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Mild Cognitive impairment Research

03:14 EDT 15th August 2018 | BioPortfolio

Antipsychotic Use and the Risk of Initiating Medication for Benign Prostate Hyperplasia in Persons With Alzheimer Disease: A Matched Cohort Study.

Antipsychotics (APs) are known to exacerbate symptoms of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and may even cause urinary retention. The anticholinergic effects of APs and their dopamine D2- and α-receptor blockade may lead to voiding dysfunction of BPH patients. The objective of our study was to investigate whether the use of APs is associated with an increased risk of initiating medication for BPH ...

Cognitive-behavioral treatment of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder.

Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) was added to the psychiatric nomenclature in 2013, but little is known about its optimal treatment. The purpose of this article is to review the recent literature on ARFID treatment and highlight a novel cognitive-behavioral approach, currently under study.

Micro-RNA-137 Inhibits Tau Hyperphosphorylation in Alzheimer's Disease and Targets the CACNA1C Gene in Transgenic Mice and Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells.

BACKGROUND Alzheimer's disease (AD) results in cognitive impairment. The calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha-1 C CACNA1C gene encodes an alpha-1 C subunit of L-type calcium channel (LTCC). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of micro-RNA-137 (miR-137) and the CACNA1C gene in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 (APP/PS1) double-transgenic AD mice and in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. MATERIAL ...

A systems-based model of Alzheimer's disease.

The new National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer's Association Research Framework for Alzheimer's disease has been developed to accelerate drug discovery and offer a common structure and language to construct new Alzheimer's disease conceptual models. However, as a "complex" disease, a model based on systems-level understanding is needed to accommodate the complex, interacting etiologic pathw...

Distinctive temporal profiles of detergent-soluble and -insoluble tau and Aβ species in human Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology relevant proteins tau and beta-amyloid (Aβ) exist as an array of post-translationally modified and conformationally altered species with varying abundance, solubility and toxicity. Insoluble neurofibrillary tau tangles and Aβ plaques are end-stage AD hallmarks, yet may carry less disease significance compared to soluble species. At present, it is unclear how so...

Size Matters: Grey Matter Brain Reserve Predicts Executive Functioning in the Elderly.

Preserved executive functioning (EF) is crucial for daily functioning in the elderly and it appears to predict dementia development. We sought to clarify the role of atrophy-corrected cortical grey matter (GM) volume as a potential brain reserve (BR) marker for EF in the elderly. In total, 206 pre-surgical subjects (72.50 ± 4.95 years; mean MMSE score 28.50) were investigated. EF was primarily as...

The effects of physical exercise on executive function in community-dwelling older adults living with Alzheimer's-type dementia: A systematic review.

Executive function deficit is an indicator of Alzheimer's-type dementia and manifests as disruptions of attentional control, memory, cognitive flexibility, planning, and reasoning, among other cognitive problems. Physical exercise is suggested to have a protective effect on global cognition with aging. However, whether it influences executive function in people living with Alzheimer's-type dementi...

The presence of cerebral microbleeds is associated with cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are often observed in Parkinson's disease (PD); however, their association with cognitive decline has been unclear. We performed a retrospective analysis of 124 cases of clinically diagnosed PD to determine the association between the presence of CMBs and cognitive decline.

Disease trajectories in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, primary psychiatric and other neurodegenerative disorders presenting with behavioural change.

Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is characterized by behavioural and social cognitive disturbances, while various psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders may have similar clinical symptoms. Since neurodegenerative disorders are eventually progressive, whereas primary psychiatric disorders are not, this study aimed to investigate whether the change in clinical symptoms over t...

Association between brain atrophy and cognitive motor interference in multiple sclerosis.

Cognitive motor interference (CMI) is performance impairment due to simultaneuous task execution and is measured using the dual task cost (DTC). No pathological feature of MS has to date been associated with CMI.

A pilot randomized clinical trial of cognitive behavioral therapy versus attentional bias modification for social anxiety disorder: An examination of outcomes and theory-based mechanisms.

No studies have compared face-to-face cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and attention bias modification (ABM) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) and their purported mechanisms. We asked: 1) Is CBT more effective than ABM? and 2) Are changes in attentional biases and cognitions temporally related to symptom change? Forty-three patients were randomly assigned to 8 sessions of ABM or up to 20 session...

