Latest Biotechnology, Pharmaceutical and Healthcare News from The Lancet

00:38 EST 16th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing News Articles 1–25 of 672 from The Lancet

Saturday 15th December 2018

[Articles] Safety and efficacy of pridopidine in patients with Huntington's disease (PRIDE-HD): a phase 2, randomised, placebo-controlled, multicentre, dose-ranging study

Pridopidine did not improve the UHDRS-TMS at week 26 compared with placebo and, thus, the results of secondary or tertiary analyses in previous trials were not replicated. A potentially strong placebo effect needs to be ruled out in future studies.

[Comment] The hunt for better treatments for Huntington's disease

Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant condition that typically presents in midlife as a combination of motor, cognitive, and psychiatric problems, along with sleep and metabolic abnormalities. Its clinical course runs over 15–20 years and eventually leads to death as patients develop dementia and become bed-bound. At present, no disease-modifying therapy is approved for patients with Hun...

Friday 14th December 2018

[Articles] Socioeconomic disparities associated with 29 common infectious diseases in Sweden, 2005–14: an individually matched case-control study

These findings indicate persistent socioeconomic inequalities in infectious diseases in an egalitarian high-income country with universal health care. We recommend using these findings to identify priority interventions and as a baseline to monitor programmes addressing socioeconomic inequalities in health.

[Articles] A protracted mumps outbreak in Western Australia despite high vaccine coverage: a population-based surveillance study

The number of mumps outbreaks reported in recent years among highly vaccinated populations, including Indigenous populations, has been growing. More widespread and pre-emptive use of the third dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine might be required to control and prevent future outbreaks in high-risk populations. Research should explore the benefit of increasing the intervals between vaccine...

[Comment] Socioeconomic disparities and infection: it's complicated

The associations between low socioeconomic status and poor health have long been appreciated and are supported by a vast body of evidence.1 Although this overall relationship remains robust, in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Alessandro Pini and colleagues2 show that the association between markers of low socioeconomic status and incidence of infectious diseases in Sweden, a high-income country, i...

[Comment] The changing epidemiology of mumps in a high vaccination era

The introduction of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine programmes has led to a dramatic reduction in all three infectious diseases globally. However, whereas measles and rubella remain under control wherever coverage is high, mumps outbreaks continue to flare up. Before universal vaccination, mumps was primarily a disease acquired during childhood and was characterised by fever and parotiti...

[Review] Antibiotic allergy

Antibiotics are the commonest cause of life-threatening immune-mediated drug reactions that are considered off-target, including anaphylaxis, and organ-specific and severe cutaneous adverse reactions. However, many antibiotic reactions documented as allergies were unknown or not remembered by the patient, cutaneous reactions unrelated to drug hypersensitivity, drug-infection interactions, or drug ...

Thursday 13th December 2018

[Articles] Safety and efficacy of nabiximols on spasticity symptoms in patients with motor neuron disease (CANALS): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial

In this proof-of-concept trial, nabiximols had a positive effect on spasticity symptoms in patients with motor neuron disease and had an acceptable safety and tolerability profile. These findings should be investigated further in larger clinical trials.

[Comment] Evidence for treatment of spasticity in motor neuron disease

Motor neuron disease is a relentlessly progressive disease. Expert consensus guidelines have been developed for key care concerns in patients with motor neuron disease, including respiratory management, nutrition, and palliative care.1 Because there is no cure, symptom control to maintain quality of life is the mainstay of treatment. Spasticity is one of the defining characteristics of primary lat...

[Series] Spatially targeted screening to reduce tuberculosis transmission in high-incidence settings

As the leading infectious cause of death worldwide and the primary proximal cause of death in individuals living with HIV, tuberculosis remains a global concern. Existing tuberculosis control strategies that rely on passive case-finding appear insufficient to achieve targets for reductions in tuberculosis incidence and mortality. Active case-finding strategies aim to detect infectious individuals ...

[Series] Advances in the understanding of Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission in HIV-endemic settings

Tuberculosis claims more human lives than any other infectious disease. This alarming epidemic has fuelled the development of novel antimicrobials and diagnostics. However, public health interventions that interrupt transmission have been slow to emerge, particularly in HIV-endemic settings. Transmission of tuberculosis is complex, involving various environmental, bacteriological, and host factors...

[Series] Transmission of drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV-endemic settings

The emergence and expansion of the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis epidemic is a threat to the global control of tuberculosis. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is the result of the selection of resistance-conferring mutations during inadequate antituberculosis treatment. However, HIV has a profound effect on the natural history of tuberculosis, manifesting in an increased rate of disease progress...

[Comment] Understanding tuberculosis transmission might be the gamechanger we need

Despite being a familiar and ancient disease, tuberculosis has the ignominy of also being the leading infectious cause of death.1 Although there are many complex reasons for this unenviable position, a notable one is that much about it is still unknown. The main thrust of the response to the tuberculosis epidemic has been attempts to refine existing therapies and to develop new drugs and diagnosti...

