Latest Biotechnology, Pharmaceutical and Healthcare News from The Lancet

08:13 EDT 22nd March 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing News Articles 1–25 of 867 from The Lancet

Thursday 22nd March 2018

[Perspectives] Leo Martinez: striving to end childhood tuberculosis

Not only can Leo Martinez work opponents on the chess board—he began playing aged 8 and reached national level—he's also a talented scientist who was awarded the 2017 Stephen Lawn TB-HIV Research Leadership Prize for his contributions to reducing the burden of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV/AIDS in Africa. “Leo has done outstanding innovative research on reducing the childhood TB burden—a much ...

[Articles] Genetic sequencing for surveillance of drug resistance in tuberculosis in highly endemic countries: a multi-country population-based surveillance study

Genetic sequencing can be a valuable tool for surveillance of drug resistance, providing new opportunities to monitor drug resistance in tuberculosis in resource-poor countries. Before its widespread adoption for surveillance purposes, there is a need to standardise DNA extraction methods, recording and reporting nomenclature, and data interpretation.

[Comment] Population monitoring for drug-resistant tuberculosis: is genomics the answer?

The first approximation akin to a population survey of drug resistance in tuberculosis was done in the UK in the 1950s, just a few years after the introduction of streptomycin.1 Although the incidence of drug-resistant tuberculosis is reported annually by WHO, these reports can only be based on routinely collected laboratory data in countries where drug susceptibility testing is commonly done. In ...

[Media Watch] Deadly delays and disparities

The HIV/AIDS epidemic changed our world. WHO estimates that 35 million people have died since it began in 1981, and another 36·7 million still live with the disease. We see its impact, too, in our response to it. An entirely new field—global health—emerged. The US Food and Drug Administration created a provisional accelerated approval pathway for potentially life-saving drugs to enter the mar...

[Correspondence] Accelerated long-term forgetting in asymptomatic APOE ε4 carriers

In The Lancet Neurology, Philip Weston and colleagues report that presymptomatic individuals carrying familial Alzheimer's disease gene mutations demonstrate accelerated long-term forgetting over an extended 1 week retention interval compared with gene-negative controls.1 These findings raise the question of whether accelerated long-term forgetting is also detectable in presymptomatic individuals ...

Wednesday 21st March 2018

[Series] What low back pain is and why we need to pay attention

Low back pain is a very common symptom. It occurs in high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries and all age groups from children to the elderly population. Globally, years lived with disability caused by low back pain increased by 54% between 1990 and 2015, mainly because of population increase and ageing, with the biggest increase seen in low-income and middle-income countries. Low back...

[Viewpoint] Low back pain: a call for action

Low back pain is the leading worldwide cause of years lost to disability and its burden is growing alongside the increasing and ageing population.1 Because these population shifts are more rapid in low-income and middle-income countries, where adequate resources to address the problem might not exist, the effects will probably be more extreme in these regions. Most low back pain is unrelated to sp...

[Series] Prevention and treatment of low back pain: evidence, challenges, and promising directions

Many clinical practice guidelines recommend similar approaches for the assessment and management of low back pain. Recommendations include use of a biopsychosocial framework to guide management with initial non-pharmacological treatment, including education that supports self-management and resumption of normal activities and exercise, and psychological programmes for those with persistent symptom...

[Comment] Low back pain: a major global challenge

Low back pain is a major problem throughout the world and it is getting worse—largely because of the ageing and increasing world population.1 It affects all age groups and is generally associated with sedentary occupations, smoking, obesity, and low socioeconomic status.2 Years lived with disability caused by low back pain have increased by more than 50% since 1990, especially in low-income and ...

Tuesday 20th March 2018

[Articles] Nilotinib in locally advanced pigmented villonodular synovitis: a multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 2 trial

More than 90% of patients with locally advanced unresectable progressive pigmented villonodular synovitis achieved disease control with 12 weeks of nilotinib treatment. These results indicate that CSF1R tyrosine kinase inhibitors have anti-tumour activity with manageable toxicity in patients with inoperable progressive pigmented villonodular synovitis. Randomised trials investigating the efficacy ...

[Comment] Nilotinib in locally advanced pigmented villonodular synovitis: challenges of a new targeted therapy

Pigmented villonodular synovitis, also known as diffuse-type tenosynovial giant cell tumour, is a benign neoplasm that arises from the intra-articular tissue or tenosynovial tissue in most patients. Pluriarticular disease and aggressive or malignant presentations are rarely reported, and most patients present with slowly progressive monoarticular disease (occurring in the knee, hip, or ankle) that...

[Articles] Immunogenicity of type 2 monovalent oral and inactivated poliovirus vaccines for type 2 poliovirus outbreak response: an open-label, randomised controlled trial

Administration of mOPV2 at short intervals does not interfere with its immunogenicity. The addition of IPV to the first mOPV2 dose did not improve poliovirus type 2 immune response.

