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Myc the protein encoded by the MYC gene that activates the cell cycle Research

09:46 EDT 19th August 2018 | BioPortfolio

Chemopreventive effects of some popular phytochemicals on human colon cancer: a review.

Colon cancer is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Dietary phytochemicals have been drawing increasing attention for colon cancer prevention and treatment due to their chemical diversity, biological activity, easy availability, lack of toxic effects, and ability to modulate various signal transduction pathways and cell processes. The chemoprotective effects elicited by p...

Use-Phase Drives Lithium-Ion Battery Life Cycle Environmental Impacts When Used for Frequency Regulation.

Battery storage systems are attractive alternatives to conventional generators for frequency regulation due to their fast response time, high cycle efficiency, flexible scale, and decreasing cost. However, their implementation does not consistently reduce environmental impacts. To assess these impacts, we employed a life cycle assessment (LCA) framework. Our framework couples cradle-to-gate and en...

Cell Penetration Profiling Using the Chloroalkane Penetration Assay.

Biotherapeutics are a promising class of molecules in drug discovery, but they are often limited to extracellular targets due to their poor cell penetration. High-throughput cell penetration assays are required for the optimization of biotherapeutics for enhanced cell penetration. We developed a HaloTag-based assay called the ChloroAlkane Penetration Assay (CAPA), which is quantitative, high-throu...

Dysregulating ClpP: From Antibiotics to Anticancer?

In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Wong et al. (2018) identify several dysregulators of a key mitochondrial protease: casein lytic protease P (ClpP). These dysregulators were found to trigger programmed cell death and may offer fresh avenues for the development of novel cancer therapeutics.

ACP Acylation Is an Acetyl-CoA-Dependent Modification Required for Electron Transport Chain Assembly.

The electron transport chain (ETC) is an important participant in cellular energy conversion, but its biogenesis presents the cell with numerous challenges. To address these complexities, the cell utilizes ETC assembly factors, which include the LYR protein family. Each member of this family interacts with the mitochondrial acyl carrier protein (ACP), the scaffold protein upon which the mitochondr...

Two novel camptothecin derivatives inhibit colorectal cancer proliferation via induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.

At present, chemotherapy is still to be the preferred and most significant therapeutic strategy for cancer patients in clinical practice. Although Camptothecin (CPT) has been discovered for over half century, a series of CPT derivatives such as Topotecan (TPT) and irinotecan (CPT-11) have been approved and are still to be the first-line medicines for clinical application. Up to now, the topoisomer...

Dual regulation of L-selectin (CD62L) by HIV-1: Enhanced expression by Vpr in contrast with cell-surface down-modulation by Nef and Vpu.

The HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr displays various activities that can favor viral replication such as G cell cycle arrest. Vpr also modulates host gene expression, although this property is poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the effect of Vpr on L-selectin (CD62L), which crucially controls leukocytes circulation and generation of immune responses against pathogens. We report that Vpr up-re...

Prognostic Evaluation of Perinephric Fat, Renal Sinus Fat, and Renal Vein Invasion for Patients with Pathologic Stage T3a Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

To investigate the prognostic significance of various patterns of extrarenal extension that comprise pathologic stage T3a clear cell renal cell carcinoma among patients undergoing nephrectomy for non-metastatic disease.

Cell cycle-dependent force transmission in cancer cells.

The generation of traction forces and their transmission to the extracellular environment supports the disseminative migration of cells from a primary tumor. In cancer cells, the periodic variation of nuclear stiffness during the cell cycle provides a functional link between efficient translocation and proliferation. However, the mechanical framework completing this picture remains unexplored. Her...

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) activation contributes to the pathogenesis of experimental colitis via inhibition of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation.

The incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasing worldwide. IBD is known to be multifactorial, but inflammatory signaling within the intestinal epithelium and a subsequent failure of the intestinal epithelial barrier have been shown to play essential roles in disease pathogenesis. CaMKIV is a multifunctional protein kinase associated with inflammation and cell cycle ...

Stabilization of p27/CDKN1B by UBCH7/UBE2L3 catalyzed ubiquitinylation: a new paradigm in cell-cycle control.

Ubiquitinylation drives many cellular processes by targeting proteins for proteasomal degradation. Ubiquitin conjugation enzymes promote ubiquitinylation and, thus, degradation of protein substrates. Ubiquitinylation is a well-known posttranslational modification controlling cell-cycle transitions and levels or/and activation levels of ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes change during development and ce...

Cell Tension and Mechanical Regulation of Cell Volume.

Animal cells use an unknown mechanism to control their growth and physical size. Here, using the fluorescence exclusion method, we quantitatively measure cell volume for adherent cells on substrates of varying stiffness. We discover that the cell volume has a complex dependence on substrate stiffness, and is positively correlated with the size of the cell adhesion to the substrate. From a mechanic...

Early metabolic 18F-FDG PET/CT response of locally advanced squamous-cell carcinoma of head and neck to induction chemotherapy: A prospective pilot study.

