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Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS) Research

18:42 EDT 17th August 2018 | BioPortfolio

Atypical metastasis from a colorectal cancer : the pons is undermined !

Brain metastases occur in 1 to 4 % of patients with colorectal cancer and are unique in 0.5 % of them. Because of their infrequent nature, brain imaging is not recommended in the systematic follow-up of these patients. We report here an exceptional case of a unique brain metastasis in a very unusual position. An 82-year-old patient with a colorectal cancer of the splenic angle that was treated wit...

Natural Brain Penetration Enhancers Modified Albumin Nanoparticles for Glioma Targeting Delivery.

The unsatisfactory therapeutic outcome for glioma is mainly due to the poor BBB permeability and inefficient accumulation in the glioma area of chemotherapeutic agents. The existing drug delivery strategies can increase drug transport to the brain but are restricted by side effects and/or poor delivery efficiency. In this study, potent brain penetration enhancers were screened from the active comp...

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and the Risk of Cognitive Decline in Older Adults.

Obstructive sleep apnea causes intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation and affects at least 20% of individuals after the age of 65. There is accumulating evidence that obstructive sleep apnea may impact brain structure and function. Recent cohort studies suggest that it is a risk factor for stroke, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Because prevention through treatment of risk...

Documenting Goals of Care Among Patients With Advanced Cancer: Results of a Quality Improvement Initiative.

Guidelines recommend that oncologists discuss goals of care (GOC) with patients who have advanced cancer and that these patients be referred for early palliative care (PC). An audit of practice between 2010 and 2015 at the Cancer Centre of Southeastern Ontario suggested that these rates were suboptimal. We sought to improve the rate of documentation of GOC and referral to PC through the implementa...

Radiation-Induced Optic Neuropathy: Clinical and Imaging Profile of Twelve Patients.

Radiation-induced optic neuropathy (RON) is a form of delayed radionecrosis of the anterior visual pathways, which develops within months to years after external cranial irradiation and causes severe and irreversible vision loss. Small series reports have adequately documented its clinical features, but imaging characteristics have been less completely described.

A Day at the Office: The MACRA-sized Headache-Part 1.

Incidence of Combat Sport-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries Presenting to the Emergency Department From 2012 to 2016.

We sought to investigate the incidence and characteristics of traumatic brain injuries [mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI)] presenting to the emergency department as a result of boxing, wrestling, and martial arts (MA).

Intron retention is a source of neoepitopes in cancer.

We present an in silico approach to identifying neoepitopes derived from intron retention events in tumor transcriptomes. Using mass spectrometry immunopeptidome analysis, we show that retained intron neoepitopes are processed and presented on MHC I on the surface of cancer cell lines. RNA-derived neoepitopes should be considered for prospective personalized cancer vaccine development.

Lung cancer in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

There are many epidemiological pieces of evidence that show IPF patients have the highest risk of lung cancer. We conducted a systematic review of all published data to define the characteristics of lung cancer that develops in IPF by performing a meta-analysis.

Cannabinoid 1 receptor signaling on GABAergic neurons influences astrocytes in the ageing brain.

Astrocytes, key regulators of brain homeostasis, interact with neighboring glial cells, neurons and the vasculature through complex processes involving different signaling pathways. It is not entirely clear how these interactions change in the ageing brain and which factors influence astrocyte ageing. Here, we investigate the role of endocannabinoid signaling, because it is an important modulator ...

Heart rate mean and variability as a biomarker for phenotypic variation in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder.

Interest in autonomic arousal in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is increasing; however, reliability of these measures in ASD is unknown, and previously reported associations with social and cognitive abilities are inconsistent. This study assesses heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) in preschoolers with ASD or typical development (TD) while they passively watched naturalistic videos. Measurem...

Alterations in hub organization in the white matter structural network in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder: A 2-year follow-up study.

Little is currently known about the longitudinal developmental patterns of hubs in the whole-brain white matter (WM) structural networks among toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and deterministic tractography to map the WM structural networks in 37 ASD toddlers and 27 age-, gender- and developmental quotient-matched controls with develo...

Prediabetes and diabetes accelerate cognitive decline and predict microvascular lesions: A population-based cohort study.

The impact of prediabetes and diabetes on cognitive decline and the potential underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated whether prediabetes and diabetes accelerate cognitive decline and brain aging, and the initial pathological changes linked to microvascular processes.

