insulin secretion induced by cell swelling in mouse pancreatic β-cells.

β-Cell swelling induces membrane depolarization, which has been suggested to be caused at least partly by the activation of cation channels. Here, we show the identification of the cation channels. In isolated mouse pancreatic β-cells, the exposure to 30% hypotonic solution elicited an increase in cytosolic Ca concentration ([Ca]). The [Ca] elevation was partially inhibited by ruthenium red, a b...

Altered R-spondin 1/CART neurocircuit in the hypothalamus contributes to hyperphagia in diabetes.

Hyperphagia is common in diabetes and may worsen hyperglycemia and diabetic complications. The responsible mechanisms are not well understood. The hypothalamus is a key center for the control of appetite and energy homeostasis. The ventromedial nucleus (VMH) and arcuate nucleus (ARC) are two critical nuclei involved in these processes. We have reported that R-spondin 1 (Rspo1) and its receptor LGR...

A Role for the Insulin Receptor in the Suppression of Dengue Virus and Zika Virus in Wolbachia-Infected Mosquito Cells.

Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes are refractory to super-infection with arthropod-borne pathogens, but the role of host cell signaling proteins in pathogen-blocking mechanisms remains to be elucidated. Here, we use an antibody microarray approach to provide a comprehensive picture of the signaling response of Aedes aegypti-derived cells to Wolbachia. This approach identifies the host cell insulin rec...

Beta Cell Functional Adaptation and Dysfunction in Insulin Resistance and the Role of Chronic Kidney Disease.

Beta cells are central in the pathophysiology of diabetes, since their functional adaptation maintains euglycemia in insulin-resistant individuals and beta cell dysfunction is required for the clinical picture of frank diabetes. The pathophysiological mechanisms driving compensation and decompensation are incompletely understood and little is known about the influence of chronic kidney disease (CK...

Deregulated microRNAs and Adiponectin in Postmenopausal Women with Breast Cancer.

Obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer (BC). Some mechanisms through which obesity can lead to cancer development are insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), adipokines, and microRNAs (miRs). The objective of the study was to determine whether miR-17-5p, miR-195-5p, and miR-221-3p expressions were deregulated in serum samples of obese and nonobese postmenopausal women with BC. In addition, insulin...

The Predictive Value of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 in Irradiation-Dependent Growth Hormone Deficiency in Childhood Cancer Survivors.

The literature contains conflicting reports on the value of low insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels in predicting radiation-induced growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) in childhood cancer survivors (CCS). These reports often involve small samples of patients who have received irradiation or mixed cohorts including non-irradiated subjects.

Correction: Serum fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) concentration is associated with insulin resistance in peripheral tissues, A clinical study.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0179737.].

Differential methylation of the type 2 diabetes susceptibility locus KCNQ1 is associated with insulin sensitivity and is predicted by CpG site specific genetic variation.

Epigenetic mechanisms regulate gene expression and may influence the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes through the loss of insulin sensitivity. The aims of this study were to measure variation in DNA methylation at the type 2 diabetes locus KCNQ1 and assess its relationship with metabolic measures and with genotype.

An observational, multicentre study on different insulin glargine U100 titration algorithms used in patients with type 2 diabetes in daily medical practice in Adriatic countries: the ADRESA study.

To compare the effectiveness of different titration algorithms for insulin glargine U100 used in everyday practice to achieve glycaemic targets in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Utility of combined inflammatory biomarkers for the identification of cognitive dysfunction in non-diabetic participants of the ELSA-Brasil.

Insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation are pathophysiological mechanisms shared by type 2 diabetes and dementia. A cluster of biomarkers that could help diagnosing cognitive dysfunction prior to the installation of insulin resistance is desirable. This ELSA sub-study examined whether a cluster of selected inflammatory biomarkers was associated with worse cognitive scores in non-diabetic par...

Serum profile of cytokines and their genetic variants in metabolic syndrome and healthy subjects: a comparative study.

To identify genetic variants in promoter areas of IL-6 -174 G>C and TNF-α -308 G>A in metabolic syndrome (Met S) and controls and associate them with Met S and serum cytokine levels. It was a cross-sectional study, including 224 cases of Met S and 200 controls. A fasting blood sample was taken and biochemical parameters including serum glucose, insulin, lipid profile, IL-6 and TNF-α were measure...

Insulin inhibits glucagon release by SGLT2-induced stimulation of somatostatin secretion.

Hypoglycaemia (low plasma glucose) is a serious and potentially fatal complication of insulin-treated diabetes. In healthy individuals, hypoglycaemia triggers glucagon secretion, which restores normal plasma glucose levels by stimulation of hepatic glucose production. This counterregulatory mechanism is impaired in diabetes. Here we show in mice that therapeutic concentrations of insulin inhibit g...

Combination of Insulin with a GLP1 Agonist Is Associated with Better Memory and Normal Expression of Insulin Receptor Pathway Genes in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

Disruption of brain insulin signaling may explain the higher Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk among type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients. There is evidence from in vitro and human postmortem studies that combination of insulin with hypoglycemic medications is neuroprotective and associated with less amyloid aggregation. We examined the effect of 8-month intranasal administration of insulin, exenatide (a GL...

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