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Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS) Research

12:35 EST 23rd January 2019 | BioPortfolio

Preservation of Denonvilliers' fascia for nerve-sparing laparoscopic total mesorectal excision: A neuro-histological study.

Urogenital complications due to pelvic autonomic nerve damage frequently occur following rectal surgery. We investigated whether total mesorectal excision (TME) with preservation of the Denonvilliers' fascia (DVF) can effectively prevent the removal of pelvic autonomic nerves through microscopy. Twenty consecutive male patients with mid-low rectal cancer who received TME with preservation or resec...

Association between demographic features and perceived social support in the mental adjustment to breast cancer.

The mental adjustment to a breast cancer diagnosis is traumatic and stressful, with wide-ranging differences in the responses observed in Indian women. We investigated the association between demographic features and perceived social support during the adjustment of patients to breast cancer.

Toxic effects of combined treatment of 1,2-dichloroethane and ethanol on mouse brain and the related mechanisms.

The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of brain damage induced by the combined treatment of mice with 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) and ethanol. Mice were divided into control group; 1,2-DCE-intoxicated group; ethanol-treated group; and low-, medium-, and high-dose combined treatment groups. Histological observations along with brain organ coefficients and water content were used to me...

Mu Opioid Receptor Regulation of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone-Luteinizing Hormone Axis during Short-Term Food Deprivation: Role of Alpha1-Adrenoreceptor Signaling.

Brain bio-energetic stability is required for optimal gonadal steroid positive-feedback activation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I)-pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) neuroendocrine axis. Caudal hindbrain metabolic-sensory noradrenergic neurons counter energy deficiency by curtailing the mid-cycle LH surge. Central mu opioid receptors (mu-R) impose inhibitory effects of diverse phy...

Sequencing of the insulin receptor (INSR) gene reveals association between gene variants in exon and intron 13 and schizoaffective disorder.

From the hypothesis that an impaired insulin and insulin-like growth factor cellular signalling in brain and body might result in the development of schizophrenia or related psychoses, I in this study chose to thoroughly investigate the insulin receptor gene in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and controls.

Mathematical evaluation of melatonin secretion in hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

The aims of the study were to assess the kinematics of the lower limbs and pelvis during normal walking in professional ballet dancers and to investigate relationships between movements of segments of the lower limbs and pelvis.

The long-term effects of childhood traumatic brain injury on adulthood relationship quality.

To investigated the long-term effect of childhood Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) on adulthood Relationship Quality (RQ), examining injury severity, age of injury, and markers of prefrontal cortex (PFC) functioning, apathy, disinhibition, and executive dysfunction.

Type of memory and emotional valence in healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.

Autobiographical memory (AM) presents components related to the type of memory and may present an associated emotional valence. Comparing healthy older adults, adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and adults with Alzheimer´s disease (AD) gives contradictory results. We examined AM in these groups to analyze differences and provide information that would contribute to the understandin...

Self-Care Behaviors of Ovarian Cancer Patients Before Their Diagnosis: Proof-of-Concept Study.

Longer patient intervals can lead to more late-stage cancer diagnoses and higher mortality rates. Individuals may delay presenting to primary care with red flag symptoms and instead turn to the internet to seek information, purchase over-the-counter medication, and change their diet or exercise habits. With advancements in machine learning, there is the potential to explore this complex relationsh...

Plasma Lipids, Apolipoproteins, and Subsequent Cognitive Decline in Men with Coronary Heart Disease.

Lipid levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Paclitaxel Reduces Brain Injury from Repeated Head Trauma in Mice.

Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) is known to disturb axonal integrity and may play an important role in the pathogenic cascades leading to neurodegeneration. One critical approach to reduce the future onset of neurodegeneration is to intervene in this process at an early stage following a brain injury. Previously we showed that direct application of the microtubule-stabilizing drug, ...

Contributions by the Brain Renin-Angiotensin System to Memory, Cognition, and Alzheimer's Disease.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive neuron losses in memory-associated brain structures that rob patients of their dignity and quality of life. Five drugs have been approved by the FDA to treat AD but none modify or significantly slow disease progression. New therapies are needed to delay the course of this disease with the ultimate goal of preventi...

N-Terminal Truncated Aβ4 - 42 Is a Substrate for Neprilysin Degradation in vitro and in vivo.

In sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), an imbalance between production and clearance of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides seems to account for enhanced Aβ accumulation. The metalloprotease neprilysin (NEP) is an important Aβ degrading enzyme as shown by a variety of in vitro and in vivo studies. While the degradation of full-length Aβ peptides such as Aβ1 - 40 and Aβ1 - 42 is well established, it...