The objective of this study was to assess the clinical value of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) after the first cycle of induction chemotherapy (IC) in locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (LASCCHN).

High glucose and low specific cell growth but not mild hypothermia improve specific r-protein productivity in chemostat culture of CHO cells.

In the biopharmaceutical sector, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells have become the host of choice to produce recombinant proteins (r-proteins) due to their capacity for correct protein folding, assembly, and posttranslational modification. However, the production of therapeutic r-proteins in CHO cells is expensive and presents insufficient production yields for certain proteins. Effective culture ...

Structural characterization and anti-A549 lung cancer cells bioactivity of a polysaccharide from Houttuynia cordata.

A water-soluble pectic polysaccharide HCA4S1 was isolated from Houttuynia cordata and purified by DEAE Cellulose and Sephacryl S-300 column. HCA4S1 with an average molecular weight of 21.7 kDa mainly consisted of rhamnose, galacturonic acid, galactose, and arabinose. By using partial acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, and NMR spectra, the structure of this polysaccharide is found to have a b...

Knockdown of lncRNA XIST inhibits retinoblastoma progression by modulating the miR-124/STAT3 axis.

Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) X-inactive specific transcript (XIST) was reportedly to be tightly associated with tumorigenesis and progression of multiple cancers. However, the expression, biological function, and action mechanisms of XIST in retinoblastoma (RB) are still unknown. Here, we found that XIST expression was upregulated in RB tissues and cell lines, and that increased XIST expression wa...

Apatinib targets both tumor and endothelial cells in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies worldwide with poor prognosis and tends to be hypervascular. Aberrant expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor 2 (VEGFR-2) has been implicated in the progression of HCC and represents a valid target for anticancer therapy. Apatinib, a small molecule inhibitor of VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase, shows strong antit...

Novel isatin-derived molecules activate p53 via interference with Mdm2 to promote apoptosis.

The p53 protein is a key tumor suppressor in mammals. In response to various forms of genotoxic stress p53 stimulates expression of genes whose products induce cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis. An E3-ubiquitin ligase, Mdm2 (mouse-double-minute 2) and its human ortholog Hdm2, physically interact with the amino-terminus of p53 to mediate its ubiquitin-mediated degradation via the proteasome. Thus,...

Regulation of IRE1 RNase activity by the Ribonuclease inhibitor 1 (RNH1).

Adaptation to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress depends on the activation of the sensor inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1), an endoribonuclease that splices the mRNA of the transcription factor XBP1 (X-box-binding protein 1). To better understand the protein network that regulates the activity of the IRE1 pathway, we systematically screened the proteins that interact with IRE1 and identified a r...

Optogenetic dissection of mitotic spindle positioning in vivo.

The position of the mitotic spindle determines the plane of cell cleavage, and thereby daughter cell location, size, and content. Spindle positioning is driven by dynein-mediated pulling forces exerted on astral microtubules, which requires an evolutionarily conserved complex of Gα-GDP, GPR-1/2, and LIN-5 proteins. To examine individual functions of the complex components, we developed a genetic ...

Flow cytometry in formamide treated cells.

The use of formamide for the study in flow cytometry of cell cycle phases, by DNA content measurement in human cancer cell lines, was recently published. In this manuscript, we verify the possibility of extending the procedure to simultaneous analysis of other parameters. The results obtained, here reported, show that the treatment of samples by formamide is compatible with the simultaneous detect...

What's in a (Sub)strain?

C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N inbred mice are widely, and often interchangeably, used for stem cell research; yet, these substrains harbor discrete genetic differences that can cause phenotypic disparities. In this issue of Stem Cell Reports, Morales-Hernández et al. identify one particular difference-disruption of Nicotinamide Nucleotide Transhydrogenase (Nnt)-that increases reactive oxygen exposure an...

Large-Scale Human Dendritic Cell Differentiation Revealing Notch-Dependent Lineage Bifurcation and Heterogeneity.

The ability to generate large numbers of distinct types of human dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro is critical for accelerating our understanding of DC biology and harnessing them clinically. We developed a DC differentiation method from human CD34 precursors leading to high yields of plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and both types of conventional DCs (cDC1s and cDC2s). The identity of the cells generated in...

Small benzothiazole molecule induces apoptosis and prevents metastasis through DNA interaction and c-MYC gene supression in diffuse-type gastric adenocarcinoma cell line.

Chemo-resistance has been reported as a relevant barrier for the efficiency of gastric cancer treatment. Therefore, the development of effective and safe drugs for cancer chemotherapy is still a challenge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anticancer potential of (E)-2-((2-(benzo[d]thiazo-2-yl)hydrazono)methyl)-4-nitrophenol) (AFN01) against gastric cancer cell lines. Our results showe...

Pulling a MAST1 on Cisplatin Resistance.

In this issue of Cancer Cell, Jin and colleagues use a kinome-wide screen to identify MAST1 as a cause of cisplatin resistance. They demonstrate that this kinase is a novel activator of MEK1 and the MAPK cascade and that it can harness pathway output to block cisplatin-induced cell death.

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