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Lipid Disorders Research

22:40 EST 12th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

Increased biomass and lipid production by continuous cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina transformant overexpressing a bHLH transcription factor.

Microalgae are promising feedstocks for sustainable and eco-friendly production of biomaterials, which can be improved by genetic engineering. It is also necessary to optimize the processes to produce biomaterials from engineered microalgae. We previously reported genetic improvements of an industrial microalga Nannochloropsis salina by overexpressing a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor ...

Perilipin-2 promotes obesity and progressive fatty liver disease in mice through mechanistically distinct hepatocyte and extra-hepatocyte actions.

Wild type mice as well as mice with hepatocyte-specific or whole-body deletions of perilipin-2 (Plin2) were used to define hepatocyte and extra-hepatocyte effects of altered cellular lipid storage on obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathophysiology in a western-diet (WD) model of these disorders. Extra-hepatocyte actions of Plin2 are responsible for obesity, adipose inflammati...

Nigral iron deposition in common tremor disorders.

We investigated R2* relaxation rates as a marker of iron content in the substantia nigra in patients with common tremor disorders and explored their diagnostic properties.

Independent and joint associations of blood lipids and lipoproteins with lung cancer risk in Chinese males: A prospective cohort study.

To investigate the independent and joint associations of blood lipids and lipoproteins with lung cancer risk in Chinese males, a prospective cohort study was conducted. A total of 109,798 males with baseline information on total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and non-HDL were prospectively observed fro...

The clinical impact of exosomes in cardiovascular disorders: From basic science to clinical application.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of death globally; therefore, there is a need for the identification of a valid biomarker that accurately predicts the risk of developing CVD, and novel therapeutic approaches for its treatment. Exosomes are very small extracellular vesicles containing protein, lipid, transcription factors, messenger RNAs, noncoding RNA, and nucleic acid contents tha...

Lipophagy in nonliver tissues and some related diseases: Pathogenic and therapeutic implications.

Lipid autophagy (lipophagy) is defined as a selective autophagy process in which some intracellular lipid droplets are selectively degraded by autophagic lysosomes pathway. The occurrence of lipophagy was first discovered in liver tissues. Additionally, abundant evidence indicated that the occurrence of hepatic lipophagy has been implicated in many liver diseases including fatty liver diseases, no...

Treatment-resistant PLA2R-negative membranous nephropathy responsive to low-density lipoprotein apheresis.

Idiopathic membranous nephropathy is the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in nondiabetic adults. The antibody most often implicated is the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) antibody, found in >70% of primary membranous nephropathy cases. First-line therapy is immunosuppressive in nature, but for patients who are treatment-resistant there is a significant risk of end-stage renal disea...

Ginseng metabolite protopanaxadiol interferes with lipid metabolism and induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and p53 activation to promote cancer cell death.

Protopanaxadiol (PPD), a ginseng metabolite generated by the gut bacteria, was shown to induce colorectal cancer cell death and enhance the anticancer effect of chemotherapeutic agent 5-FU. However, the mechanism by which PPD promotes cancer cell death is not clear. In this manuscript, we showed that PPD activated p53 and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and induced expression of BH3-only protein...

Utility and implications of exome sequencing in early-onset Parkinson's disease.

Although the genetic load is high in early-onset Parkinson's disease, thorough investigation of the genetic diagnostic yield has yet to be established. The objectives of this study were to assess variants in known genes for PD and other movement disorders and to find new candidates in 50 patients with early-onset PD.

Putative contributions of the sex chromosome proteins SOX3 and SRY to neurodevelopmental disorders.

The male-biased prevalence of certain neurodevelopmental disorders and the sex-biased outcomes associated with stress exposure during gestation have been previously described. Here, we hypothesized that genes distinctively targeted by only one or both homologous proteins highly conserved across therian mammals, SOX3 and SRY, could induce sexual adaptive changes that result in a differential risk f...

The association of klotho gene polymorphism and the regulation of calcium-phosphate metabolism disorders in patients with ESRD.

Klotho G-395-A gene polymorphism is associated with several diseases; however, its association with calcium-phosphate metabolism disorders in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is unknown.

Microglia in the developing prefrontal cortex of rats show dynamic changes following neonatal disconnection of the ventral hippocampus.

Impaired ventral hippocampal (VH)-prefrontal cortex (PFC) connectivity is implicated in many cognitive and behavioral disorders. Excitotoxic neonatal VH (nVH) lesion in rat pups has been shown to induce synaptic pruning in the PFC as well as behavioral changes of relevance to developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. In the current study, we hypothesized that microglia, immune cells required for p...

Chemical composition, antioxidant activities of polysaccharide from Pine needle (Pinus massoniana) and hypolipidemic effect in high-fat diet-induced mice.

The aim of this study is to investigate hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of Pine needle polysaccharide (PNP) from Pinus massoniana in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced mice. PNP could significantly improve the serum lipid levels (total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), enhance the antioxidant enzymes levels (total antioxidant ...