Identification of crizotinib derivatives as potent SHIP2 inhibitors for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

SH2 domain-containing inositol 5'-phosphatase 2 (SHIP2) is a lipid phosphatase that produce phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate (PI(3,4)P) from phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P), and is involved in many diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases. A recent report demonstrating that SHIP2 inhibition decreased tau hyperphosphorylation induced by amyloid β and rescued memory imp...

Quercetin in Food: Possible Mechanisms of Its Effect on Memory.

Quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) is found in vegetables and fruits. It is one of the major flavonoids that is part of human diets. Quercetin has several pharmacological effects in the nervous system as a neuroprotective agent. In this review, we summarize the research on quercetin and its role in memory in both animals and humans. Articles were chosen from the Scopus, PubMed, and Web of...

Rapid and reversible impairment of episodic memory by a high-fat diet in mice.

Alzheimer's disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality with no cure and only limited treatment available. Obesity and type 2 diabetes are positively associated with the development of premature cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease, linking diet with these conditions. Here we demonstrate that in mice episodic memory, together with spatial and contextual associative memory, is compro...

The Genetics of Dementia with Lewy Bodies: Current Understanding and Future Directions.

Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a neurodegenerative disease that can be clinically and pathologically similar to Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Current understanding of DLB genetics is insufficient and has been limited by sample size and difficulty in diagnosis. The first genome-wide association study (GWAS) in DLB was performed in 2017; a time at which the post-GWAS era...

Pupillary response: cognitive effort for breast cancer survivors.

The purpose of this cross-sectional comparative pilot study was to evaluate cognitive effort, indexed by pupillary response (PR), for breast cancer survivors (BCS) with complaints of cognitive dysfunction following chemotherapy.

Sleep quality as predictor of BMI in non-depressed caregivers of people with dementia.

Although most cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of children and adolescents have found a link between short duration of sleep and obesity, the literature related to adults provides a non-consensual framework. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between sleep quality and BMI in a population of caregivers looking after people suffering from dementia, with a view to ide...

Screening Positive for Cognitive Impairment: Impact on Healthcare Utilization and Provider Action in Primary and Specialty Care Practices.

Alzheimer's disease, the most common cause of dementia, goes unrecognized in half of patients presenting to healthcare providers and is associated with increased acute care utilization. Routine cognitive screening of older adults in healthcare settings could improve rates of dementia diagnosis and patterns of healthcare utilization.

A Multicomponent Model to Improve Hospital Care of Older Adults with Cognitive Impairment: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis.

To determine whether a multicomponent intervention improves care in hospitalized older adults with cognitive impairment.

Vision Impairment and Risk of Dementia: Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

To determine whether vision impairment is independently associated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with dementia.

Anticholinergic exposure and cognitive decline in older adults: Effect of anticholinergic exposure definitions in a 3-year analysis of the Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial (MAPT) study.

To assess the association between anticholinergic (atropinic) burden and cognitive decline in older adults over 3 years.

Metallothionein-I/II expression associates with the astrocyte DNA damage response and not Alzheimer-type pathology in the aging brain.

Oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage are early features of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD), occurring before the formation of classical AD neuropathology, and resulting from an imbalance between pro- and anti-oxidants. Astrocytes play a major neuroprotective role, producing high levels of anti-oxidants including metallothionein-I and -II (MT-I/II). In the present study ...

Association between Development of Dementia and Use of Benzodiazepines: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Divergent opinions exist on the use of benzodiazepines and the development of dementia, with studies indicating that benzodiazepines could be either a protective factor or a risk factor for dementia, or that there may be an absence of an association between the two. The objective of this study was to identify whether an association exists between the use of benzodiazepines and the development of d...

Phenylpropanoids and Alzheimer's disease: A potential therapeutic platform.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by progressive dementia, neuroinflammation and the accumulation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular plaques. The etiology of AD is unclear, but is generally attributed to four leading hypotheses: (i) abnormal folding and aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ)/tau proteins (ii) activation of the innate immune sy...

The brain metabolic signature of visual hallucinations in dementia with Lewy bodies.

Visual hallucinations (VH) are a core clinical feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), but their specific neural substrate remains elusive. We used F-FDG-PET to study the neural dysfunctional signature of VH in a group of 38 DLB patients (mean age±SD 72.9 ± 7.5) with available anamnestic records, cognitive and neurological examination and NeuroPsychiatric Inventory assessing VH. We tested ...

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