Mental Health Research

05:51 EDT 21st August 2018 | BioPortfolio

Does pre-operative anxiety and/or depression affect patient outcome after primary knee replacement arthroplasty?

Chronic pain is associated with psychological distress, most commonly manifested as anxiety and/or depression.

Social vs. non-social measures of learning potential for predicting community functioning across phase of illness in schizophrenia.

Studies demonstrate that dynamic assessment (i.e., learning potential) improves the prediction of response to rehabilitation over static measures in individuals with schizophrenia. Learning potential is most commonly assessed using neuropsychological tests under a test-train-test paradigm to examine change in performance. Novel learning potential approaches using social cognitive tasks may have ad...

Timing matters in elaborative processing of positive stimuli: Gamma band reactivity in schizophrenia compared to depression and healthy adults.

Some individuals with schizophrenia report similar feelings of positive affect "in the moment" compared to control participants but report decreased trait positive affect overall. One possible explanation for this disconnection between state and trait positive affect is the extent to which individuals with schizophrenia engage in elaborative processing of positive stimuli. To assess this, we exami...

Dissociation of fractional anisotropy and resting-state functional connectivity alterations in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia.

Altered resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) has been demonstrated between multiple brain regions in schizophrenia. However, whether these alterations are related to fractional anisotropy (FA) alterations in pathways that connect regions with altered rsFC remains unknown. In this study, diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging were performed with 181...

Evidence that self-reported psychotic experiences in children are clinically relevant.

Unmet need for mental health services among people screened but not admitted to an early psychosis intervention program.

Information is lacking on people screened for early psychosis intervention (EPI) but not admitted to the program. Using health administrative data, we constructed a retrospective cohort of incident cases of psychosis in the catchment of an EPI program. Use of mental health services was compared between people screened and not admitted with an EPI-admitted group. The non-admitted group had higher r...

The schizophrenia and bipolar twin study in Sweden (STAR).

The schizophrenia and bipolar twin study in Sweden (STAR) is a large nation-wide cohort of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) same-sex twins with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and healthy control pairs, extensively characterized with brain imaging, neuropsychological tests, biomarkers, genetic testing, psychiatric symptoms and personality traits. The purpose is to investigate genetic and envi...

Can low-dose aripiprazole reverse some of the adverse effects from a long-acting injectable?

Impact of substance use disorder on gray matter volume in schizophrenia.

Substance use may confound the study of brain structure in schizophrenia. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to examine whether differences in regional gray matter volumes exist between schizophrenia patients with (n = 92) and without (n = 66) clinically significant cannabis and/or alcohol use histories compared to 88 healthy control subjects. Relative to controls, patients with schizophreni...

Depression and healthcare utilization at end of life among older adults with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

Limited data exist regarding how depression diagnosed at different times relative to a cancer diagnosis may affect healthcare utilization at end of life (EOL).

Cardiovascular risks in relation to posttraumatic stress severity among young trauma-exposed women.

Posttraumatic stress is associated with elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Relatively little research, particularly among women, has documented mechanisms by which PTSD might confer CVD risk during early adulthood. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the number and relative levels of CVD risk factors are associated with posttraumatic stress symptom severity among y...

Screening fathers for postpartum depression can be cost-effective: An example from Sweden.

Postpartum depression negatively affects the whole family and its prevalence in Sweden ranges between 6-10% for fathers and 13-16% for mothers. However, only mothers in Sweden are currently routinely screened.

The lack of meaningful association between depression severity measures and neurocognitive performance.

Neurocognitive deficits are common in depression, but most prior studies have not found strong associations between standard measures of symptom severity and the extent of these neurocognitive deficits. Diagnostic heterogeneity, or the lack of specific questions about neurocognition in these measures, may be undermining these associations.

A brief tour of epidemiologic epigenetics and mental health.

