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Mild Cognitive impairment Research

09:51 EDT 18th June 2018 | BioPortfolio

The Microbiome in Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience.

Psychology and microbiology make unlikely friends, but the past decade has witnessed striking bidirectional associations between intrinsic gut microbes and the brain, relationships with largely untested psychological implications. Although microbe-brain relationships are receiving a great deal of attention in biomedicine and neuroscience, psychologists have yet to join this journey. Here, we illus...

Dementia and advance directives: some empirical and normative concerns.

The authors of the paper 'Advance euthanasia directives: a controversial case and its ethical implications' articulate concerns and reasons with regard to the conduct of euthanasia in persons with dementia based on advance directives. While we agree on the conclusion that there needs to be more attention for such directives in the preparation phase, we disagree with the reasons provided by the aut...

Predictive Modeling of the Progression of Alzheimer's Disease with Recurrent Neural Networks.

The number of service visits of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients is different from each other and their visit time intervals are non-uniform. Although the literature has revealed many approaches in disease progression modeling, they fail to leverage these time-relevant part of patients' medical records in predicting disease's future status. This paper investigates how to predict the AD progressio...

Musical Competence is Predicted by Music Training, Cognitive Abilities, and Personality.

Individuals differ in musical competence, which we defined as the ability to perceive, remember, and discriminate sequences of tones or beats. We asked whether such differences could be explained by variables other than music training, including socioeconomic status (SES), short-term memory, general cognitive ability, and personality. In a sample of undergraduates, musical competence had positive ...

Improved cognitive functioning in obese adolescents after a 30-week inpatient weight loss program.

Studies linked obesity with a large number of medical conditions including decreased cognitive functioning. The relation between BMI and cognition was proven in adults, but in adolescents the results are conflicting. Further, limited data are available on the impact of weight loss on cognition. This study analyzed the impact of a 30-week lasting weight loss program on cognition and determined the ...

H MRS spectroscopy in preclinical autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease.

H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can reveal changes in brain biochemistry in vivo in humans and has been applied to late onset Alzheimer disease (AD). Carriers of mutations for autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) may show changes in levels of metabolites prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. Proton MR spectra were acquired at 1.5 T for 16 cognitively asymptomatic or mildly sympt...

Melatonin induces mechanisms of brain resilience against neurodegeneration.

Melatonin is an endogenous pleiotropic molecule which orchestrates regulatory functions and protective capacity against age-related ailments. The increase in circulating levels of melatonin through dietary supplements intensifies its health benefits. Investigations in animal models have shown that melatonin protects against Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like pathology, although clinical studies have no...

Memory-Based Deception Detection: Extending the Cognitive Signature of Lying From Instructed to Self-Initiated Cheating.

From a cognitive perspective, lying can be regarded as a complex cognitive process requiring the interplay of several executive functions. Meta-analytic research on 114 studies encompassing 3,307 participants (Suchotzki, Verschuere, Van Bockstaele, Ben-Shakhar, & Crombez, ) suggests that computerized paradigms can reliably assess the cognitive burden of lying, with large reaction time differences ...

Targeted brain proteomics uncover multiple pathways to Alzheimer's dementia.

Previous gene expression analysis identified a network of co-expressed genes that is associated with β-amyloid neuropathology and cognitive decline in older adults. The current work targeted influential genes in this network with quantitative proteomics to identify potential novel therapeutic targets.

Mitoferrin-1 is involved in the progression of alzheimer's disease through targeting mitochondrial iron metabolism in a caenorhabditis elegans model of alzheimers disease.

In mammals, mitoferrin-1and mitoferrin-2, two homologous proteins of the mitochondrial solute carrier family are required for iron delivery into mitochondria. However, there is only one kind, called W02B12 (mitoferrin-1 or mfn-1), in Caenorhabditis elegans and its regulatory mechanism is unknown. In this study, we used Caenorhabditis elegans strains CL2006 and GMC101 as models to investigate what ...

Postmortem brain MRI is related to cognitive decline, independent of cerebral vessel disease in older adults.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether metrics of brain tissue integrity derived from postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are associated with late-life cognitive decline, independent of cerebral vessel disease. Using data from 554 older adults, we used voxelwise regression to identify regions where the postmortem MRI transverse relaxation rate constant R was associated with the...

Cognitive bias modification as an add-on treatment in clinical depression: Results from a placebo-controlled, single-blinded randomized control trial.

Only 60% of depressed patients respond sufficiently to treatment, so there is a dire need for novel approaches to improve treatment effects. Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) may be an effective and easily implemented computerized add-on to treatment-as-usual. Therefore, we investigated the effects of a positivity-attention training and a positivity-approach training compared to control trainings.

Nrf2 Deficiency Exacerbates Obesity-Induced Oxidative Stress, Neurovascular Dysfunction, Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption, Neuroinflammation, Amyloidogenic Gene Expression, and Cognitive Decline in Mice, Mimicking the Aging Phenotype.

