Lantus (insulin glargine) Research

22:50 EDT 25th May 2018 | BioPortfolio

Immobilization rapidly induces thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) gene expression together with insulin resistance in rat skeletal muscle.

Acute short-duration of disuse induces the development of insulin resistance for glucose uptake in rodent skeletal muscle. Since thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) has been implicated in the downregulation of insulin signaling and glucose uptake, we examined the possibility that muscle disuse rapidly induces insulin resistance via increased TXNIP mRNA and protein expression. Male Wistar rats ...

Insulin is a potential antioxidant for diabetes-associated cognitive decline via regulating Nrf2 dependent antioxidant enzymes.

To investigate the neuroprotective effects of insulin on diabetic encephalopathy and its mechanism.

The effects of protein supplementation of fall calving beef cows on pre- and postpartum plasma insulin, glucose and IGF-I, and postnatal growth and plasma insulin and IGF-I of calves.

Fall calving (September to October) cows (n = 189 calvings in 5 replications; body weight [BW] = 626 ± 6 kg, body condition score [BCS] = 4.76 ± 0.06) grazing native dormant range were used to determine the effects of protein supplementation on performance and endocrine function of cows and calves. Cows were individually fed either a control (CON; 1.82 kg/d of 38% crude protein [CP]) or restrict...

Should all patients with adrenal insufficiency or a subgroup of patients with pre-diabetes be treated with dual-release hydrocortisone ?

Guarnotta et al. compare the effects of dual-release (DR) hydrocortisone 36 months' treatment in 13 patients with primary adrenal insufficiency and 36 with secondary adrenal insufficiency, compared to conventional glucocorticoid treatment. A retrospective evaluation was conducted on the effects of 36 months of DR hydrocortisone therapy on visceral adiposity, insulin secretion and insulin sensitiv...

Physiologic Hyperinsulinemia Caused by Acute Hyperglycemia Minimizes Renal Sodium Loss by Direct Action on the Kidney.

This study used acute, renal-artery insulin infusion in conscious rats to test the hypothesis that hyperinsulinemia attenuates glucose-induced natriuresis by a direct renal mechanism. We reported previously that hyperinsulinemia was required to prevent ad libitum eating or an acute glucose bolus from causing excessive renal sodium loss. Rats were instrumented with renal artery, aortic, and femoral...

Liver-targeted delivery of insulin-loaded nanoparticles via enterohepatic circulation of bile acids.

Liver is the primary acting site of insulin. In this study, we developed innovative nanoparticles for oral and liver-targeted delivery of insulin by using enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. The nanoparticles were produced from cholic acid and quaternary ammonium modified chitosan derivative and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP). The nanoparticles had a diameter of 239 nm, an ...

CPR-IR is an insulin resistance index that is minimally affected by hepatic insulin clearance-A preliminary research.

Increased hepatic insulin clearance (HIC) is important in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study is to analyze an effective insulin resistance (IR) index that is minimally affected by HIC.

Multifactorial intervention for diabetes control among older users of insulin.

To evaluate if the closer follow-up with the supply of insulin pens and the measurement of capillary blood glucose improve the management of older patients with type 2 diabetes without adequate glycemic control despite extensive therapy.

Interactions between insulin and diet on striatal dopamine uptake kinetics in rodent brain slices.

Diet influences dopamine transmission in motor- and reward-related basal ganglia circuitry. In part, this reflects diet-dependent regulation of circulating and brain insulin levels. Activation of striatal insulin receptors amplifies axonal dopamine release in brain slices, and regulates food preference in vivo. The effect of insulin on dopamine release is indirect, and requires striatal cholinergi...

Serotonergic Regulation of Insulin Secretion.

The exact physiological role for the monoamine serotonin (5-HT) in modulation of insulin secretion is yet to be fully understood. Although the presence of this monoamine in islets of Langerhans is well established, it is only with recent advances that the complex signaling network in islets involving 5-HT is being unraveled. With more than fourteen different 5-HT receptors expressed in human islet...

Obesity leads to impairments in the morphology and organization of human skeletal muscle lipid droplets and mitochondrial networks, which are resolved with gastric bypass surgery-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity.

Skeletal muscle lipid stores and mitochondrial function have been appointed as key players in obesity-induced insulin resistance. However, there are conflicting reports in the literature based on in vitro quantitative measurements. Here we test the hypothesis that it is not the quantity but the quality that matters.

Fibronectin Type III Domain Containing 4 attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced insulin resistance via suppression of inflammation and ER stress through HO-1 expression in adipocytes.

