Lipid Disorders Research

20:26 EDT 17th October 2018 | BioPortfolio

Value of high-density mapping in the electrophysiology laboratory.

This article uses three commonly encountered clinical scenarios to highlight the value of high-density mapping in the electrophysiology laboratory for the identification of the circuits and substrates during catheter ablation of complex arrhythmias.

Streptococcal Infections and Exacerbations in PANDAS: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

The pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS) hypothesis suggests an association between group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS) infections and subsequent onset or exacerbation of neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or tic disorders.

Association of Genetically Enhanced Lipoprotein Lipase-Mediated Lipolysis and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol-Lowering Alleles With Risk of Coronary Disease and Type 2 Diabetes.

Pharmacological enhancers of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) are in preclinical or early clinical development for cardiovascular prevention. Studying whether these agents will reduce cardiovascular events or diabetes risk when added to existing lipid-lowering drugs would require large outcome trials. Human genetics studies can help prioritize or deprioritize these resource-demanding endeavors.

Effects of Psychiatric Disorders on Suicide Attempt: Similarities and Differences Between Older and Younger Adults in a National Cohort Study.

Several common psychiatric disorders are associated with increased risk of suicide attempts, and the strength of these associations may vary between younger and older adults, which may explain age differences in suicide risk. Because psychiatric disorders often co-occur, it remains unclear whether (1) the risk of suicide attempt in older and younger adults is due to specific psychiatric disorders ...

Inhibition of copper-induced lipid peroxidation by sinapic acid and its derivatives in correlation to their effect on the membrane structural properties.

The efficiencies of sinapic acid and its derivatives syringic acid, syringaldehyde, three sinapoyl esters (ethyl, propyl, butyl sinapates), 4-vinylsyringol and sinapine were investigated for prevention of lipid peroxidation in correlation with their interactions with model lipid membrane systems. Significant antioxidant activities of propyl and butyl sinapates were seen by fluorimetric assay in ph...

Reproducibility of the measurement of bulk/tapped density of pharmaceutical powders between pharmaceutical laboratories.

The bulk properties of a powder are dependent upon the preparation, treatment and storage of the sample, i.e. how it was handled. The particles can be packed to have a range of bulk densities and, moreover, the slightest disturbance of the powder bed may result in a changed bulk density. Thus, the bulk density of a powder is often difficult to measure with good reproducibility and, in reporting th...

Transient Episode of Alice in Wonderland Syndrome after Ventriculoatrial Shunt Revision.

Visual misperceptions as a result of neurosurgical disorders are well documented. Alice in Wonderland Syndrome (AWS) is typically reported in neurological and psychiatric disorders. We present a patient who developed symptoms of AWS post-operatively.

Changes in levels of cortical metabotropic glutamate 2 receptors with gender and suicide but not psychiatric diagnoses.

We previously reported that, compared to controls, there are lower levels of [H]LY341495 binding to metabotropic 2/3 receptors (GRM2/3) in Brodmann's area (BA) 24, but not 17 or 46, from subjects with major depressive disorders (MDD) but not bipolar disorders (BD) or schizophrenia. To be able to better interpret these data we have now measured levels of GRM2 in two of these cortical regions.

Data-driven competitive facilitative tree interactions and their implications on nature-based solutions.

Spatio-temporal data are more ubiquitous and richer than even before and the availability of such data poses great challenges in data analytics. Ecological facilitation, the positive effect of density of individuals on the individual's survival across a stress gradient, is a complex phenomenon. A large number of tree individuals coupled with soil moisture, temperature, and water stress data across...

Dehumanization of psychiatric patients: Experimental and clinical implications in severe alcohol-use disorders.

Dehumanization, defined as the denial of one's membership to humanity, is a process repeatedly reported in extreme contexts (e.g., genocides) but also in everyday life interactions. Some antecedents of dehumanizing experiences (e.g., social exclusion, negative stereotypes) have been reported among patients presenting psychiatric disorders, but dehumanization's experience remains completely unexplo...

Diagnosis and Therapy of Internet Addiction.

Internet dependence, especially online computer games, social networks and online pornography, is increasingly understood as a behavioral addiction. Addiction criteria, as used in the diagnosis of substance-related addiction disorders, have also proven effective in these cases. Prevalence estimates for Germany assume a frequency of around 1%, although the proportion in younger populations is alrea...

Circulating sex hormone binding globulin: An integrating biomarker for an adverse cardio-metabolic profile in obese pregnant women.

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) negatively associates with pre-gestational body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. The link with other cardio-metabolic risk factors in pregnant women is poorly understood. Our aim was to study the association of SHBG levels with common cardio-metabolic risk parameters in pregnant woman. Serum SHBG was quantified in 291 Caucasian pregnant women (142 w...

