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Malaria Research

16:47 EST 20th January 2020 | BioPortfolio

Population genetic structure analysis of thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP) as a vaccine candidate antigen in worldwide Plasmodium falciparum isolates.

Antigenic diversity is a major concern in malaria vaccine development that requires to be considered in developing a malaria vaccine. Plasmodium falciparum thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (PfTRAP) is a leading malaria vaccine candidate antigen. In the current study, we investigated the level of genetic diversity and natural selection of pftrap sequences in P. falciparum isolates from Iran ...

Congenital Malaria in Newborns Delivered to Mothers with Malaria-Infected Placenta in Blue Nile State, Sudan.

Diagnosis of congenital malaria is complicated by the low density of the parasite circulating in the cord blood and/or the peripheral blood of the newborns. Molecular techniques are significantly more sensitive than blood smears in detecting low-level parasitemia. This study investigated the prevalence of congenital malaria by the use of the real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) in 1...

The importance of vector control for the control and elimination of vector-borne diseases.

Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) such as malaria, dengue, and leishmaniasis exert a huge burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly affecting the poorest of the poor. The principal method by which these diseases are controlled is through vector control, which has a long and distinguished history. Vector control, to a greater extent than drugs or vaccines, has been responsible for shrink...

New Malaria Option.

Erythrocyte Lipid and Antioxidant Changes in Plasmodium falciparum-infected Children Attending Mother and Child Hospital in Akure, Nigeria.

Understanding the molecular and cellular pathways activated in response to Plasmodium falciparum infection is crucial for the development of pharmacological intervention to malaria. The present study was designed to evaluate the lipid components and the oxidative status of erythrocyte obtained from children under 5 years infected with Plasmodium falciparum.

PD-1 blockade promotes immune memory following Plasmodium berghei ANKA reinfection.

The establishment of malaria immune memory is slow, incomplete, and short-lived. The mechanisms underpinning the generation and maintenance of anti-malarial immune memory remain unclear. This study evaluated the possible role of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) in the establishment of malaria immune memory. Following infection by Plasmodium berghei ANKA (Pb ANKA) we compared natural immunity, acquir...

Malaria: BD Gupta, RK Maheswari, Pankaj Agarwal (eds) : Published by Wolters Kluwer (India) Pvt. Ltd., Gurgaon; Fourth Edition; 2019; ISBN-13: 978-93-89335-29-3.

Novel broad-spectrum activity-based probes to profile malarial cysteine proteases.

Clan CA cysteine proteases, also known as papain-like proteases, play important roles throughout the malaria parasite life cycle and are therefore potential drug targets to treat this disease and prevent its transmission. In order to study the biological function of these proteases and to chemically validate some of them as viable drug targets, highly specific inhibitors need to be developed. This...

Anopheline Mosquito Species Composition, Kdr Mutation Frequency, and Parasite Infectivity Status in Northern Tanzania.

The scaling-up of malaria control interventions in northern Tanzania has resulted in a decline in malaria prevalence and vector species composition. Despite this achievement, residual malaria transmission remains a concern in the area. The main aim of this study was to investigate malaria vector species composition, parasite infectivity rates, and the presence of insecticide knockdown resistance (...

Antibody-free rapid diagnosis of malaria in whole blood with surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy using Nanostructured Gold Substrate.

The aim of this study is to establish a rapid antibody-free diagnostic method of malaria infection with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in whole blood with Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy using Nanostructured Gold Substrate.

Malaria Antigen Shedding in the Breast Milk of Mothers From a Region With Endemic Malaria.

Platelet α-granules contribute to organ-specific pathologies in a mouse model of severe malaria.

Novel RNA viruses associated with Plasmodium vivax in human malaria and Leucocytozoon parasites in avian disease.

Eukaryotes of the genus Plasmodium cause malaria, a parasitic disease responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality in humans. Yet, the nature and abundance of any viruses carried by these divergent eukaryotic parasites is unknown. We investigated the Plasmodium virome by performing a meta-transcriptomic analysis of blood samples taken from patients suffering from malaria and infected with P...

Correction: Impact of intravascular hemolysis in malaria on liver dysfunction: Involvement of hepatic free heme overload, NF-κB activation, and neutrophil infiltration.

Lyse-Reseal Erythrocytes for Transfection of Plasmodium falciparum.

