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In an increasingly complex information society, demands for cognitive functioning are growing steadily. In recent years, numerous strategies to augment brain function have been proposed. Evidence for their efficacy (or lack thereof) and side effects has prompted discussions about ethical, societal and medical implications. In the public debate, cognitive enhancement is often seen as a monolithic p...
We monitored the progress of 40 children when they first started to acquire a second language (L2) implicitly through immersion. Employing a longitudinal design, we tested them before they had any notions of an L2 (Time 0) and after 1 school year of L2 exposure (Time 1) to determine whether cognitive abilities can predict the success of L2 learning. Task administration included measures of intelli...
Various groups have explored the effect of apolipoprotein E (APOE) on neurodegeneration through nutritional and metabolic alterations. In this review, we hope to summarize recent findings in humans as well as preclinical APOE models.
The GGGGCC repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene was recently identified as a major cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in several European populations. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of C9orf72 repeat expansions in a Bulgarian dementia cohort and to delineate the associated clinical features.
Amyloid β is an inherently disordered peptide that can form diverse neurotoxic aggregates, and its 42 amino acid long isoform is the believed culprit of Alzheimer's Disease. Cellular uptake of the peptide is a pivotal step for it to be able to exert many of its toxic actions. The cellular uptake process is complex, and numerous competing internalization pathways have been proposed. To date, it re...
Therapist-delivered trauma-focused psychological therapies are an effective treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These have become the accepted first-line treatments for the disorder. Despite the established evidence-base for these therapies, they are not always widely available or accessible. Many barriers limit treatment uptake, such as the limited number of qualified therapists ...
Diabetes is one of the risk factors for the development of vascular dementia (VD), leading to endothelial dysfunction and cognitive impairment. Resveratrol has been shown to have antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. The previous studies have also reported that resveratrol improves cognitive and vascular endothelial functions in several pathological conditions. In the present...
During the euthymic state in bipolar disorder, cognitive functions often remain affected. Specifically, subjective and objective cognitive impairment might distinctly affect patients' quality of life (QoL); however, this question had not been examined previously in Japanese patients. Therefore, the current study investigated the associations between cognitive complaints, QoL, and objective cogniti...
Studies of the same disease often implicate different brain regions, contributing to a perceived reproducibility crisis in neuroimaging. Here, we leverage the normative human brain connectome to test whether seemingly heterogeneous neuroimaging findings localize to connected brain networks. We use neurodegenerative disease, and specifically Alzheimer's disease, as our example as it is one of the d...
Despite the overall decline in the prevalence of cigarette use in the United States, menthol cigarette use among smokers is rising, and evidence shows that it may lead to more detrimental effects on public health than regular cigarette use. One of the mechanisms by which nicotine sustains tobacco use and dependence is due to its cognitive enhancing properties, and basic science literature suggests...
Notwithstanding multiple recommendations in guidelines, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG)-tube placement is still performed in patients with dementia. In this study we aim to investigate survival in patients with and without dementia after (PEG)-tube placement.
EGb 761 (Tanakan) is a standardized extract of leaves that has demonstrated protective properties against neuronal and vascular damage. Overall, in randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials and meta-analyses in adults with mild-to-moderate dementia, EGb 761 displayed positive effects, with changes from baseline in outcomes related to cognition, behaviour and global change that are generally ...
There is a growing recognition within cognitive enhancement and neuroethics debates of the need for greater emphasis on cognitive artefacts. This paper aims to contribute to this broadening and expansion of the cognitive-enhancement and neuroethics debates by focusing on a particular form of relation or coupling between humans and cognitive artefacts: interaction-dominance. We argue that interacti...
In October of 2016, an interdisciplinary group representing North and South American and European countries met in Glasgow, Scotland, to scrutinize universal issues regarding adults with intellectual disability (ID) affected by dementia and to produce recommendations and guidelines for public policy, practice, and further research. The aim of this paper is to apprise relevant outcomes of the Summi...
Metamemory is the awareness of one's own knowledge and control of memory, and refers to the online ability to gather information about the current state of the memory system.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects millions of people, however, there is still no effective treatment. The use of focused ultrasound with microbubbles (FUS-MB) for the opening of the blood-brain barrier has been recently studied and may become a promising therapeutic target.
Verbal fluency (VF) is a widely used tool in neuropsychological assessment.
The Mini-Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (M-ACE) is a brief cognitive screening test that evaluates four main cognitive domains (orientation, memory, language and visuospatial function) with a maximum score of 30 points and administration time of five minutes.
Monitoring of drug treatment and psychosocial intervention with SPECT in Alzheimer patients Implications for neurologically appropriate psychosocial interventions. An observational study. The Osaki-Tajiri Project.
We previously examined cerebral blood flow (CBF) with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) with reference to drug treatment (donepezil) and psychosocial intervention.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterised by frontostriatal grey matter changes similar to those in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). However, these changes are usually detected at a group level, and simple visual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cortical atrophy scales may further elucidate frontostriatal changes in ALS.
The functioning of attention is complex, a primordial function in several cognitive processes and of great interest to neuropsychology. The Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A) is a continuous computerized performance test that evaluates some attention components such as response time to a stimulus and errors due to inattention and impulsivity.
Population aging is a global phenomenon associated with a rising prevalence of chronic degenerative diseases such as dementia. Dementia poses a challenge not only for patients but also their family caregivers who, in exercising this role, are at higher risk of mental illness. The present study investigated the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) in family caregivers of demented elderly see...
There are gaps in knowledge regarding how the family caregiver deals with the burden of caring for elderly people with dementia.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of main causes of death and disability among many young and old populations in different countries.
According to the WHO, by 2025 Brazil will be ranked sixth in the world in terms of proportion of elderly in the population. Within this scope, cognition plays a central role in the aging process, having an important association with quality of life, which suggests the need to develop intervention programs, such as cognitive training.