[Comment] Eradicating polio with a vaccine we must stop using

The global partnership working to eradicate polio is dealing with the challenge of how to withdraw oral poliovirus vaccine while completing eradication in the last few endemic countries. Vaccine withdrawal is necessary because the oral vaccine is genetically unstable, rarely reverting to a wild-type phenotype and causing outbreaks of poliomyelitis. These vaccine-derived polioviruses should be resp...

Monday 19th March 2018

[Articles] Predictive test for chemotherapy response in resectable gastric cancer: a multi-cohort, retrospective analysis

The single patient classifiers validated in this study provide clinically important prognostic information independent of standard risk-stratification methods and predicted chemotherapy response after surgery in two independent cohorts of patients with resectable, stage II–III gastric cancer. The single patient classifiers could complement TNM staging to optimise decision making in patients with...

[Comment] Precision medicine in the adjuvant treatment of gastric cancer

Adjuvant chemotherapy is considered the standard of care after surgical resection in patients with stage IB–III gastric cancer in most Asian countries. The benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery over surgery alone in terms of overall and disease-free survival was confirmed in an individual-patient data meta-analysis1 of 3838 patients treated in 17 randomised controlled trials. After surg...

Friday 16th March 2018

[Articles] Modified XELIRI (capecitabine plus irinotecan) versus FOLFIRI (leucovorin, fluorouracil, and irinotecan), both either with or without bevacizumab, as second-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer (AXEPT): a multicentre, open-label, rando

mXELIRI with or without bevacizumab is well tolerated and non-inferior to FOLFIRI with or without bevacizumab in terms of overall survival. mXELIRI could be an alternative to FOLFIRI as a standard second-line backbone treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer, at least for Asian patient populations.

[Comment] Modified XELIRI (capecitabine plus irinotecan) for metastatic colorectal cancer

The treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer has changed substantially in the past two decades with the development of more effective chemotherapy protocols and molecular-based strategies. Despite these changes, intravenous fluorouracil chemotherapy remains an important component of treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer, generally combined with leucovorin plus oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or leucovo...

[Articles] The effect of APOE and other common genetic variants on the onset of Alzheimer's disease and dementia: a community-based cohort study

Common variants with small individual effects jointly modify the risk and age at onset of Alzheimer's disease and dementia, particularly in APOE ε4 carriers. These findings highlight the potential of common variants in determining Alzheimer's disease risk.

Thursday 15th March 2018

[News] EMA guidance on radium-223 dichloride in prostate cancer

The European Medicines Agency (EMA) has issued a formal warning against using the drug Xofigo (radium-223 dichloride) in combination with Zytiga (abiraterone acetate) plus prednisone or prednisolone in patients with metastatic prostate cancer because of an increased risk of death and fractures in a review of an ongoing phase 3 trial by the EMA's Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC).

[Articles] Sirolimus in patients with clinically active systemic lupus erythematosus resistant to, or intolerant of, conventional medications: a single-arm, open-label, phase 1/2 trial

These data show that a progressive improvement in disease activity is associated with correction of pro-inflammatory T-cell lineage specification in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus during 12 months of sirolimus treatment. Follow-up placebo-controlled clinical trials in diverse patient populations are warranted to further define the role of mTOR blockade in treatment of systemic l...

[Comment] CD8 T cells and mTOR: new concepts and targets for systemic lupus erythematous

Management of systemic lupus erythematosus and its variable clinical manifestations remain considerable challenges for clinicians and patients. Advances in characterising mechanisms of immune system regulation have been applied to studies of systemic lupus erythematosus, implicating type I interferon and highlighting the contributions of T and B lymphocytes to autoantibody production and tissue da...

[In Context] The storm and stress in the adolescent brain

Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, Professor of Cognitive Neuroscience at University College London (London, UK), is sick of hearing the same joke over and over again. When she informs people that she studies the adolescent brain, she inevitably hears a now familiar refrain: “What? Teenagers have brains?” She's right to take offence, not only on behalf of the young people she works with, but because—as ...

Wednesday 14th March 2018

[Articles] Efficacy of a single-dose regimen of inactivated whole-cell oral cholera vaccine: results from 2 years of follow-up of a randomised trial

A single dose of the inactivated whole-cell OCV offered protection to older children and adults that was sustained for at least 2 years. The absence of protection of young children might reflect a lesser degree of pre-existing natural immunity in this age group.

[Comment] Cholera control: one dose at a time

Cholera continues to harm the most vulnerable people worldwide.1 As an indicator of human progress, the sustained or new presence of the disease in any region is a stark reminder of how far we, as a society, have to go to reach Sustainable Development Goal 6: ensuring availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.2 Diarrhoeal diseases are a major source of preventable mor...

[Comment] Laboratory medicine in low-income and middle-income countries: progress and challenges

Laboratory medicine is essential for disease detection, surveillance, control, and management.1 However, access to quality-assured laboratory diagnosis has been a challenge in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) resulting in delayed or inaccurate diagnosis and ineffective treatment with consequences for patient safety.1 In the new Lancet Series2–4 on pathology and laboratory medicine ...

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