The epidemiologic study of DNA methylation (DNAm) and mental health is a burgeoning area, but confounding and reverse causation remain important to know about. Whether use of non-brain tissues is appropriate when investigating brain phenotypes depends on the hypothesis and whether the goal is causality or to identify biomarkers. Look-ups of the correspondence between DNAm in blood and brain and us...

The perception of parental bonding in pregnant adolescents and its association with generalized anxiety disorder.

The parental bonding is influenced by two dimensions: care and control or protection over the child of both parents. The lack of care during childhood may make the individual more susceptible to the onset of psychiatric disorders when adult. These psychiatric disorders when present during pregnancy may have a negative impact on the health of pregnant women and children. The aim of this study was t...

New European privacy regulation: Assessing the impact for digital medicine innovations.

Estimate dynamic changes of dysfunction and lifelong spent for psychiatric care needs in patients with schizophrenia.

Disturbance of functionality is one of the core features of schizophrenia, and has deleterious effects on a patient's employment, increased healthcare costs, and a large societal burden. Thus, if a patient's disability status could be predicted, and interventions needed identified in advance, poor outcomes could be prevented. To achieve this aim, we developed a method by which to assess dynamic ch...

Reliability of retrospective reports on childhood abuse and its determinants in older adults during a 6-year follow-up.

Controversy exists concerning the reliability of retrospective self-reports on childhood abuse since this method might be subject to under- or overreporting. Until now, no studies have been done in older adults, although reasons for under- or overreporting could be even more prominent in this age group. In this first study in older adults, test-retest reliability of retrospective measurements on c...

Development of a population pharmacokinetic model of olanzapine for Chinese health volunteers and patients with schizophrenia.

Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug commonly used for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, there are still many complications associated with the use of olanzapine, and researchers continually strive to improve the handling of data from regular therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). The objective of this study is to optimise the individualised treatment of olanzapine by establishing a pop...

Representation of social determinants of health in German medical education: protocol of a content analysis study.

Action on the social determinants of health has been key for improving health and prolonging life in the past, and remains so today. Against this background, WHO's Commission on Social Determinants of Health has called for increased efforts to create health workforces trained in recognising, understanding and acting on the social determinants of health. However, little is known about the extent to...

Psychiatry as a career choice among medical students: a cross-sectional study examining school-related and non-school factors.

Given the low recruitment to psychiatry worldwide, the current study aimed to examine how premedical and intramedical school factors, perception of career aspects, attitudes towards psychiatry, stigma towards mental illness and personality traits may affect the likelihood of psychiatry as a career choice.

Ginsenoside Rg1 Prevents Chronic Stress-Induced Depression-Like Behaviors and Neuronal Structural Plasticity in Rats.

Ginsenoside Rg1 has been demonstrated to exhibit neuroprotective effects in various studies. This study aimed to investigate the neuronal mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective and antidepressant-like effects of ginsenoside Rg1 in a rat model of depression.

Self-reported symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress among patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis in a Malaysian rheumatology centre - prevalence and correlates.

To determine the prevalence, correlates and independent predictors of self-reported depression, anxiety and stress in Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in Hospital Melaka.

Employing a Harm-Reduction Approach Between Women and Girls Within Indigenous Familial Relationships.

It is important to recognize that experiences of racial and gendered violence are a sad legacy of colonialism. The experiences of historical trauma are on-going. These affect the mental and physical wellbeing of individuals, families and communities. Addressing historical trauma through community-informed practices is central to creating space for meaningful change. This paper outlines results fro...

Expression and glucocorticoid-dependent regulation of the stress-inducible protein DRR1 in the mouse adult brain.

Identifying molecular targets that are able to buffer the consequences of stress and therefore restore brain homeostasis is essential to develop treatments for stress-related disorders. Down-regulated in renal cell carcinoma 1 (DRR1) is a unique stress-induced protein in the brain and has been recently proposed to modulate stress resilience. Interestingly, DRR1 shows a prominent expression in the ...

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