Behavioral training rescues motor deficits in Cyfip1 haploinsufficiency mouse model of autism spectrum disorders.

Deletions in the 15q11.2 region of the human genome are associated with neurobehavioral deficits, and motor development delay, as well as in some cases, symptoms of autism or schizophrenia. The cytoplasmic FMRP-interacting protein 1 (CYFIP1) is one of the four genes contained within this locus and has been associated with other genetic forms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In mice, Cyfip1 hapl...

The autism/neuroprotection-linked ADNP/NAP regulate the excitatory glutamatergic synapse.

Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP), essential for brain formation, was discovered as a leading de novo mutated gene causing the autism-like ADNP syndrome. This syndrome is phenotypically characterized by global developmental delays, intellectual disabilities, speech impediments, and motor dysfunctions. The Adnp haploinsufficient mouse mimics the human ADNP syndrome in terms of synap...

Constitutional mislocalization of Pten drives precocious maturation in oligodendrocytes and aberrant myelination in model of autism spectrum disorder.

There is a strong genetic association between germline PTEN mutation and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), making Pten-mutant models exemplary for the study of ASD pathophysiology. We developed the Pten mouse, where Pten is largely restricted from the nucleus, which recapitulates patient-like, autism-related phenotypes: behavioral changes, macrocephaly, and white matter abnormalities. This study aim...

Reproducible grey matter patterns index a multivariate, global alteration of brain structure in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by numerous subtle changes in brain structure and function. Machine learning allows exploring the utility of combining structural and functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures for diagnostic application, but this approach has been hampered by sample size limitations and lack of differential diagnostic data. Here, we performed...

A brain-wide functional map of the serotonergic responses to acute stress and fluoxetine.

Central serotonin (5-HT) orchestrates myriad cognitive processes and lies at the core of many stress-related psychiatric illnesses. However, the basic relationship between its brain-wide axonal projections and functional dynamics is not known. Here we combine optogenetics and fMRI to produce a brain-wide 5-HT evoked functional map. We find that DRN photostimulation leads to an increase in the hemo...

CRISPR-Cas: a tool for cancer research and therapeutics.

In the past decade, the development of a genome-editing technology mediated by CRISPR has made genetic engineering easier than ever, both in vitro and in vivo. CRISPR systems have enabled important advances in cancer research by accelerating the development of study models or as a tool in genetic screening studies, including those aiming to discover and validate therapeutic targets. In this Review...

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy - confusion and controversies.

The term chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) has recently entered public consciousness via media reports and even a Hollywood movie. However, in contrast to general impressions, the incidence of CTE is unknown, the clinical diagnostic criteria have not been agreed upon and the current neuropathological characterization of CTE is acknowledged as preliminary. Additionally, few studies have compar...

Deciphering the genomic, epigenomic, and transcriptomic landscapes of pre-invasive lung cancer lesions.

The molecular alterations that occur in cells before cancer is manifest are largely uncharted. Lung carcinoma in situ (CIS) lesions are the pre-invasive precursor to squamous cell carcinoma. Although microscopically identical, their future is in equipoise, with half progressing to invasive cancer and half regressing or remaining static. The cellular basis of this clinical observation is unknown. H...

Serum neurofilament dynamics predicts neurodegeneration and clinical progression in presymptomatic Alzheimer's disease.

Neurofilament light chain (NfL) is a promising fluid biomarker of disease progression for various cerebral proteopathies. Here we leverage the unique characteristics of the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network and ultrasensitive immunoassay technology to demonstrate that NfL levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (n = 187) and serum (n = 405) are correlated with one another and are elevated a...

Homicidal Ideation and Individuals on the Autism Spectrum.

Interest in the relationship between autism and violence has increased in recent years; however, no link has clearly been established between them. Researchers remain curious if autistic people with certain traits (e.g., a history of trauma) are at greater risk of violence than those individuals with autism alone. In this article, we detail two individuals with homicidal ideation (HI) admitted to ...

Metal Toxicity Links to Alzheimer's Disease and Neuroinflammation.

As the median age of the population increases, the number of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the associated socio-economic burden are predicted to worsen. While aging and inherent genetic predisposition play major roles in the onset of AD, lifestyle, physical fitness, medical condition, and social environment have emerged as relevant disease modifiers. These environmental risk factor...

Exploring brain functions in autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review on functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) studies.

A growing body of research has investigated the functional development of the brain in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is increasingly being used in this respect. This method has several advantages over other functional neuroimaging techniques in studying brain functions in ASD, including portability, low cost, and availability in naturalistic settings...

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