Latest Biotechnology, Pharmaceutical and Healthcare News from The Lancet

07:13 EST 18th November 2017 | BioPortfolio

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Showing News Articles 1–25 of 956 from The Lancet

Saturday 18th November 2017

[Articles] Extended adjuvant intermittent letrozole versus continuous letrozole in postmenopausal women with breast cancer (SOLE): a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial

In postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, extended use of intermittent letrozole did not improve disease-free survival compared with continuous use of letrozole. An alternative schedule of extended adjuvant endocrine therapy with letrozole, including intermittent administration, might be feasible and the results of the SOLE trial support the safety of temporary treatmen...

[Comment] Complexity of intermittent letrozole adjuvant therapy

To improve the outcomes of postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer is an important ongoing research goal. In The Lancet Oncology, Marco Colleoni and colleagues1 of the International Breast Cancer Study Group attempted to address this important research question in the Study Of Letrozole Extension (SOLE) trial in which they evaluate a novel approach to aromatase inhibitor administration...

Friday 17th November 2017

[In Context] Prescribing sleep for better health

It was a dark, autumnal, Monday evening, and for many of the audience at the Royal Institution of Great Britain (London, UK), the benefits of any extra sleep over the weekend probably felt all but over after the first day back at work. Rather than opting for an early night, however, we gathered to listen to a public lecture by Matthew Walker (Professor of Neuroscience and Psychology, University of...

[Articles] Human papillomavirus types from infection to cancer in the anus, according to sex and HIV status: a systematic review and meta-analysis

HPV16 is by far the most carcinogenic HPV type in the anus, with enrichment of HPV16 even from high-grade lesions to anal cancer, both in individuals who are HIV negative and those who are HIV positive. Nevertheless, the fraction of anal cancer attributable to HPV16 is smaller in the HIV-positive population.

[Comment] Stepping up HIV-1 low-level viraemia surveillance in South Africa

In The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Lucas Hermans and colleagues1 report the results of a large, multicentre cohort study investigating the incidence of low-level viraemia and its association with virological failure. Low-level viraemia was defined as HIV RNA viral load of 51–999 copies per mL. The investigators studied 70 930 HIV-infected adults from rural-urban areas of South Africa, 68% of w...

[Articles] Effect of HIV-1 low-level viraemia during antiretroviral therapy on treatment outcomes in WHO-guided South African treatment programmes: a multicentre cohort study

In this large cohort, low-level viraemia occurred frequently and increased the risk of virological failure and switch to second-line ART. Strategies for management of low-level viraemia need to be incorporated into WHO guidelines to meet UNAIDS-defined targets aimed at halting the global HIV epidemic.

[Comment] The importance of HPV16 in anal cancer prevention

Like cervical cancer, anal cancer and its direct precursor lesion, high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), are caused by persistent infections with human papillomaviruses (HPV).1 The natural history of HPV in cervical cancer has been comprehensively investigated. In the more than 40 HPV types infecting the anogenital tract, high-risk HPV-types and possible or probable high-risk types for ...

[News] Defining precision medicine

On Nov 13, 2017, the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) published the first edition of its precision medicine glossary. “Precision medicine is a new field, and terms have been developing without set definitions”, explained co-author Fabrice André (Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France). “That [ambiguity] was starting to create some confusion, especially in the reporting of sc...

Thursday 16th November 2017

[In Context] The fantastic legacy of Terry Pratchett

Terry Pratchett, the author who died in 2015, was perhaps best known for his seminal Discworld novels: fantasies set on a flat disc of a world, held aloft by gargantuan elephants, on the back of a giant turtle swimming through space. Silly? Perhaps, but also utterly, utterly brilliant.

[Rapid Review] Novel genes associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: diagnostic and clinical implications

The disease course of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is rapid and, because its pathophysiology is unclear, few effective treatments are available. Genetic research aims to understand the underlying mechanisms of ALS and identify potential therapeutic targets. The first gene associated with ALS was SOD1, identified in 1993 and, by early 2014, more than 20 genes had been identified as causative...

[Articles] Efficacy and safety of tribendimidine versus praziquantel against Opisthorchis viverrini in Laos: an open-label, randomised, non-inferiority, phase 2 trial

Tribendimidine has a slightly lower cure rate than praziquantel and non-inferiority was not shown. However, tribendimidine has a similar egg reduction rate to praziquantel and leads to fewer adverse events and thus might complement praziquantel in O viverrini control programmes, particularly in settings co-endemic for hookworm.

[Comment] Tribendimidine: an alternative to praziquantel to treat human liver fluke infection?

Opisthorchis viverrini is a major foodborne trematode infection endemic to Greater Mekong subregion (GMS) countries, particularly Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam, with more than 10 million people in those countries infected.1 The parasite induces several hepatobiliary diseases, including cholangiocarcinoma.2 To date, the only drug of choice for the treatment of liver fluke infections has bee...