Selective glucocorticoid receptor modulation prevents and reverses non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in male mice.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) medication is an unmet need. Glucocorticoid stress hormones (GC) drive fat metabolism in the liver, but both full blockade and full stimulation of GC signaling aggravate NAFLD pathology. We investigated the efficacy of selective glucocorticoid receptor (GR) modulator CORT118335, that recapitulates only a subset of GC actions, in reducing liver lipid accumu...

Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Influences High-Density Lipoprotein Levels and Survival in Sepsis.

High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels decline during sepsis, and lower levels are associated with worse survival. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying changes in HDL-C during sepsis, and whether the relationship with survival is causative, is largely unknown.

Leptin Levels in the Synovial Fluid of Patients With Temporomandibular Disorders.

This study was conducted to measure concentrations of leptin and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the synovial fluid (SF) of 38 patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and 7 healthy controls and to analyze the correlation between leptin and IL-6.

Melatonin promotes reduction in TNF levels and improves the lipid profile and insulin sensitivity in pinealectomized rats with periodontal disease.

This study aimed to investigate the effects of melatonin (ME) on insulin resistance (IR) and signaling (IS), proinflammatory cytokine levels, and lipid profiles in pinealectomyzed (PNX) rats with periodontal disease (PD).

Statins: adverse reactions, oxidative stress and metabolic interactions.

Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, are currently the most effective lipid-lowering drugs, effectively reducing the plasma total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, while also decreasing three triacylglycerols and increasing plasma high-density lipoprotein to a certain extent. However, the excessive or long-term use of statins can cause in vitro cytotoxicity, ...

Peptide-functionalized and high drug loaded novel nanoparticles as dual-targeting drug delivery system for modulated and controlled release of paclitaxel to brain glioma.

A dual-targeting drug delivery system for paclitaxel (PTX) was developed by functionalizing novel polyester-based nanoparticles (NPs) with peptides possessing special affinity for low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), overcoming the limitations of the current chemotherapeutics, to transport drug from blood to brain, and then target glioma cells. Employing novel biodegradable block co-polymers (...

Hippocampal deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders.

Neurodevelopmental disorders result from impaired development or maturation of the central nervous system. Both genetic and environmental factors can contribute to the pathogenesis of these disorders; however, the exact causes are frequently complex and unclear. Individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders may have deficits with diverse manifestations, including challenges with sensory function, ...

A novel antioxidant Mito-Tempol inhibits ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation through restoration of autophagy flux.

A bulk of cholesteryl esters accumulation in macrophage foam cells drives the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis. Evidence now shows that autophagy plays key roles in the degradation of intracellular lipid droplets via autolysosome, and also in the release of intracellular lipids via cholesterol efflux. In this study, we identified that a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, Mito-Tempol, ...

Development and validation of a virtual agent to screen tobacco and alcohol use disorders.

Substance use disorders are under-detected and not systematically diagnosed or screened for by primary care. In this study, we present the acceptability and validity of an Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) designed to screen tobacco and alcohol use disorder, in individuals who did not seek medical help for these disorders.

Importance of Psychiatric Outpatient Clinics in Primary Care of Somatic Disorders.

General practitioners are mainly responsible for primary health care. Patients with mental disorders, in particular patients with complex or multiple needs, use these services infrequently in case of somatic complaints. Psychiatric outpatient clinics have to deal with these patients and have perhaps an additional role in diagnosing and treating somatic co-morbidities. This should be evaluated.

Lipoprotein(a) and secondary prevention of atherothrombotic events: A critical appraisal.

Elevated plasma concentrations of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] are an independent, and possibly causal, risk factor for atherothrombotic diseases including coronary heart disease. The principal evidence base for this comes from large population studies focusing on first atherothrombotic events. However, inconsistent findings have been reported from studies investigating the impact of elevated Lp(a) on a...

Serum ghrelin and obestatin levels in HIV-infected patients: Effect of 36 weeks of antiretroviral treatment.

Patients with HIV+ often present lipid disturbances. The role of ghrelin and obestatin in these lipid disturbances is not clear. The effect of antiretroviral (ART) drugs on those molecules is also unknown. This study measured ghrelin and obestatin levels, as well as metabolic markers, in patients with HIV+ before and after 36 weeks of ART.

Curtailing the communicability of psychiatric disorders.

Although psychiatric disorders are classified as non-communicable diseases, we believe this classification is too rigid and limiting. We present evidence of the communicability of psychiatric disorders through three major pathways: infectious and ecological, familial, and sociocultural communicability. Successful strategies developed to control the spread of communicable infectious diseases are re...

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