Mid-calf skeletal muscle density and its associations with physical activity, bone health and incident 12-month falls in older adults: The Healthy Ageing Initiative.

Lower skeletal muscle density, indicating greater infiltration of adipose tissue into muscles, is associated with higher fracture risk in older adults. We aimed to determine whether mid-calf muscle density is associated with falls risk and bone health in community-dwelling older adults.

Insomnia as a predictor of mental disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Previous research has identified insomnia as a predictor for the onset of depression. The aim of this meta-analysis is to investigate whether insomnia also predicts the onset of other mental disorders. Longitudinal studies were eligible for inclusion if they investigated insomnia at baseline (including nighttime- and daytime-symptoms) as a predictor of the later onset of psychopathology within a f...

Resveratrol Ameliorates Lipid Droplet Accumulation in Liver Through a SIRT1/ ATF6-Dependent Mechanism.

Lipid droplets (LDs) are dynamic organelles that store neutral lipids during times of energy excess, and an increased accumulation of LDs in the liver is closely linked to hepatic steatosis. Our previous studies suggested that resveratrol (RSV) supplement could improve hepatic steatosis, but the underlying mechanism, particularly which related to LD accumulation, has not yet been elucidated.

A Finite-field Approach for GW Calculations Beyond the Random Phase Approximation.

We describe a finite-field approach to compute density response functions, which allows for efficient G W and G WΓ calculations beyond the random phase approximation. The method is easily applicable to density functional calculations performed with hybrid functionals. We present results for the electronic properties of molecules and solids and we discuss a general scheme to overcome slow converge...

Global Tudor-SN transgenic mice are protected from obesity-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance.

In the current study, we explored the impact of Tudor-staphylococcal nuclease (SN) on obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice, because the functional involvement of Tudor-SN in lipid metabolism in vivo is unknown. HFD-transgenic (Tg) mice exhibited reductions in hepatic steatosis and systemic insulin resistance. There was no difference in hepatic lipid accumulation between chow-fed wild-t...

An update of cyclooxygenase (COX)-inhibitors in epilepsy disorders.

Neuroinflammation has a critical role in brain disorders. Cyclooxygenase (COX) is one of the principal drug targets for the reduction of neuroinflammation; however, studies have yielded mixed results for COX-inhibitors in the treatment of diverse acute and chronic models of epilepsy. Areas covered: The article covers the effects of COX-inhibitors in epilepsy disorders. A considerable emphasis has ...

QuickStats: Percentage* of Adults Aged 20-64 Years with a Blood Cholesterol Check by a Health Professional During the Past 12 Months, by Poverty Status - National Health Interview Survey, 2012 and 2017.

Small Heterodimer Partner and Fibroblast Growth Factor 19 Inhibit Expression of NPC1L1 in Mouse Intestine and Cholesterol Absorption.

The nuclear receptor subfamily 0 group B member 2 (NR0B2, also called SHP) is expressed at high levels in liver and intestine. Postprandial fibroblast growth factor 19 (human FGF19, mouse FGF15) signaling increases the transcriptional activity of SHP. We studied the functions of SHP and FGF19 in intestines of mice, including their regulation of expression of the cholesterol transporter NPC1-like i...

An examination of microcystin-LR accumulation and toxicity using tethered bilayer lipid membranes (tBLMs).

Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is a potent cyanobacterial toxin responsible for animal and human poisonings worldwide. MC-LR is found in organisms throughout the foodweb, however there is conjecture regarding whether it biomagnifies. Few studies have investigated how MC-LR interacts with lipid membranes, a determinant of biomagnification potential. We tested whether 1 μM MC-LR irreversibly associates wit...

Novel metabolic disorders in skeletal muscle of Lipodystrophic Bscl2/Seipin deficient mice.

Bscl2 mice recapitulate many of the major metabolic manifestations in Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy type 2 (BSCL2) individuals, including lipodystrophy, hepatosteatosis, muscular hypertrophy, and insulin resistance. Metabolic defects in Bscl2 mice with regard to glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle have never been investigated. Here, we identified Bscl2 mice displayed reduc...

Lipid-gene regulatory network reveals coregulations of triacylglycerol with phosphatidylinositol/lysophosphatidylinositol and with hexosyl-ceramide.

Lipid homeostasis is important for executing normal cellular functions and maintaining physiological conditions. The biophysical properties and intricate metabolic network of lipids underlie the coordinated regulation of different lipid species in lipid homeostasis. To reveal the homeostatic response among different lipids, we systematically knocked down 40 lipid metabolism genes in Drosophila S2 ...

Metabolic syndrome, depression and anhedonia among young adults.

The aim of this study was to assess the association between anhedonia and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a well-characterized community sample of individuals with a current depressive episode. This is a cross-sectional study with young adults aged 24-30 years old. Depressive episode and the presence of anhedonia was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview - Plus version (MIN...

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