[Review] Investment in child and adolescent health and development: key messages from Disease Control Priorities, 3rd Edition

The realisation of human potential for development requires age-specific investment throughout the 8000 days of childhood and adolescence. Focus on the first 1000 days is an essential but insufficient investment. Intervention is also required in three later phases: the middle childhood growth and consolidation phase (5–9 years), when infection and malnutrition constrain growth, and mortality is ...

[Comment] Retraction and republication—Misoprostol drug to be withdrawn from French market

On Oct 28, 2017, The Lancet published the World Report “Misoprostol drug to be withdrawn from French market” as an epage.1 After further information was provided to us, The Lancet Editors have decided to retract this World Report, and republish it having removed the information that we believe to be inaccurate.2 The old version of the World Report will be added to a webappendix attached to the...

[World Report] Misoprostol drug to be withdrawn from French market

Misoprostol drug Cytotec will be pulled from the French market on March 1, 2018, after reported adverse effects of off-label use. Barbara Casassus reports from Paris.

Wednesday 15th November 2017

[Articles] Hepatitis C virus treatment as prevention in an extended network of people who inject drugs in the USA: a modelling study

Successful HCV treatment as prevention should incorporate the baseline HCV prevalence and will achieve the greatest benefit when coverage is sufficiently expanded.

[Review] Ebola virus disease: an update on post-exposure prophylaxis

The massive outbreak of Ebola virus disease in west Africa between 2013 and 2016 resulted in intense efforts to evaluate the efficacy of several specific countermeasures developed through years of preclinical work, including the first clinical trials for therapeutics and vaccines. In this Review, we discuss how the experience and data generated from that outbreak have helped to advance the underst...

[Comment] How to eliminate HCV in people who inject drugs in the USA

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease and mortality worldwide. The World Health Assembly and WHO have recognised the need to prevent and control HCV infection, and WHO proposed that elimination was feasible by 2030 by reducing new chronic infections by 90% and HCV-related mortality by 65%. In the USA, as many as 3 million people are chronically infected with HCV, with...

[Comment] Advancing political will to end the tuberculosis epidemic

WHO's End TB Strategy1 and the 2015 UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)2 share a common aim of bringing the global tuberculosis epidemic under control by 2035. Achieving the 2015 UN mandate to address the tuberculosis epidemic (SDG3, target 3)2 will also help advance other goals, since tuberculosis is both a driver and a consequence of poverty. A renewed and increased political commitment is r...

[Comment] Balancing ethics and care in disorders of consciousness

Neuromodulatory interventions that rely on the premise that stimulation activates or promotes brain circuit signals are being applied to a wide range of therapeutic targets in neurological and psychiatric disorders. The numbers of patients with whom these interventions are being tested, the range of approaches, and the variety of methods are all on the rise. Paralleling these trends are the increa...

Tuesday 14th November 2017

[Review] Zika virus in French Polynesia 2013–14: anatomy of a completed outbreak

The Zika virus crisis exemplified the risk associated with emerging pathogens and was a reminder that preparedness for the worst-case scenario, although challenging, is needed. Herein, we review all data reported during the unexpected emergence of Zika virus in French Polynesia in late 2013. We focus on the new findings reported during this outbreak, especially the first description of severe neur...

[Articles] Comparative effectiveness of extended-release naltrexone versus buprenorphine-naloxone for opioid relapse prevention (X:BOT): a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial

In this population it is more difficult to initiate patients to XR-NTX than BUP-NX, and this negatively affected overall relapse. However, once initiated, both medications were equally safe and effective. Future work should focus on facilitating induction to XR-NTX and on improving treatment retention for both medications.

[Comment] Extended-release naltrexone: good but not a panacea

Unlike other addictions, opioid-use disorder has several highly effective medication treatments available, in particular methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone.1–3 Methadone is the least accessible or acceptable of these in many settings, so providers and patients are often faced with a choice between buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP-NX) and extended-release naltrexone injection (XR-NTX).

[Comment] Medications for opioid use disorder: bridging the gap in care

For the past two decades, the USA has been in the throes of an opioid crisis marked by a rising number of deaths; in 2016, opioids were responsible for most of the nation's estimated 64 000 fatal drug overdoses.1 The problem began with overprescribing of opioid analgesics in the 1990s, which exposed pain patients to the risks of addiction and produced large surpluses of pain pills that were dive...

[Articles] Nations within a nation: variations in epidemiological transition across the states of India, 1990–2016 in the Global Burden of Disease Study

Per capita disease burden measured as DALY rate has dropped by about a third in India over the past 26 years. However, the magnitude and causes of disease burden and the risk factors vary greatly between the states. The change to dominance of NCDs and injuries over CMNNDs occurred about a quarter century apart in the four ETL state groups. Nevertheless, the burden of some of the leading CMNNDs con...

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