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Lung Cancer Research

00:40 EDT 21st September 2019 | BioPortfolio

Life threatening pembrolizumabinduced myositis in a patient treated for advanced adenocarcinoma of the lung.

The advent of immunotherapy in oncology has led to the emergence of a new spectrum of adverse effects. A number of these have the potential to contribute to life-threatening outcomes; and therefore require prompt identification and aggressive treatment to optimise management. In this report, we describe a case of pembrolizumab-induced CTCAE (common toxicity criteria for adverse events) grade 4 myo...

The use of aggregation-induced emission probe doped silica nanoparticles for the immunoassay of human epididymis protein 4.

A sensitive sandwich immunoassay for the sensing of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is developed based on aggregation-induced emission probe doped silica nanoparticles. Fluorescent silica nanoparticles (TSiO2) with excellent performance were prepared using a tetraphenylethylene based probe (TPE-C4-4) to produce a controlled aggregation effect, and HE4 was detected using antibody-functionalized fl...

A near-infrared light-responsive nanocomposite for photothermal release of HS and suppression of cell viability.

A near-infrared light triggered photothermal H2S-release platform was developed using a combination of photothermal nanoparticles and thermo-labile precursors, and was exploited for synchronous photothermal stimulation and gas release to suppress cell viability. Polyethyleneimine-dithiocarbamate as a H2S donor was assembled on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets by electrostatic adsorption. In...

Pursuing Global Equity in Access to Cancer Drugs: Lessons Learned From the HIV Epidemic.

Association of Early Palliative Care Use With Survival and Place of Death Among Patients With Advanced Lung Cancer Receiving Care in the Veterans Health Administration.

Palliative care is a patient-centered approach associated with improvements in quality of life; however, results regarding its association with a survival benefit have been mixed, which may be a factor in its underuse.

Overall Mortality After Diagnosis of Breast Cancer in Men vs Women.

Survival differences between male and female patients with breast cancer have been reported, but the underlying factors associated with the disparity have not been fully studied. This understanding is fundamental to developing strategies for cancer treatment and survivorship care.

Stage I HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer: Should all patients receive similar treatments?

Patients with clinical stage I human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (OPSCC) according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) eighth edition classification comprise a heterogeneous group formerly classified as stage I to stage IVA according to the seventh edition of the AJCC classification. These patients historically were treated with disparate treatment...

The role of adjuvant chemotherapy in stage II and III mucinous colon cancer.

Mucinous adenocarcinoma is a subtype of colonic adenocarcinoma associated with worse survival compared to nonmucinous adenocarcinoma. Prior studies on the effect of chemotherapy on survival in mucinous adenocarcinoma have shown mixed results. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of chemotherapy on the survival of patients with stage II and III mucinous adenocarcinoma.

The emerging role of regulatory T cells following lung transplantation.

Regulatory T cells (Treg) have proven to be a powerful immunologic force in nearly every organ system and hold therapeutic potential for a wide range of diseases. Insights gained from non-transplant pathologies, such as infection, cancer, and autoimmunity, are now being translated to the field of solid organ transplantation, particularly for livers and kidneys. Recent insights from animal models o...

CHI3L1 promotes proliferation and improves sensitivity to cetuximab in colon cancer cells by down-regulating p53.

Chitinase 3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1) is most likely a malignant tumor metastasis-associated gene. However, the functions of CHI3L1 in colon cancer cell proliferation and its cetuximab sensitivity are still unclear. We aimed to investigate the mechanism of CHI3L1 in promoting colon cancer cell proliferation and its sensitivity to cetuximab.

Development of an ENPP1 fluorescence probe for inhibitor screening, cellular imaging and prognostic assessment of malignant breast cancer.

Ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1) is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein that is involved in bone metabolism and insulin resistance, hydrolyzes 2',3'-cGAMP (a STING ligand that promotes innate immunity), and is associated with cancer stemness in breast cancers and glioblastoma. Therefore, ENPP1 is considered a candidate therapeutic target and/or biomarker for early diagn...

Electrochemical detection of tumor-derived extracellular vesicles on nano-interdigitated electrodes.

Tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (tdEVs) are attracting much attention due to their essential function in intercellular communication and their potential as cancer biomarkers. Although tdEVs are significantly more abundant in blood than other cancer biomarkers, their concentration compared to other blood components remains relatively low. Moreover, the presence of particles in blood with a sim...

Genome-bound enzymes as epigenetic drug targets in cancer.

Neuroendocrine prostate cancer: long noncoding RNAs to treat an incurable cancer - an interview with Dr Francesco Crea.