Simple and efficient transfection methods for genetic manipulation of Plasmodium falciparum are desirable to identify, characterize and validate the genes with therapeutic potential and better understand parasite biology. Among the available transfection techniques for P. falciparum, electroporation-based methods, particularly electroporation of ring-infected RBCs is routinely used. Nonetheless, t...

The Structure of Plasmodium falciparum Hydroxymethyldihydropterin Pyrophosphokinase-Dihydropteroate Synthase Reveals the Basis of Sulfa Resistance.

The clinical efficacy of sulfa drugs as antimalarials has declined owing to the evolution of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria parasites. In order to understand the basis of this resistance and to design more effective antimalarials, we have solved thirteen structures of the bifunctional enzyme 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin pyrophosphokinase (HPPK)-dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS...

Discovery of Potential 1,3,5-Triazine Compounds Against Strains of Plasmodium falciparum Using Supervised Machine Learning Models.

The Malaria burden was an escalating global encumbrance and need to be addressed with critical care. Anti-malarial drug discovery was integrated with supervised machine learning (ML) models to identify potent thiazolyl-traizine derivatives. This assimilated approach of Direct Kernel-based Partial Least Squares regression (DKPLS) with molprint 2D fingerprints in Quantitative Structure Activity Rela...

A novel model for malaria prediction based on ensemble algorithms.

Most previous studies adopted single traditional time series models to predict incidences of malaria. A single model cannot effectively capture all the properties of the data structure. However, a stacking architecture can solve this problem by combining distinct algorithms and models. This study compares the performance of traditional time series models and deep learning algorithms in malaria cas...

Protein-RNA interactions important for Plasmodium transmission.

Structural insights into PfARO and characterization of its interaction with PfAIP.

Apicomplexan parasites contain rhoptries, which are specialized secretory organelles that coordinate host cell invasion. During the process of invasion, rhoptries secrete their contents to facilitate interaction with, and entry into, the host cell. Here we report the crystal structure of the rhoptry protein Armadillo Repeats-Only (ARO) from the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum (PfARO)...

The resistome and genomic reconnaissance in the age of malaria elimination.

Malaria is an infectious disease caused by parasitic protozoa in the genus. A complete understanding of the biology of these parasites is challenging in view of their need to switch between the vertebrate and insect hosts. The parasites are also capable of becoming highly motile and of remaining dormant for decades, depending on the stage of their life cycle. Malaria elimination efforts have been...

Polarization of MTIP is a signature of gliding locomotion in Plasmodium ookinetes and sporozoites.

Gliding motility and cell invasion are essential for the successful transmission of Plasmodium parasites. These processes rely on an acto-myosin motor located underneath the parasite plasma membrane. The Myosin A-tail interacting protein (MTIP) connects the class XIV myosin A (MyoA) to the gliding-associated proteins and is essential for assembly of the motor at the inner membrane complex. Here, w...

Integrin αDβ2 influences cerebral edema, leukocyte accumulation and neurologic outcomes in experimental severe malaria.

Malaria is an infectious disease of major worldwide clinical importance that causes a variety of severe, or complicated, syndromes including cerebral malaria, which is often fatal. Leukocyte integrins are essential for host defense but also mediate physiologic responses of the innate and adaptive immune systems. We previously showed that targeted deletion of the αD subunit (αD-/-) of the αDβ2 ...

Experimental hut evaluation of DawaPlus 3.0 LN and DawaPlus 4.0 LN treated with deltamethrin and PBO against free-flying populations of Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Vallée du Kou, Burkina Faso.

In view of widespread pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors in Africa, two long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) incorporated with a synergist, piperonyl butoxide (PBO), DawaPlus 3.0 (deltamethrin + PBO in the roof panel; deltamethrin alone in the side panels) and DawaPlus 4.0 (deltamethrin + PBO in all panels), were evaluated in an experimental hut trial in a rice growing irrigated area in Bu...

Autoimmune Anemia in Malaria.

Severe anemia is a major cause of death by malaria. The loss of uninfected erythrocytes is an important contributor to malarial anemia; however, the mechanisms underlying this pathology are not well understood. Malaria-induced anemia is related to autoimmune antibodies against the membrane lipid phosphatidylserine (PS). In mice, these antibodies induce the clearance of uninfected erythrocytes afte...

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