Obesity has deleterious effects on cognitive function in the elderly adults. In mice, aging exacerbates obesity-induced oxidative stress, microvascular dysfunction, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, and neuroinflammation, which compromise cognitive health. However, the specific mechanisms through which aging and obesity interact to remain elusive. Previously, we have shown that Nrf2 signaling ...

Mass spectrometry is a multifaceted weapon to be used in the battle against Alzheimer's disease: Amyloid beta peptides and beyond.

Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) accumulation and aggregation have been considered for many years the main cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and therefore have been the principal target of investigation as well as of the proposed therapeutic approaches (Grasso [2011] Mass Spectrom Rev. 30: 347-365). However, the amyloid cascade hypothesis, which considers Aβ accumulation the only causative agent of the ...

Reward circuitry activation reflects social preferences in the face of cognitive effort.

Research at the intersection of social neuroscience and cognitive effort is an interesting new area for exploration. There is great potential to broaden our understanding of how social context and cognitive effort processes, currently addressed in disparate literatures, interact with one another. In this paper, we briefly review the literature on cognitive effort, focusing on effort-linked valuati...

Store depletion-induced h-channel plasticity rescues a channelopathy linked to Alzheimer's disease.

Voltage-gated ion channels are critical for neuronal integration. Some of these channels, however, are misregulated in several neurological disorders, causing both gain- and loss-of-function channelopathies in neurons. Using several transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), we find that sub-threshold voltage signals strongly influenced by hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-g...

Loss of Trem2 in microglia leads to widespread disruption of cell coexpression networks in mouse brain.

Rare heterozygous coding variants in the triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) gene, conferring increased risk of developing late-onset Alzheimer's disease, have been identified. We examined the transcriptional consequences of the loss of Trem2 in mouse brain to better understand its role in disease using differential expression and coexpression network analysis of Trem2 knockou...

Emotion perception, non-social cognition and symptoms as predictors of theory of mind in schizophrenia.

Theory of mind (ToM) can be divided into cognitive and affective ToM, and a distinction can be made between overmentalizing and undermentalizing errors. Research has shown that ToM in schizophrenia is associated with non-social and social cognition, and with clinical symptoms. In this study, we investigate cognitive and clinical predictors of different ToM processes.

Bio-Spectroscopic Imaging Provides Evidence of Hippocampal Zn Deficiency and Decreased Lipid Unsaturation in an Accelerated Ageing Mouse Model.

Western society is facing a health epidemic due to the increasing incidence of dementia in ageing populations, and there are still few effective diagnostic methods, minimal treatment options, and no cure. Ageing is the greatest risk factor for memory loss that occurs during the natural ageing process, as well as being the greatest risk factor for neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer's disea...

An analysis of the Canadian cognitive psychology job market (2006-2016).

How accomplished does one need to be to compete in the Canadian cognitive psychology job market? We looked at the publication record of everyone who was hired as an assistant professor in Canadian cognitive psychology divisions with PhD programs between 2006 and 2016 (N = 64). Individuals who were hired from 2006 to 2011 averaged 10 journal-article publications up to and including the year they we...

The status of women cognitive scientists in Canada: Insights from publicly available NSERC funding data.

A crucial question within science and academia, and cognitive science specifically, is whether there is gender disparity in opportunity and advancement over the professional life span (e.g., Ceci, Ginther, Kahn, & Williams, 2014; Geraci, Balsis, & Busch, 2015; Valian, 1998). To investigate this question, we analyzed gender distributions in publicly available federal funding data from the Natural S...

Unpredictability, body awareness, and eating in the absence of hunger: A cognitive schemas approach.

The current research examined whether cognitive schemas that emerge in the context of early life stress predict psychological and behavioral outcomes that increase obesity risk. Three studies tested this hypothesis, predicting that having an unpredictability schema-which is a mindset characterized by the belief that the world and the people in it are unpredictable and unreliable-would predict low ...

High-normal blood glucose levels may be associated with decreased spatial perception in young healthy adults.

The negative effects of high normal glucose on cognitive function were previously reported in euglycemic individuals of middle age and the elderly population. This study aimed at examining the effect of baseline blood glucose levels on spatial ability, specifically verticality perception on the computerized rod and frame test (CRFT) in young healthy adults. 63 healthy male medical students (age ra...

Precision Medicine and Drug Development in Alzheimer's disease: The importance of Sexual Dimorphism and Patient Stratification.

Neurodegenerative diseases (ND) are among the leading causes of disability and mortality. Considerable sex differences exist in the occurrence of the various manifestations leading to cognitive decline. Alzheimer's disease (AD) exhibits substantial sexual dimorphisms and disproportionately affects women.Women have a higher life expectancy compared to men and, consequently, have more lifespan to de...

Does inflammation precede tau aggregation in early Alzheimer's disease? A PET study.

Our aim was to assess with positron emission tomography (PET) the temporal and spatial inter-relationships between levels of cortical microglial activation and the aggregated amyloid-β and tau load in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease (AD).

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