Somatic variants in autosomal dominant genes are a rare cause of sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

A minority of patients with sporadic early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) exhibit de novo germ line mutations in the autosomal dominant genes such as APP, PSEN1, or PSEN2. We hypothesized that negatively screened patients may harbor somatic variants in these genes.

Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography Measurements in Alzheimer's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive tool to measure specific retinal layers in the eye. The relationship of retinal spectral domain-OCT (SD-OCT) measurements with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) remains unclear. Hence, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the SD-OCT measurements in AD and MCI.

Unhealthy gut, unhealthy brain: The role of the intestinal microbiota in neurodegenerative diseases.

The number of bacterial cells living within the human body is approximately equal to, or greater than, the total number of human cells. This dynamic population of microorganisms, termed the human microbiota, resides mainly within the gastrointestinal tract. It is widely accepted that highly diverse and stable microbiota promote overall human health. Colonization of the gut with maladaptive and pat...

Proteomic analysis of evodiamine-induced cytotoxicity in thyroid cancer cells.

Evodiamine is a natural product extracted from herbal plants such as Tetradium which has shown to have anti-fat uptake and anti-proliferation properties. However, the effects of evodiamine on the behavior of thyroid cancers are largely unknown. To determine if evodiamine might be useful in the treatment of thyroid cancer and its cytotoxic mechanism, we analyzed the impact of evodiamine treatment o...

Risk stratification for colorectal neoplasia detection in the Flemish colorectal cancer screening programme.

The quantitative faecal immunochemical test (FIT) detects pre-cancerous lesions and colorectal cancer (CRC). Current CRC screening programmes are based upon a binary FIT result. This study evaluates the possibility of personalised risk prediction, based on FIT, age and gender to gain more insight into improving discrimination between normal outcomes, pre-cancerous lesions, carcinoma in situ and CR...

Inhibiting of RIPK3 attenuates early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage: Possibly through alleviating necroptosis.

Necroptosis is an inflammatory form of cell death that depends on receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 3 (RIPK3) and mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) and displays the morphological characteristics of necrosis. To date, it is unclear to what extent necroptosis contributes to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) induced brain injury. The present study aimed to investigate the RIPK3-mediated ...

Pharmacogenetic analyses of 2183 patients with advanced colorectal cancer; potential role for common dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase variants in toxicity to chemotherapy.

Inherited genetic variants may influence response to, and side-effects from, chemotherapy. We sought to generate a comprehensive inherited pharmacogenetic profile for oxaliplatin and 5FU/capecitabine therapy in advanced colorectal cancer (aCRC).

Association of Antioxidative Enzymes Polymorphisms with Efficacy of Platin and Fluorouracil-Based Adjuvant Therapy in Gastric Cancer.

Imbalance of oxidative/antioxidative enzymes in cells is associated with carcinogenesis and cancer cell chemoresistance. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical significance of potentially functional single nucleotides polymorphisms (SNPs) in antioxidative enzymes, GPxs and CAT, in stages II and III gastric cancer patients.

Overexpressed D2 Dopamine Receptor Inhibits Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Progression through Inhibiting NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. Dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) has multiple roles in clinical progression of NSCLC and functional maintenance of cancer cells. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism. Here, we clarified whether DRD2 inhibits lung cancer progression and identified the underlying downstream signaling.

Anti-Cancer Effects of Radix Angelica Sinensis (Danggui) and N-Butylidenephthalide on Gastric Cancer: Implications for REDD1 Activation and mTOR Inhibition.

Radix Angelica Sinensis (danggui in Chinese) is widely used in traditional chinese medicine (TCM). N-butylidenephthalide (BP), a bioactive compound in danggui, is a potential antitumor agent for various cancer types. However, its clinical effect and mechanism in the treatment of gastric cancer remain undetermined.

Adolescent and young adult cancer survivors' memory and future thinking processes place them at risk for poor mental health.

Identity formation is a key developmental milestone for adolescent and young adults (AYAs). Autobiographical memory and future-thinking are crucial cognitive processes underpinning this, which may be impacted by cancer experiences. We know little about how these processes might be related to AYAs' adjustment to cancer, quality of life (QoL), and mental health outcomes.

Impact of coexistent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on the survival of patients with small cell lung cancer receiving chemotherapy.

While there is growing interest in the correlation between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and non-small cell lung cancer, very few studies have examined the interaction between COPD and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the impact of COPD on the survival of patients with SCLC.

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