[Articles] Maternal mortality ratios in 2852 Chinese counties, 1996–2015, and achievement of Millennium Development Goal 5 in China: a subnational analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

In the past two decades, maternal mortality ratios have reduced rapidly and universally across China at the county level. Fast improvement in maternal mortality ratios is possible even in less economically developed places with resource constraints. This finding has important implications for improving maternal mortality ratios in developing countries in the Sustainable Development Goal era.

[Articles] Pegbelfermin (BMS-986036), a PEGylated fibroblast growth factor 21 analogue, in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2a trial

Treatment with subcutaneously administered pegbelfermin for 16 weeks was generally well tolerated and significantly reduced hepatic fat fraction in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Further study of pegbelfermin is warranted in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Additional studies that use liver biopsies would allow for the assessment of pegbelfermin's effects on liver histolo...

[Comment] Fibroblast growth factor 21 for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is a form of fatty liver disease that is characterised by hepatic necroinflammation, progression of fibrosis, and a strong association with metabolic syndrome, and is increasing as a cause of morbidity and mortality. In the USA alone, 27 million people are anticipated to have non-alcoholic steatohepatitis by 2030, which is expected to cause 105 430 cases of decompen...

[Comment] Realising equity in maternal health: China's successes and challenges

China has made remarkable progress in maternal and child health since the 1990s. Mortality among children younger than 5 years dropped from 54·1 deaths per 1000 livebirths in 1990 to 12·5 per 1000 livebirths in 2015,1 meeting the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 well ahead of schedule. Additionally, the maternal mortality ratio declined from 111·0 deaths per 100 000 livebirths in 1990 to 2...

Wednesday 12th December 2018

[Review] The efficacy, effectiveness, and immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in Africa: a systematic review

The burden of influenza in Africa is substantial and underappreciated. Although surveillance has increased, the medical community's understanding of seasonal influenza vaccine performance remains limited. We did a systematic review, using PRISMA guidelines (PROSPERO CRD42017058107), on the efficacy, effectiveness, and immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in populations within Africa with the aim o...

[Articles] An evaluation of the effects of lowering blood alcohol concentration limits for drivers on the rates of road traffic accidents and alcohol consumption: a natural experiment

Lowering the driving BAC limit to 0·05 g/dL from 0·08 g/dL in Scotland was not associated with a reduction in RTAs, but this change was associated with a small reduction in per-capita alcohol consumption from on-trade alcohol sales. One plausible explanation is that the legislative change was not suitably enforced—for example with random breath testing measures. Our findings suggest that chang...

[Comment] Toward improved evaluations of laws against drink-driving

On Dec 5, 2014, Scotland lowered the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit for driving to 0·05 g/dL. In The Lancet, Houra Haghpanahan and colleagues1 report their study using data from Scotland (the intervention group) and England and Wales (the control group) for the period from Jan 1, 2013, to Dec 31, 2016, to assess the effect of this change on frequency of road traffic accidents (RTAs...

[World Report] World leaders adopt first global pact on migration

The compact's adoption came among controversy over some governments withdrawing their support. Jocalyn Clark reports from Marrakesh.

Tuesday 11th December 2018

[Personal View] Epidemic preparedness: why is there a need to accelerate the development of diagnostics?

Global epidemics of infectious diseases are increasing in frequency and severity. Diagnostics are needed for rapid identification of the cause of the epidemic to facilitate effective control and prevention. Lessons learned from the recent Ebola virus and Zika virus epidemics are that delay in developing the right diagnostic for the right population at the right time has been a costly barrier to di...

[Comment] Offline: How to restore the credibility of UNAIDS

“The UNAIDS Secretariat is in crisis, a crisis which threatens its vital work.” Astonishing does not even begin to describe the findings and recommendations of an Independent Expert Panel, set up to investigate harassment, including sexual harassment, bullying, and abuse of power at UNAIDS. The Panel was chaired by Gillian Triggs, a former President of the Australian Human Rights Commission. W...

Monday 10th December 2018

[Corrections] Correction to Lancet Infect Dis 2018; 18: 1097–107

Divala TH, Mungwira RG, Mawindo PM, et al. Chloroquine as weekly chemoprophylaxis or intermittent treatment to prevent malaria in pregnancy in Malawi: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis 2018; 18: 1097–107—In this Article, the author line should read “…Francis Muwalo, Sarah Boudová, Gail E Potter,…”. The address box should read “…Center for Vaccine Development and Glo...

[Articles] Oral ixazomib maintenance following autologous stem cell transplantation (TOURMALINE-MM3): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial

Ixazomib maintenance prolongs PFS and represents an additional option for post-transplant maintenance therapy in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.

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