Although Fibronectin Type III Domain Containing 4 (FNDC4) has been reported to be involved in the modulation of inflammation in macrophages, its effects on inflammation and insulin resistance in adipose tissue are unknown. In the current study, we investigated the effects of FNDC4 on hyperlipidemia-mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, inflammation, and insulin resistance in adipocytes via t...

An optimized dose of raspberry ketones controls hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in male obese rats: effect on adipose tissue expression of adipocytokines and Aquaporin 7.

Obesity constitutes a major worldwide problem in which hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance represents adverse metabolic consequences of it. The present study was conducted to elucidate the role of raspberry ketones (RKs) in controlling body weight gain, hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in male obese rats through affecting the expression of various adipocytokines. As Aquaporin-7 is co-relate...

Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1 Mediates Macrophage-Induced Impairment of Insulin Signaling in Adipocytes.

Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is an inflammatory cytokine produced mainly by macrophages within human white adipose tissue. Its expression is increased in obese subjects and positively correlated with insulin resistance. The purpose of this study is to characterize the regulatory role of AIF-1 in insulin signaling of adipocyte.

Long-term compliance with a validated intravenous insulin therapy protocol in cardiac surgery patients: a quality improvement project.

Safe and efficient blood glucose (BG) level control after cardiac surgery relies on an intensive care unit (ICU) team-based approach, including implementation of a dynamic insulin therapy protocol (ITP). Long-term compliance with such a complex protocol is poorly addressed in the literature. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term compliance of nurses with the ITP, 7 years after its impl...

MPK-1/ERK pathway regulates DNA damage response during development through DAF-16/FOXO.

Ultraviolet (UV) induces distorting lesions to the DNA that can lead to stalling of the RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) and that are removed by transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER). In humans, mutations in the TC-NER genes CSA and CSB lead to severe postnatal developmental defects in Cockayne syndrome patients. In Caenorhabditis elegans, mutations in the TC-NER genes csa-1 and csb...

The effects of probiotics supplementation on metabolic health in pregnant women: An evidence based meta-analysis.

The prevalence of maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing rapidly. Probiotics supplementation have been shown to improve metabolic health in humans. In our study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of probiotics supplementation on metabolic health and pregnancy complications in pregnant women. The literature search, data extraction and quality assessment were performed...

Analysis of mulberry leaf components in the treatment of diabetes using network pharmacology.

Mulberry leaves are one of the most commonly used medicinal and herbaceous traditional Chinese medicines that are currently considered for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications. The alkaloids, flavonoids, and polysaccharides in mulberry leaves impart regulatory effects on blood sugar levels. To identify the hypoglycemia-related active components in mulberry leaves and their targ...

Are Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders caused by impaired signalling of insulin and other hormones?

Influence of risk factors on insulin resistance in patients with overweight and obesity.

Introduction: Obesity is a multifactorial, heterogenic disease, associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, chronic liver and kidney diseases. Excessive body weight and obesity are serious medical and social problems, since their incidence is constantly increasing and has reached global epidemic proportions. The aim: Determining th...

A new indanedione derivative alleviates symptoms of diabetes by modulating RAGE-NF-kappaB pathway in db/db mice.

Accumulating evidence indicates that a number of tissues are damaged due to build-up of abnormal amount of Advanced Glycation End products (AGEs) in several diseases including diabetes. Currently AGE inhibitors are scarce in clinical use indicating a need for development of new anti-AGE agents. The aim of the current study is to identify the new AGE inhibitors and to decipher their mechanism of ac...

Impact of insulin on the intestinal microcirculation in a model of sepsis-related hyperglycemia.

Sepsis involves dysfunctional glucose metabolism. Among patients with sepsis, hyperglycemia is frequent and insulin administration has been evaluated for glycemic control to improve patient outcomes. Only few studies have examined the hyperglycemic microcirculation and the impact of insulin on the microvasculature in sepsis.

Thinking about brain insulin resistance.

Dementia and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are two of the epidemics of our time; in which insulin resistance (IR) is playing the central role. Epidemiological studies found that different types of dementia development may be promoted by the presence of T2DM.

Thyroid status in premenopausal and postmenopausal women - A biochemical study on insulin resistance in non obese, overweight and obese type 2 diabetics.

Insulin resistance with altered thyroid status in women is observed in type 2 diabetics and varies with advancing age and estrogen profile. We compared thyroid status between premenopausal and postmenopausal women in obese, non obese and overweight type 2 diabetes.

Common and unique transcriptional responses to dietary restriction and loss of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) in mice.

Dietary restriction (DR) is the most widely studied non-genetic intervention capable of extending lifespan across multiple taxa. Modulation of genes, primarily within the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling (IIS) and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathways also act to extend lifespan in model organisms. For example, mice lacking insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) ...

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