Dr Crea's lab studies the role of epigenetic factors and noncoding RNA in cancer initiation and progression. While working at the National Cancer Institute (USA), Dr Crea has demonstrated that polycomb-targeting drugs eradicate prostate cancer stem cells. While working at the BC Cancer Agency (Canada), Dr Crea discovered and patented , a long noncoding RNA involved in prostate cancer metastasis....

miR-511-3p protects against cockroach allergen-induced lung inflammation by antagonizing CCL2.

miR-511-3p, encoded by CD206/Mrc1, was demonstrated to reduce allergic inflammation and promote alternative (M2) macrophage polarization. Here, we sought to elucidate the fundamental mechanism by which miR-511-3p attenuates allergic inflammation and promotes macrophage polarization. Compared with wild-type mice, the allergen-challenged Mrc1-/- mice showed increased airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR...

PD-1hi CXCR5- T peripheral helper cells promote B cells responses in lupus via MAF and IL-21.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by pathologic T cell-B cell interactions and autoantibody production. Defining the T cell populations that drive B cell responses in SLE may enable design of therapies that specifically target pathologic cell subsets. Here we evaluated the phenotypes of CD4+ T cells in the circulation of 52 SLE patients drawn from multiple c...

Two Novel Long Noncoding RNAs - RP11-296E3.2 and LEF1-AS1can - Separately Serve as Diagnostic and Prognostic Bio-Markers of Metastasis in Colorectal Cancer.

BACKGROUND Late diagnosis and metastasis are leading causes of the high mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC). Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to play a critical role in the development and progression of CRC. This study aimed to explore the clinical significance of 2 novel lncRNAs - RP11-296E3.2 and LEF1-AS1 - including their expression pattern, as well as diagnostic and prognosti...

Breast cancers utilize hypoxic glycogen stores via PYGB, the brain isoform of glycogen phosphorylase, to promote metastatic phenotypes.

In breast cancer, tumor hypoxia has been linked to poor prognosis and increased metastasis. Hypoxia activates transcriptional programs in cancer cells that lead to increased motility and invasion, as well as various metabolic changes. One of these metabolic changes, an increase in glycogen metabolism, has been further associated with protection from reactive oxygen species damage that may lead to ...

Addis Ababa population-based pattern of cancer therapy, Ethiopia.

Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa is becoming an important challenge for health services due to rising numbers of patients. In Addis Ababa with around 3.5 million inhabitants, more than 2000 cases are diagnosed annually. In this retrospective population-based cohort study we assessed completeness of and waiting time for cancer-therapy among patients registered in the Addis Ababa City Cancer Registry (A...

TCF4 induces enzalutamide resistance via neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer.

In treating patients with castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), enzalutamide, the second-generation androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, is an accepted standard of care. However, clinical benefits are limited to a median time of 4.8 months because resistance inevitably emerges. To determine the mechanism of treatment resistance, we carried out a RNA sequence analysis and found increased expre...

Characterization of sequentially-staged cancer cells using electrorotation.

The identification and separation of cells from heterogeneous populations is critical to the diagnosis of diseases. Label-free methodologies in particular have been developed to manipulate individual cells using properties such as density and morphology. The electrical properties of malignant cells, including the membrane capacitance and cytoplasmic conductivity, have been demonstrated to be alter...

Radiomics features of the primary tumor fail to improve prediction of overall survival in large cohorts of CT- and PET-imaged head and neck cancer patients.

Radiomics studies require many patients in order to power them, thus patients are often combined from different institutions and using different imaging protocols. Various studies have shown that imaging protocols affect radiomics feature values. We examined whether using data from cohorts with controlled imaging protocols improved patient outcome models. We retrospectively reviewed 726 CT and 686...

Clinical outcomes with neoadjuvant versus adjuvant chemotherapy for triple negative breast cancer: A report from the National Cancer Database.

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients frequently receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Only 50% will achieve pathological complete response (pCR). In this retrospective study, we evaluated TNBC outcomes with NAC vs. AC.

Upper versus lower airway microbiome and metagenome in children with cystic fibrosis and their correlation with lung inflammation.

Airways of children with cystic fibrosis (CF) harbor complex polymicrobial communities which correlates with pulmonary disease progression and use of antibiotics. Throat swabs are widely used in young CF children as a surrogate to detect potentially pathogenic microorganisms in lower airways. However, the relationship between upper and lower airway microbial communities remains poorly understood. ...

Wikipedia network analysis of cancer interactions and world influence.

We apply the Google matrix algorithms for analysis of interactions and influence of 37 cancer types, 203 cancer drugs and 195 world countries using the network of 5 416 537 English Wikipedia articles with all their directed hyperlinks. The PageRank algorithm provides a ranking of cancers which has 60% and 70% overlaps with the top 10 deadliest cancers extracted from World Health Organization GLOBO...

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